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MARVT ANT^ ^? T? A^E BOOK ROOM 
UNIV UPLAND LIBRAIOC 

COLLEGE FAlUi, MD* . *m 



DO HOT mmim 






V 



»o^^o«ii»a« 



Thirtieth Annual Report 



-OF THE- 



Maryland State Board of Labor 
and Statistics 

192 1 



COMMISSIONERS 



CHARLES J. FOX, Chairman 

A. T. ROBINSON LOUIS SETLEN 

MACK HERZOG, Assistant 




N. W. Cor. St. Paul and Saratoga Streets 
Baltimore, Md. 



20TH CENTURY PRINTING CO. 
BALTIMORE. MD. 



* » » \ 



■.^ 



OT ^s^n( 



Thirtieth Annual Report 



-OF THE- 



Maryland State Board of Labor 
and Statistics 

192 1 



COMiMISSIONERS 

CHARLES J. FOX, Chairman 

A. T. ROBINSON LOUIS SETLEN 

MACK HERZOG, Assistant 




N. W, Cor. St. Paul and Saratoga Streets 
Baltimore, Md. 



. Af3ft23 



J 



PRESS OF 

«OTH CENTURY PRINTING CO. 

BALTIMORE. MO. 



STAFF OF THE STATE BOARD OF LABOR AND 
STATISTICS FOR YEAR 1921 



NAME TITLE 

Charles J. Fox, Orangeville, Baltimore, Md., 

Chairman Commission 

Aquila T. Robinson, Brandywine, Md., 

Advisory Member Commission 

Louis Setlen, 419 S. Hanover St., Baltimore, Md., 

Advisory Member Commission 

Dr. Samuel A. Keene, 914 N. Fulton Ave., 

Medical Examiner 

Dr. Anna S. Abercrombie, 1316 N. Charles St., 

Medical Examiner 

Dr. Francis L. Dunham, 1111 N. Eutaw St Psychiatrist 

Mary M. Wootten, 1511 Linden Ave. Inspector 

Mack Herzog, 2772 Tivoli Ave Assistant Officer 

Monica McCarthy, 2017 Maryland Ave Permit Officer 

Kathryne Phelan, The Albany Apartments Filing Clerk 

Harry A. LeBrun, Towson, Md., . 

Inspector of Street Trades 

William D. Bloom, Catonsville, Md Inspector 

August W. Miller, Mt. Winans, Md Inspector 

Mary A. Richardson, 1322 W. Lexington St.... Inspector 

James E. Magill, 2111 Boone St Inspector 

Benjamin C. Green, Towson, Md. Inspector 

William H. Hohn, Port Deposit, Md., 

Inspector for Eastern Shore 



..X 

111 



NAME TITLE 

Margaret R. Welsh, 6V2 S. Liberty St., Cumberland, Md., 

Inspector for Western Maryland 

Ruth Smith, Cumberland, Md., 

Assistant to Inspector, Western Maryland 

Catherine Hughes, 1002 Central Ave., Baltimore, Md., 

Ten Hour Law Clerk 

Selma B. Cone, 914 N. Fulton Ave. Stenographer 

Bessie R. Fallon, 1138 Homewood Ave Stenographer 

William A. McSweeney, 723 East 21st St. Boiler Inspector 

Henry Helmrich, 2625 Woodbrook Ave Boiler Inspector 

Frank T. Powers, Frostburg, Md. Mine Inspector 



IV 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



To His Excellency, 

Albert C. Ritchie, 

Governor of Maryland. 

Baltimore, May 1st, 1922. 

Sir: 

Pursuant to the requirements of the statutes creating 
this Bureau, we have the honor to submit herewith the 
Thirtieth Annual Report of the State Board of Labor and 
Statistics, for the year 1921. 

Most respectfully, 

CHARLES J. FOX, Chairman : 
Commission { AQUILA T. ROBINSON, 
LOUIS SETLEN. 



In Labor Circles ^^' 

Forty-first Annual Convention A. F. L 157 

Labors' Conference, February, 1921 - 158 

Important Decisions 1'^^ 

Injunction's Other Edge 181 

Earnings of Railroads — 184 

Daily Wage Levels 187 

Seventeenth, Annual Convention Maryland 
State and District of Columbia, Federation 

of Labor 188 

Baltimore Locals - 189 

Baltimore City - IQ'^ 

Origin and Growth of 197 

Geographical Advantages of the Port 199 

Historical Scenes Within Easy Reach 201 

Rise as a Great Overseas Port 204 

Business of Port Growing Rapidly 207 

Some Facts About Baltimore 211 

Freight Rates, Compared with Other Atlantic 

Seaboard Cities _ 214 

Baltimore Leads in Smooth Streets 215 

Baltimore Plans Twenty Years Ahead 216 

Baltimore Wins Seventh Place in Construction 

Activity 218 

Bankers and Realtors to Act on Committee to 

Promote Home Building 218 

Vast Construction Program Projected 219 

Facilities for Recreation and Amusement 220 

Comparative Statement of Tax Collections, 

1921 and 1911 223 

Appropriations and Estimated Receipts, 1922 226 

Baltimore's Government Per Capita Cost 227 

Building Operations During 1921 Breaks All 

Records 227 

Free Public Bath Commission Report _.. 228 

Baltimore's Savings Bank's Deposits 230 



VI 



Baltimore Clearings Show Decline 232 

National Banks Increase in Number - 233 

Deaths in 1921 by Wards 233 

Suicides During 1921 - 235 

Number of Persons Missing 236 

Marriages and Divorces 235 

Public Amusements Increase 237 

Decline in Receipts of United Railways and 

Electric Company 238 

Deeds, Mortgages and Other Land Papers 239 

New Plants and Expansions in 1921 240 

Half the Population Work for Profit 241 

Number 10 Years and Over Employed in United 

States _ - 241 

Housing Conditions in Baltimore - 243 

Baltimore Is Second in Home Owners List 247 

Alliance Budget 248 

Circle of Consuls - -- 250 

Extracts from Police Commissioner's Report 251 

Exports and Imports at Port of Baltimore _ 255 

Current Prices of Grain 263 

Receipts and Shipments of Live Stock 264 

Immigration and Emigration. 265 

Maryland _ 1 _ 269 

The Governor's Message _ 269 

State Roads Commissioner's Report 271 

Distribution of Roads Funds, by Counties and 275 

County Road Mileage _ 276 

Report of Commissioner of Motor Vehicles 277 

State Board of Prison Control _ , 282 

State Industrial Accident Commission Repoi't... 283 

Male Workers in State Compared with Female 285 

Male and Female Population of Maryland 285 

Males and Females of Voting Age 285 

Foreign-born Population of State 285 

Naturalized Foreign-born 286 



vn 



Immigrant Birth Rate Compared with Ameri- 
can Mothers 286 

State Illiteracy - 287 

Population of Maryland by Counties and Balti- 
more City 287 

Comparative Population from 1790 to 1920 288 

Taxable Basis of Counties with Tax Rates 288 

Internal Revenue Receipts — 288 

Total of Race Bets in Maryland 290 

Receipts from Baltimore County Court Clerk 291 

Baltimore County Tax Rate Before and After 

Annexation 291 

Census of Manufacturers for Baltimore City 293 

Census of State Manufacturers 295 

Manufacturers in Cities of Maryland 296 

Wild Fowl Season 298 

Agriculture * 299 

The President and the Farmer 299 

The Farm Conference — 300 

Reward of Average Agriculturist _ 306 

Purchasing Power of the American Dollar 307 

War Finance Body Approves Big Loan for 

Agriculture - 309 

Gross Wealth Produced by Farmers 309 

Our Big Com Crop 310 

Value of Farm Products and Number of Farms 

by States ■ 312 

Maryland Resources Discussed by County 

Agents _ 313 

Grain Exports at Port of Baltimore 314 

Farm Values in Maryland and United States... 315 

Women Farmers in Maryland, United States... 316 

Famis Operated by Negroes _ 317 

Baltimore County Wool-growers to Make Own 

Blankets 317 

Farm Labor Total Reduced 317 



vm 



Various Occupations of Marylanders 319 

Value of State Crops Decline _ 320 

County Home Demonstration Agents 321 

Local Agents 322 

Maryland Agricultural Society 322 

Crops: Acreage, Yield, Value 323 

Orchard Fruits _ ...- - 324 

Livestock _ ^ 324 

Canning Industry •. _ 325 

Oyster Yield 326 

Incomes and Cost of Living 330 

Nations Record for Prosperity Scored in 1919. . 331 

Rise and Fall of the Dollar's Value and Wages 332 

Rail Workers' Average Daily Pay. 335 

Wage Level of 1913, Compared with Other 

Years 339 

High Retail Prices Holding Back Prosperity 339 

Cost of Retailing Meat 340 

The Future of Prices and Wages _ 342 

Cost of Living _ 344 

Family Budget „ 345 

Retail Prices of Food in the United States 347 

Changes in Cost of Living 349 

Statistics 353 

Losses by Fire 353 

Present Generation Has Paid for War _ 355 

Figures on Cost of War 358 

Reduction in United States Pay Roll 358 

The New Victory Hall 359 

Number Who Served in World W^ar by States... 360 
Compensation of Ex-Soldiers of World War and 

Civil War 363 

Accomplishments of the Armament Conference 363 

Billion Spent on Movies 364 

Features in Realms of Sport, 1921 _ 364 

Usefulness of Panama Canal 366 



IX 



Facts about the Bell Telephone System. 368 

Electric Railway Industry _ 368 

Negro Migration — 368 

Our Huge Gold Supply :. 369 

Population of United States 369 

American Home Owners — 370 

Business Done by Department Stores 371 

Lives Lost on Roads During: Year _.. 372 

Tourists Killed in Alps 372 

Death Rate from Alcoholism _ - 373 

Cancer's Growth _ 373 

American Birth Rate Advanced — .. 374 

Deaths from Automobiles in United States 375 

Deaths from Automobiles in Baltimore _.... 375 

Distribution of World's Population _ 376 

Changes in Federal Taxes 377 

Banks Closed During Year _ 380 

The Healthiest Year 380 

A Longer Live _ 382 

Financial Statement _ _ 383 



INTRODUCTION 

This, the Thirtieth Annual Report of the State Board 
of Labor and Statistics, contains the results of the 
enforcement of the several laws coming under its jurisdic- 
tion, besides other interesting information which it is 
required to furnish by the Act creating the Bureau. 

CHILD LABOR LAW 

That the number of children seeking employment regis- 
ters the industrial depression and the condition of adult 
employment, is bom out by this chapter. One of the first 
results of the lack of employment was the withdrawal of 
children from industry and in many cases their retura to 
school. On the other hand some of those who left school 
to enter industry may not have done so had it not been for 
the fact that older members of the family were idle. The 
total number of children that applied at the Baltimore 
office during the year 1921 was 10,210 of all classes, com- 
pared with 17,894 in 1920, being a decrease of 7,684, or 
43 per cent. The number of inspections made under the 
Act in Baltimore City during the year 1921 was 573, com- 
pared with 599 in 1920, and the number found employed 
in 1921 was 3,082, compared with 3,621 in 1920. This 
decrease in number of inspections and number found em- 
ployed was due to the fact that an inspection is only 
recorded when a child under 16 0ears is found at work, 
and it was easy to secure children over 16 last year, be- 
cause of the scarcity of jobs, they were substituted for 
those under 16, who came under the Child Labor Inspec- 
tion and are restricted to an eight-hour day. 

In the counties there were 1,589 permits, badges and 
over 16 statements issued, compared with 1881 in 1920. 

This chapter is preceded by reports of two Medical Ex- 
aminers, who show the number of children examined by 
them that were found defective, and have tabulated them 
according to their defects, viz. : those that received treat- 
ment; were operated upon; those that received no treat- 
ment either because they refused to be treated or could 
not be benefited and were kept under obsei'vation. A 



2 Report of Maryland State Board 

table is also prepared showing the age of maturity of 
males and females applying for pennits. 

The report of the Psychiatrist who examines the re- 
tarded children that are referred to the bureau by the 
superintendent of schools, as children who are unable to 
complete the fifth grade, is most interesting. These chil- 
dren, after being examined mentally, are placed in indus- 
try under observation and the results reported. 

These reports are followed by tables compiled from the 
permits issued and also show the results of investigations 
made by the School Attendance Department of children 
who were refused pemiits or whose pennits were returned 
to this bureau, their names having been sent to that 
department for investigation. The number of children 
previously registered at the bureau who reached the age 
of 16 years during the year and the number receiving 
statements of age are also shown; the number applying 
for permits and the kind issued; the number applying 
without results; the number refused and the reasons for 
refusal ; the months in which the applications were made ; 
their nationality, sex, color, place of birth, grade finished 
at school, proof of age upon which the pemiits of the 
applicants were issued; family status and reasons given 
for going to work ; the average weekly wage expected ; the 
average height and ^v•eight; the number of subsequent 
permits issued and length of time the pennits were held ; 
occupation of parents and whether father was unem- 
ployed. The work in the counties is treated in a like man- 
ner, giving the number of physicians authorized to issue 
pennits, the number of canneries inspected, number em- 
ploying children, numl^^r of children found employed, 
number found \\'orking in violation of the law, number of 
canneries not in operation and number that had gone out 
of business. 

This chapter is concluded with the number of violations 
found, the industries in which they were found, the num- 
ber of prosecutions against the firms and parents and the 
results. Violations by Newsboys and Street Traders are 
shown, the source from which the violations w^ere reported 
and what action was taken. 

HOURS OF LABOR FOR FEMALES 

Preceding this chapter is a summary of the findings of 
the Woman's Bureau of the United States Department of 



* OF Labor and Statistics 3 

Labor, which made an Industrial Sui'\'ey of a number of 
industries in the City of Baltimore and fourteen other 
cities and towns within the State. As the conditions re- 
ported are so unfavorable to Maryland, reference is made 
to the several laws required to be enforced by this bureau 
and the limited authority given for preventing the condi- 
tions which were reported as existing at the time the 
survey was made. 

The chapter devoted to the enforcement of the "Ten 
Hour Law" shows that the number of inspections made 
during the year 1921, in the counties and Baltimore City 
was 2,448, compared with 2,003 in 1920, and the number 
found employed was 42,218 in 1921, and 43,265 in 1920. 
As the law applies to females employed in manufacturing, 
mechanical, mercantile, printing and laundering establish- 
ments, separate tables have been prepared for the differ- 
ent industries. The time of beginning and ending work, 
hours worked per day and Saturdays, and time allowed 
for lunch are shown. Violations of this law were found 
in two cases, where the firais were working women more 
than ten hours a daJ^ Thirty-two women were involved 
and both firms were prosecuted and convicted. 

FACTORY INSPECTION 

There were 1,566 inspections made under this law in 
Baltimore City during the year 1921, involving 24,923 per- 
sons, compared with 1,426 in 1920, in which 27,002 were 
found employed. This shows an increase of 240 in the 
number of inspections made, but a decrease of 2,079 in the 
number employed. Of the 24,923 persons found employed 
only 536 were under 16 years of age. There were 52 estab- 
lishments inspected in the counties during the j^ear, in 
which 1,861 persons were employed, compared ^\ith 28 
inspections in 1920, where 877 persons were employed. 

One license was revoked during the year because of 
unsanitary conditions, which were later remedied and a 
new license was issued. No other violations were found 
under this law during the year. 

STEAM BOILER AND BOARD OF BOILER RULES 

INSPECTION 

' The results of the enforcements of the Steam Boiler 
Inspection Law, which only applies to Baltimore City, 



4 Report of Maryland State Board 

show that 92 old boilers that were not insured were 
inspected. 

Under the Board of Boiler Rules, 74 inspections were 
made of new boilers that were installed in Baltimore City 
and 92 that were installed in the counties. The accom- 
panying tables show the date of inspection, number of the 
ooiler, number of certificate, location, condition of boiler 
at time of inspection, pressure allowed, amount paid for 
inspection and the name of the owner. 

The amount collected under both laws for inspections, 
as shown by Table No. 1, was $1,617.00, and the amount 
paid the State by the Boiler Insurance Companies on 
boilers carrying insurance was $1,303.00, making the total 
receipts for the year ending September 30th, 1921, under 
both laws, $2,920.00. 

There was one violation under the Boiler Inspection 
Law and on being prosecuted the firm was convicted upon 
the payment of costs. 

STATE MINING INSPECTION LAW. 

The Forty-fifth Annual Report of the State Mining 
Inspector, which is for the year ending May 1st, 1921, 
shows that the total amount of coal produced in Allegany 
and Garrett counties was 3,434,434 tons, and the amount 
of fire clay produced in Allegany county was 54,719 tons, 
making the total tonnage of coal and clay mined in the 
State 3,479,153 in 1921, compared with 2,965,358 in 1920, 
being an increase of 513,579 tons, or 17 1/3 per cent. The 
total tonnage of 1919 was 3,716,559. 

The report shows the number employed,' the average 
production for each miner, the number of tons produced 
for each fatal accident, the number of fatal and non-fatal 
accidents with a detail report of each, the location of the 
different mines, date of inspection, name of general man- 
ager, superintendent and mine foreman, the principal 
office and name and address of the president and secre- 
taiy. 

The report further shows a list of improvements made 
by the different mines, with a description of the same 
and other reliable information. 

STRIKES 
The table under this heading gives the number of 



OF Labor and Statistics 5 

strikes that occurred throughout the State during the 
year 1921, name of the company and location of the plant 
in which the strike occurred, date of beginning and end- 
ing, duration, number involved, working days lost, loss in 
wages and to the fiiTns, cause given and the result. 

There were 11 strikes in 1921, 21 in 1920, 22 in 1919 
and 37 in 1918. 

A summary of the strikes shows that of the 11 strikes, 
one was successful, 4 partly successful, 4 unsuccessful, 
and 2 were still pending at the close of the year. The 
total number involved was 2,443; working days lost 
146,276, loss in wages $490,050, and loss to the firms 
$291,600. Following the table is a detailed account of 
each strike. 

IN LABOR CICRLES 

This chapter contains infoiTnation of interest to the 
Laboring Classes, such as reports of the National and 
State Conventions of the' Federation of Labor, Laboi''s 
conference, important decisions and acts affecting labor 
organizations, the injunction's other edge, earning of the 
American railroads, past and future wage levels, and con- 
cludes with a list of Baltimore Locals, with the name and 
address of their secretary. 

BALTIMORE CITY 

Considerable space is given to this chapter in showing 
the advantages offered by Baltimore as a city in which 
to live or engage in business, its origin and growth, geo- 
graphical advantages of its port, historical scenes within 
easy reach, its rise as a great overseas port, growth of 
the business of the port, some important facts, freight 
rates compared with other Atlantic Seaboard cities, its 
smooth streets, its plans for the future, its place in con- 
structive activity, bankers and realtors as a committee 
to promote home buildings, vast construction program 
projected, facilities for recreation and amusement, com- 
parative statement of tax collections, 1911 to 1921, ap- 
propriations and estimated receipts for 1922, its govern- 
mental per capita cost, building operations during 1921, 
^'ree public bath commissions' report, its savings banks' 
deposits, bank clearings, increase in number of National 
banks, death by wards, persons missing, marriages and 



6 REroRT OK Maryland State Board 

United Railways and Electric Company, deeds, mortgages 
and other land papers, new plants and expansions, number 
employed, housing conditions, second city in home own- 
er's list, alliance budget, circle of Consuls,, extracts from 
the Police Commissioner's report, exports and imports at 
port of Baltimore, current prices of grain, receipts and 
shipment of live stock and immigration and emigration. 

MARYLAND 

Under this chapter reference is made to the report of 
the State Roads Commission, the distribution of road 
funds by counties, and county road mileage; report of 
Commissioner of. Motor Vehicles ; State Industrial Acci- 
dent Commissioner's report; State Board of Prison Con- 
trol; male workers in State compared with female; male 
and female population ; males and females of voting age ; 
foreign-born population; naturalized foreign-born; imrni- 
grant birth rate, compared with American mothers ; State 
illiteracy; population by counties and Baltimore City; 
comparative population from 1790 to 1920; taxable basis 
of counties and tax rates ; internal revenue receipts , total 
of race bets ; receipts from Baltimore County Court Clerk ; 
Baltimore County tax rate before and after annexation; 
census of manufacturers in State, also in cities within 
the State and the wild fowl season. 

AGRICULTURE 

This chapter contains a reference to the National Farm 
Conference, reward of the average agriculturist; pur- 
chasing power of the American dollar ; War Finance Body 
approves big loan for agriculture ; gross wealth produced 
by farmers; our big corn crop; value of farm products 
and number of farms by States; State's resources dis- 
cussed by county agents; grain exports at port of Balti- 
more ; farm values in Maryland and United States ; farms 
operated by negroes; farmers make own blankets; farm 
labor total reduced; various occupations; value of state 
crops; county home demonstration agents; local agents; 
Maryland Agriculture Society; crops, acreage yield and 
value; orchard fruits, live stock, canning industrj^ and 
oyster yield. 

INCOME AND COST OF LIVING 
Under this chapter the year 1919 is referred to as the 



OF Labor and Statistics 7 

year when the Nation's record for prosperity was broken 
by higher wages, greater profits and heavier taxes col- 
lected. The rise and fall of the dollar's value and wages 
are analyzed, the railworkers' average pay is given, the 
advance in wages, compared with cost of living, fig-ures 
showing increase in wages since 1840, high prices holding 
back prosperity, cost of retailing meat and future prices 
and wages. Under Cost of Living is included family 
budget; retail prices of food in the United States and 
changes, in cost of living since 1914. 

The average cost of living as compiled by the National 
Industrial Conference Board is given for 92 sepai'ate 
localities. 

STATISTICS 

This chapter contains considerable infoiTnation taken 
from leading publications on important topics, such as 
losses by fire, figures on cost of World's War, reduction 
in United States pay roll, the new Victory Hall, number 
who seized in war, by States, compensation of ex-soldiers 
of World War and Civil War compared, accomplishments 
of the American Conference, billion spent on movies, feat- 
ures in realms of sport, usefulness of Panama Canal, facts 
about the Bell Telephone System, electric railway indus- 
•try, negro migration, our huge gold supply, population 
of the United States, American home owners, business 
done by department stores, lives lost on roads during 
year, tourists killed in Alps, death r^te from alcoholism, 
cancer's growth, American birth rate advanced, deaths 
from automobiles in the United States and in Baltimore, 
distribution of world's population, changes in Federal 
taxes, banks closed during the year, the healthiest year 
and a longer life. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT 

The report closes with a financial statement showing 
the total amounts appropriated for salaries and expenses, 
the unexpended balance whidi reverted to the State, the 
total collections made by the bureau and paid to the State 
Treasurer, and the net cost of operating the bureau. 

In conclusion the Commission wishes to acknowledge 
and express its thanks and appreciation for the valuable 
assistance rendered by the entire office force, the several 



8 Report of Maryland State Board 

charitable organizations, the Police Department, the 
Juvenile Court, the School Attendance Department and 
those connected with the Attorney General's office and 
other State Departments who have cheerfully given their 
valuable assistance on numerous occasions. 



OP Labor and Statistics 9 

CHILD LABOR LAW 

The Bureau of Labor and Statistics receives the child 
with its first aspirations for work; longing to quit the 
monotony of school life and engaged in some of the more 
entertaining and profitable industrial ventures. 

It realizes that too often the child comes unequipped 
for the contest; he lacks the necessary educational foun- 
dation; he has not learned to yield to discipline and au- 
thorization; has very little appreciation of what he is to 
encounter in this new era of indsutrial activity ; he does 
not realize that a good physical build without at least a 
co-ordinating mental foundation will not lead him to a 
successful goal. But he does know that the State law 
peiTnits him when he has become 14 years of age and has 
passed the 5th grade at school to receive an employment 
certificate and he seeks it. It is for the Bureau to de- 
teiTnine and certify to his qualifications before he is 
placed on the roll of workmen. 

Of those refeiTed to me for examination, I did not find 
very many radical or serious defects. 

Eye deficiencies constituted the gi'eater number and 
were sent to specialists for connection. Ear troubles were 
comparatively infrequent, very few causing serious deaf- 
ness. Nasal obstruction and enlarged tonsils prevailed, 
as is usual in childhood, a few to such an extent that re- 
moval by operation was neces§ary, to the great relief of 
the patient. There were not as many cases of heart 
troubles as might be expected. They were mostly of the 
non-compensating variety which would improve with 
physical development, but are kept under observation. My 
records show six cases of organic heart lesion that may 
cause serious trouble. Such cases were given temporary 
permits for continuous obsei-vation and warned and urged 
to have their family physician keep them under special 
treatment; all such cases were denied strenuous work. 

Hernial developments were met with in varying de- 
grees. All were advised and urged to submit to surgical 
treatment rather than to mechanical support. Three 
yielded to an operation with gratifying results. I found 
two hernias of congenital origin that were strained by 
adhesions which gave adequate support. Some defomi- 
ities of congenital or traumatic origin were noted and 
restricted to suitable occupations. One deafmute came 



10 Rei'ort of Maryland State Board 

under observation, but was sufficiently trained in mute 
language and physically able to engage in his work. Skin 
diseases were often met with and sent for special treat- 
ment. One case of scabies was sent for special treatment 
and refused employment until cured. 

I have been greatly gratified by the cordial and willing 
co-operation of parent and child in my endeavor to correct 
every physical defect possible, and have the assurance of 
their appreciation. It may not be amiss to tell of one 
instance. It was in January, 1921, that a girl aged 14 
years and 5 months came for examination. She was 
poorly nourished, anaemic, underdeveloped, poor chest ex- 
pansion, indolent heart action. Her tonsils were enlarged, 
almost meeting, filled with infected crypts, surrounding 
tissues of pharynx and nasal cavities likewise infected. 
She measured 4 feet 10 inches, weighed 80 pounds. I 
plead with her to have her tonsils removed. She dreaded 
the operation. I called her mother in conference and 
urged her co-operation. She yielded to my plea, the child 
took courage and with a promise they left. The follow- 
ing May they returned with outstretched hands and joy- 
ful heart throbs; well they might. The infected tonsils 
were gone, the surrounding tissues were normal, the 
height was the same, but weight had increased to 100 
pounds, complexion radiant with animation, her whole 
economy stirred with new energy; a transformed girl. 
My urgent plea counselled the deed, surgeon's skill did the 
work. 

We have very few children who are 14 years old and 
have passed the 5th grade, so physically impaired as to 
be refused permits to work. Some are not qualified for 
the work sought, but are given permits for such as they 
can do and are kept under observation. If they do not 
improve, the rule is to send them with the consent of 
parents to reputable dispensaries to be treated by skilled 
and experienced clinicians. When any child is absolutely 
refused the parents are notified of the cause and sug- 
gestions are made for special treatment. This is all we 
can do. We have no authority to assume the responsi- 
bility of the parent, but can and do advise. 

The Bureau's purpose and interest is always for the 
upbuild of the child and to prepare it to take its part in 
life's warfare. 

S. A. KEENE, M. D., 

Medical Examiner. 



OF Labor and Statistics 11 

The number of examinations made during* the year 
were fewer than during any previous year. This falling 
off was due to lack of employment and the closing down 
of several industries employing juvenile workers. In 
many instances the girl could get employment when the 
boy would not. Wages, too, showed a downward trend. 

Many of the applicants for pei-mits showed lack of care, 
many are dirty. These conditions were so apparent, for 
the applicants of the last few years were so well kept. 

The history of lack of Employment on part of the 
father was almost constant, and the depression accom- 
panying this was characteristic. The emloyment of the 
father with steady wages gives the family an air of self- 
respect, which is lost when the work and wag^es are un- 
certain. 

Why this condition should effect the personal cleanli- 
ness of the family is difficult to tell, perhaps the feeling 
of utter helplessness and despair gives the feeling as one 
girl expressed it, "as if nobody cares." 

Correction of over 90 per cent of physical defects was 
made, but time had to be extended in many cases. 

There was practically no condition found that could be 
laid to industry, no industrial disease other than accident. 

This brings forcibly to our attention the need of careful 
consideration of home as well as industry before a condi- 
tion is actually laid to industry. Restricting the indus- 
tries to juvenile workers has done away with many con- 
ditions found in previous years; anaemia exhaustion are 
now rarely seen in those who come for subsequent per- 
mits. But these girls do show a lack of muscular develop- 
ment, a staleness that should not be present so early in 
life. This brings to one's attention the need of physical 
education and sports. The girl, unlike the boy, leaves 
her work and goes back into the home to help; often 
starting the day by doing housework. This gives her a 
treadmill existence. The after industry hours and Satur- 
day afteraoons should be given to play and out-of-door 
sports. Soon the extreme resei-ve, the self-consciousness 
and burden of responsibility would be replaced by spon- 
taneousness, strength and poise. The playing of com- 
petitive games would soon teach her how to meet com- 
petition of any kind. She would soon value fresh air and 
sunshine. She would make a better worker, for she 'ivo'ild 
greately increase her earning capacity. As the CMltivation 



12 Keport of Maryland State Board 

of one talent leads to the development of another, so the 
intelligent development of the body leads to its intlli- 
gent care, through personal hygiene and proper feeding. 

It is our hope that the Bureau will soon be in close 
contact with the home conditions of juvenile workers. 
The privilege of the examining physicians to visit indus- 
tries and personally acquaint themselves with the occu- 
pations in these industries gives them intelligent idea of 
placing the worker. This is an extremely important part 
of the work. • 

Each year more and more of the former applicants re- 
turn to the Bureau for medical and surgical advice. This 
shows us the need for an Industrial Clinic which is now 
under consideration. The need of investigating places of 
domestic services for juveniles is important. 

No child should be allowed to enter domestic service 
unless the place is known to be fit. Time and time again 
girls return to the Bureau with tales that need investiga- 
tion. 

Before closing I want to thank the pliysician surgeons 
and dispensaries who have gratuitously corrected the 
physical defects found. 

ANNA S. ABERCROMBIE, M. D., 

Medical Examiner. 

The accompanying table of defects shows the need of 
more constructive work, A need of a more careful follow 
up system. The best that we can do at the present time 
is to refer the child to a welfare agency and depend upon 
it for treatment and help, relying ui>on the child itself 'to 
report back to us. The term malnutrition is used as a 
condition found in children, who according to their race, 
age, height and weight, do not show a normal develop- 
ment. We have neither the force nor the time for the 
proper scientific investigations in this direction. Our aim 
is to do the grosser work, hoping to blaze the trail for 
something finer in the future. 

No mention is made of defective teeth; fully 75 per 
cent have defective teeth. The time for treatment is pro- 
longed, the expense and discomfort make it necessary. 

As will be seen from this table, the defects that were 
found in the 483 children that were examined by the 
medical examiners of the bureau were as follow^s: Fifty- 



OF Labor and Statistics 13 

eight per cent had defective visions ; about 12 per cent had 
affections of the nose and throat; about 6 per cent were 
deaf or partially so ; nearly 4 per cent had diseases of the 
chest; 8 per cent had defects of the glands; 1 per cent 
had deformities ; 3 per cent had skin diseases ; 4 per cent 
were suffering from malnutrition and 5 per cent included 
all other defects. 

Of th^e 483 children who were found defective, 45 un- 
derwent operations to correct their trouble, 356 received 
treatment, 54 were placed under observation, and 28 
either refused to be treated or nothing could be done. 



14 



KEroRT OF Maryland State Board 



PHYSICAL DEFECTS FOUND IN CHILDREN 



Defects 


s 


4-^ 

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4-1 

a 

Eh 


c 
o 

O 


73 

o 


72 

c 
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4-i 

t 
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in 

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4-> 

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£ 
4-» 

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Results 


byeo— 

Defective vision _.... 

Faulty refraction _. 


251 
18 
■ 6 

4 

7 
1 
1 
1 

11 
12 
.23 
2 
4 
2 
1 
2 
3 

6 
9 

1 
1 
1 

2 

36 

2 

2 
3 
1 

2 
1 
2 

4 
6 
1 

1 

2 

5 

10 

2 

2 
3 
2 

21 


10 
6 

3 

7 

4 
2 

2 

1 
1 

2 

2 
3 

2 

2 
4 
6 
1 

3 
10 

3 

2 

21 


11 

10 

17 

2 

3 

• 

2 


241 
18 


6 
9 
1 

36 

2 


4 

4 
1 

1 

2 
6 

1 

1 

1 

1 
2 

2 
2 


Lenses 
Lenses 


Diseases 




Loss of eye 


Artificial eyes 


Ears — 
Partial deafness 


Wax removed 


Total deafness 




Diseases 

Deaf-mute 


Improved 


Mose and Throat — 
Adenoids 


Removed 


Adenoids and Tonsils 


Improved 


Hypi. & Cryptic Tonsils 

Fibroid Tonsils 




Post-nasal Catan-h 


(< • 


Chr. Laryngitis 


<( 


Cleft Palate 




Tonsilitis 


Cured 


Infected Tonsils 

:hest— 

Organic Heart Disease 

Functional Heart Disease 

T. B. arrested 


Good compensation 
Improved 


T. B. active _ 

Deformed-Pleural Abcess 


To special agency 


Jlands — 
Adenitis 


Improved 

No bad results noted 

No bad results noted 


Simple Goitre.. 

Exopthalmic Goitre 


)eformities — 
Lateral Curvature 


Improved 


T. B. Hip 


No change 


Atrophy leg muscles 




>kin — 
Dematitis „ 


Cured 


Pediculosis Capitis _ 

Eczema 


Corrected 
Cured 


Ringworm 


a 


Scubies _ 

Jerve — 
Facial tick. 


It 


lemia — • 
Congenital Inguinal 


Destrained by adhesions 

Improved 

Susnensories 


Acquired Inguinal 


Varicocele 


Undescended Testicles 

Jnclassified — 
Cong. Lues 




VafrinatpH 


Anaemia _ 

Malnutrition. 


Cured 
Improved 




Total 


483 


97 


45 


259 


54 


28 

1 


* 



OP Labor and Statistics 



15 



STAGE OF MATURITY OF MALE APPLICANTS FOR GEN- 
ERAL EMPLOYMENT CERTIFICATES AT THE BAL- 
TIMORE OFFICE OF THE BUREAU IN 1921 



14 Years 


of Age 


White 


Colored 


Total 


Per Cent 


Pubescent -.... 


867 
79 
96 


14 

i 


881 
79 
97 


83.4 


Prepubescent 


7.5 


Postpubescent 


9.2 








Total 


1042 


15 


1057 


100.0 






15 Years 


of Age 










Pubescent 


311 
13 
24 


7 
1 


318 
14 
24 


89 3 


Prepubescent - 


3 9 


Postpubescent 


6.8 








Total 


348 
1390 


8 
23 


356 
1413 


100 


Grand Total _ 


100.0 



















16 



Report of Maryland State Board 



AGE OF MATURITY OF FEMALE APPLICANTS FOR GEN- 
ERAL EMPLOYMENT CERTIFICATES AT THE BAL- 
TIMORE OFFICE OF THE BUREAU IN 1921 



Age of Maturity 


Matured 


Not Matured 


Total 




White 


Colored 


White 


Colored 


Per Cent 


11 years 


21 
71 
16 

300 
82 

222 

18 

18 

2 


1 
4 

"2 


231 

•64 

21 

6 


' i 


21 
71. 

17 
304 

82 
456 

82 

49 
8 


2. 


12 years 


6.5 


12 years 6 months 

1j years 


1.6 
27.9 


13 years 6 months 

14 years 


7.5 
41.9 


14 years 6 months 

15 years 


7.5 

4.4 


15 years 6 months 


.7 


Total 


760 


7 


322 


1 


1090 


100.0 







OF Labor and Statistics 17 

SUMMARY OF WORK WITH BACKWARD CHILDREN 

For the third year the Bureau of Labor and Statistics 
has undeitaken the placement and supei*vision of young 
persons whose school retardation appeared to call for 
their adjustment in industiy. The legal and social scheme 
under which vocational probation is carried out in Mary- 
land was outlined and explained in the last two annual 
reports of this Bureau. Under this provision individuals 
between 14 and 16 years of age who have not been able to 
finish the 5th grade in the Baltimore Department of Edu- 
cation and higher grades in various county schools are 
given standardized mental and physical tests. On the 
basis of this examination, in addition to a consideration 
of conduct, their interests, capacity and needs are ana- 
lyzed and placement in industry is undertaken. 

The number of boys applying under this act for work 
pennits in 1921 was only about one-half the number ap- 
plying in 1920 with the proportion of girls slightly higher. 
Return to peace conditions was not only the cause of this 
numerical decrease; industrial depression played its part 
in discouraging individuals to apply for pennits since the 
rule of the Bureau required employment prospects before 
release from school could be considered. 

Recognizing that the individual's vocational adjustment 
generally is merely an element in the more complex wel- 
fare situation of the family, the Department of Special 
PeiTnits during the past year has concerned itself in no 
small degi'ee with home investigations. Following the 
policy that each specialized community agency should 
assume control of its owti problems, this department has 
refrained from making family contacts where other agen- 
cies already were active. Such cases have been referred 
to their appropriate agencies with offers of assistance if 
desired. In a number of emergency cases, however, tem- 
poraiy relief was furnished through voluntary contribu- 
tors. Opportunities for the Bureau to function as a clear- 
ing house for other agencies are worthy of further devel- 
opment. 

Since 50 per cent of this group of backward individuals 
represent pre-delinquent and delinquent youth, their in- 
dustrial inclinations often have been so erratic that those 
in charge have needed legal assistance in the enforcement 
of their bi-monthly reporting. Heretofore such cases 



18 Report of Maryland State Board 

were taken before the Juvenile Court. During tlie past 
year, however, nearly all such cases have been summoned 
to the Court but have been adjusted^ without being re- 
ferred to the Judge. Thus as a last resort police assis- 
tance generally has proved an adequate disciplinary 
measure. With the small number of cases requiring com- 
mitment to corrective schools the Department has kept 
closely in touch and as soon as conduct has appeared to 
be stabilized each individual has been returned to the 
community under renewed vocational probation. Most of 
these cases were detained at St. Mary's Industrial School 
and the good results achieved were in no small measure 
due to the insight and co-operation of the Superintendent, 
Brother Paul. 

As a recreative and educational innovation a number 
of industrial moving pictures were shown at intervals dur- 
ing the winter. These were given during the evening and 
were free. Since the Bureau is not equipped to produce 
"movies" and has no funds available for such purposes it 
was necessary to rely upon agencies better supplied with 
apparatus. To all such who kindly gave assistance thanks 
are herewith extended. It is hoped to renew this feature 
of industrial education during the coming year. 

An attempt has been made to extend the work of voca- 
tional probation to the Maryland counties and for this 
purpose a number of visits were made during the winter, 
children being examined at each visit. In view of the 
findings of Miss Stern, Statistician to the State Depart- 
ment of Education, indicating that an average of over 32 
per cent white and 65 per cent colored children in the first 
seven grades in the county schools are distinctly over age 
for their grades, the advisability of utilizing iudustrial 
opportunities in such a situation appears sound. Al- 
though Mr. Albert S. Cook, State Superintendent of Edu- 
cation, has urged county superintendents to avail them- 
selves of the special work permit law, few have done so. 
This failure appears to be due to: — unfamiliarity with 
local conditions, and inappreciation of the labor laws re- 
lating to backward children. During the coming year it 
is hoped to extend this work more generally throughout 
the State. 

A legislative enactment just passed extends the Bu- 
reau's period of probation in special cases from 16 to 18 
years. The importance of this measure is better realized 



OF Labor and Statistics 19 

in its relation to statistics showing the large number of 
dependent and delinquent individuals among the group 
which the Bureau is trying to stabilize in industry. This 
law should offer an eli'ective social force when fortified 
by a well organized continuation school program. 

An important adjunct to the welfare work of the de- 
partment is the recently established nutritional clinic 
conducted by a committee of the Women's Alliance of the 
Unitarian Church of Baltimore. This expression of vol- 
untary service shows how community social groups can 
aid civic agencies whose function does not include inten- 
sive supervision leading to improved physical vigor. 

Based on our earlier observations children whose intelli- 
gence co-efficient was less than .91 were considered voca- 
tional cases, since generally they were repeaters and often 
only in the 4th grade. Judged by age-grade standards 
the usual 15 year old person should be in the high school, 
having finished the 4th grade at about 9 or 10 years. Our 
later results, however, tend to show that if an interest 
can be established many of these cases, returned to school 
for various reasons, are able to complete the fifth grade 
and show, on re-examination, an improvement in mental 
development. Consequently it appears advisable to re- 
quire, as a formal educational minimum a completion of 
the fifth grade in all cases having an intelligence co-effi- 
cient above .80 or .85. A number of individuals whose 
mental capacity correspond to that of the usual 5 year 
old child, yet with well developed control of character, 
have shown themselves to be self supporting. These 
cases strengthen the belief that the majority of distinctly 
feebleminded persons of stable character may become 
community assets instead of liabilities if they can have 
suitable probationary supei-vision. 

A complete statistical analysis of the 1400 cases ob- 
sei'ved by the department of special permits is now in 
course of preparation. 

F. L. DUNHAM, 

Consulting Psychiatrist. 



20 Rkport of Maryland State Board 

PERMIT DEPARTMENT AND INSPECTIONS 

The report of the School Attendance Department of 
children whose names were sent to them for investigation 
by this Bureau, as having been refused employment cer- 
tificate, is shown by Table No. 1, and is as follows: Of 
the 45 children reported, 29 went back to school ; 7 helped 
at home; 6 after completing required grade, worked on 
permits; 1 was referred to charitable organization and 
two could not be located. 

In Table No. 2 is shown the report of the School Attend- 
ance officers in reference to children in Baltimore City 
whose permits were returned to the Bureau. There were 
735 children referred to the School Attendance Depart- 
ment of which 433 were males and 302 females. Of this 
number 132 or 17.9 per cent were found working without 
permits; 44 or 5.9 per cent could not be located; 136 or 
18.5 per cent were working at home or in domestic service ; 
218 or about 29.7 per cent were returned to school ; no in- 
formation could be obtained about 24; in 97 cases subse- 
quent permits were obtained before officer called; 46 
moved from the city; 12 were ill; 10 were committed to 
corrective institutions; 4 enlisted; 10 were married and 
2 died. 

According to Table No. 3 there were 143 children who 
were 16 years of age and were given statements of age 
to that effect. These statements are issued to firms de- 
siring them in order to relieve their responsibility in case 
of inspection and to prevent the child from misrepresent- 
ing its age, as some are tempted to do to get jobs with 
firms who do not employ children under 16 years. 

Table No. 4 shows that 6803 children who had pre- 
viously registered at the Bureau reached their 16th birth- 
day during 1921. 

As shown by Table No. 5, 10,210 children made applica- 
tion for all kinds of permits during 1921. Of this number 
4,808 or about 47.9 per cent were general permits ; 747 or 
7.3 per cent vacation; 2,028 or 19.8 per cent were news- 
boys' and street traders' permits ; 683 or 6.7 per cent were 
temporary general permits issued to children where 
physical defects were to be corrected; 1,521 or about 14.9 
per cent were vocational permits issued to children who 
were mentally retarded and could not pass the 5th grade 
at school; 25 applications were made without results; 179 



OF Labor and Statistics 21 

permits and 76 badges were refused, making a total of 
255 refused; 143 over 16 year statements were issued. 
October was the month in which the largest number of 
cases, 1,086 were handled ; the smallest number, 686 being 
in December. In 1921, 7,684 fewer applications were 
made than in 1920, due to a great extent to the lack of 
employment. 

Of the 5,125 children receiving general, vacation or 
newsboys' peraiits, as shown by Table 6; 3,678 or about 
71.8 per cent were bom in Baltimore City; 721 or 14.7 
per cent in Maiyland exclusive of Baltimore City; 510 in 
the United States, exclusive of Maryland and 216 were 
foreign-born. 

Table No. 7 shows that of these 5,125 children 2,942 
or 57.4 per cent were American white ; 522 or 10.2 per cent 
were colored; 434 or 8.4 per cent were Hebrews; 355 or 
6.9 per cent were Polish. The nationality of the other 
874 was divided between Germans, Italians, Bohemians, 
Irish, Lithuanians, English, Hungarian and others. 

Seven hundred and eighty-seven or 31.4 per cent of the 
2,503 children receiving original general permits, as shown 
by Table 8, had completed the 5th grade at school; 708 or 
31.3 per cent the sixth; 456 or 18.2 per cent the seventh; 
421 or 16.8 the eighth and 57 or 2.3 per cent were in the 
High School. 

Table 9 shows that of the 5,125 children holding gen- 
eral, vacation and newsboys' permits, 5,083 resided in 
Baltimore City ; 38 in Baltimore County ; 3 in Anne Arun- 
del County and one in Howard County. 

The proof of age upon which these 5,125 permits 
were issued, as shown by Table 10, was 4,225 or 82 per 
cent on documentary evidence and 900 or 17.6 per cent 
on parent's or guardian's affidavit with other evidence. 

Table 11 shows family status of children. 

In 3,631 or 80.1 per cent of the 4,531 original, general 
and newsboys' permits issued, as shown by Table 12, the 
reason for going to work was given as economical pressure. 

As shown by Table 13, the average weekly wage of 
children securing original general permits in 1921 in 46 
different industries was $7.20 as compared with $8.63 in 
1920 being a decrease of $1.43 or 16.6 per cent. One of 
these industries averaged $10.00 a week; two between 
$9.00 and $9.63 ; 6 between $8.00 and $8.80 ; 18 between 



22 Report of Maryland State Board 

$7.00 and $7.83; 14 between $6.00 and $6.99 and 5 be- 
tween $5.00 and $5.60. 

The averag-e height and weight of the 1,413 males se- 
curing original general pennits as shown by Table 14 was, 
height 62.1 inches, weight 105.6 lbs. and of the 1,090 
females, height 62 inches and weight 105.3. 

Table 15 shows the number of children securing sub- 
sequent peiTuits at the Baltimore office in 1921 and num- 
ber and length of time during which these permits were 
held. 

In Table 16 is given the occupation of parents of the 
2,503 children securing original general permits in 1921, 
of this number 137 or 5.47 per cent of the fathers were 
unemployed, compared with 56 or 1.28 per cent of 4,373 
found unemployed in 1920. 

Table 17 shows that 5,556 permits were issued by the 
Baltimore office in 1921 compared with 11,514 in 1920 or 
a decrease of 51.7 per cent in 1921. Of the 5,555 pemiits 
issued, 3,097 were original, general and vacation pennits 
and 2,458 were subsequent, general and vacation permits. 
Of the number issued 3,285 were for males and 2,270 for 
females. 

Table 18 shows that 3,082 children were found at work 
in 48 industries and 2,458 pennits were returned of child- 
ren who had left their jobs. 

REFUSED CASES 

Two hundred and fifty-five children were refused per- 
mits during 1921 ; 154 of which were for general permits ; 
25 for vacation and 76 newsboys' badges. 

Of this number 252 or 98.8 per cent lived in Baltimore 
City ; 2 in Baltimore County ; and one in Howard County, 
as shown by Table No. 19. 

The reasons for refusing pennits are given in Table 
No. 20. Below legal age 109 or 42.7 per cent ; below phy- 
iscal standard 51 or 20 per cent; below required school 
grade 40 or 15.7 per cent; cannot pass educational test 
13 or 5.1 per cent; working at forbidden occupations 29 
or 11.4 per cent and working during forbidden hours 13 
or 5.1 per cent. 

The color and sex of children refused permits, as shown 
by Table 21, were, 150 white males ; 72 white females and 
33 colored males. 



OF Labor and Statistics 23 

The age of children refused is shown in Table 22. 

In Table 23 are given the different forbidden occupa- 
tions for which children were refused permits. About 
one third wanted to work on machinery ; two in shipbuild- 
ing ; 13 during forbidden hours and the rest in such indus- 
tries as cigar manufacture, navigation, painting, etc. 

Five permits were revoked in 1921 because parents had 
sworn falsely to their childrens' ages. 



24 



Report op Maryland State Board 



TABLE 1. 

REPORT OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE DEPARTMENT ON 

CHILDREN REFUSED GENERAL EMPLOYMENT 

CERTIFICATES IN 1921. 



Number of children in school _ 

Number of children helping at home 

Number working with permits 

Number referred to society (St. Vincent de Paul) 
IN umber not located - 

Total 



29 
7 
6 
1 
2 



45 



TABLE 2. 

SUMMARY OF SCHOOL ATTENDANCE OFFICERS' REPORT 

CONCERNING CHILDREN IN BALTIMORE CITY 

WHOSE PERMITS WERE RETURNED TO 

THE BUREAU IN 1921. 



Specific Report Concerning Child. 



Working without permit 

Could not be located 

Working at home or in domestic service 

Returned to school 

No information obtainable ....- 

Subsequent permit secured before officer 

called 

Moved away from city 

Ill - 

Enlisted ^ 

Committed to corrective institutions 

Married - - 

Deceased 



Total. 



Male 



100 
28 
21 

149 
16 

71 
29 
5 
4 
8 
1 
1 



433 



Female 



32 

16 

115 

69 

8 

26 
17 

7 

2. 

»9 
1 



302 



Total 



132 

44 

136 

218 

24 

97 
46 
12 

4 
10 
10 

2 



735 



OF Labor and Statistics 



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28 



Report of Maryland State Board 



TABLE 6. 

TABLE SHOWING BIRTRHPLACE OF CHILDREN GRANTED 
GENERAL AND VACATION PERMITS AND OF CHIL- 
DREN GRANTED STREET TRADERS' AND 
NEWSBOYS' PERMITS BY THE BAL- 
TIMORE OFFICE OF THE BU- 
REAU IN 1921 



Birthplace 


'c3 

0) 

O 


a 
> 


o 


Total 


Baltimore Citv 


1858 

386 

173 
86 


409 

91 

59 
35 


1411 

244 

278 
95 


3678 


Mar>'land exclusive of Balti- 
more 


721 


United States, exclusive 

Maryland 

Outside of United States 


of 


510 
216 








Total 


2503 


594 


2028 


5125 







OF Labor and Statistics 



29 



TABLE 7. 

TABLE SHOWING NATIONALITY OF CHILDREN GRANTED 

ORIGINAL GENERAL AND VACATION PERMITS AND 

OF CHILDREN GRANTED NEWSBOYS-' AND 

STREET TRADERS' BADGES BY THE 

BALTIMORE OFFICE OF THE 

BURe'aU in 1921. 











. Total 


Nationality 












• 




o 


CO 

o 

Si 




4^ 








^ 


S 


Vc 




a> 


nj 


<v 


3 


<u 




U 


> 


"Z, 


^ 


eu 


American, white ...- 


1627 


349 


966 


2942 


57.4 


Hebrew 


168 


48 


218 


434 


g.4 


German — 


203 


42 


61 


306 


6. 


Polish 


204 


69 


80 


353 


6.9 


American, colored 


35 
76 
37 


^ 24 
14 
12 


463 

129 

10 


522 

219 

89 


10.2 


Italian 


4.3 


Bohemian _ : 


1.7 


Irish - 


21 


7 


18 


46 


.9 


Lithuanian 


23 


7 


26 


56 


1.1 


English -..-. 


16 


4 


16 


36 


.7 


Hungarian 


16 


1 


9 


26 


.5 


All others - 


46 


16 


32 


94 


.5 


Unkno-ft-n 


1 


1 




2 


.1 


Total 


2503 


594 


2028 


5125 


100.0 



30 



Report of MAiiyLAND Statk Board 



TABLE 8 

TABLE SHOWING SCHOOL GRADE COMPLETED BY CHIL- 
DREN GRANTED ORIGINAL GENERAL PERMITS 
BY- THE BALTIMORE OFFICE OF THE 
BUREAU IN 1921 



Grade Completed 


1 Number 


Per Cent 


Fifth 


787 
782 
456 
421 
57 


31.4 


Sixth 


31.3 


Seventh 


18.2 


iiiierhtn ... 


16.8 


Over Eisrhth 


2.3 






Tctal - 


2503 


100.0 







TABLE 9. 

TABLE SHOWING RESIDENCE OF CHILDREN GRANTED 

ORIGINAL GENERAL AND VACATION PERMITS, ANO 

OF CHILDREN GRANTED STREET TRADERS' 

AND NEWSBOYS' BADGES AT THE 

BALTIMORE OFFICE IN 1921 



Residence 


General 


Vacation 


Newsboys 


Total 


Baltimore City 

Anne Arundel County 

Baltimore County 

Howard County 


2472 
3 

27 
1 


583 


2028 


5083 

3 

38 

1 






Tctal 


2503 


594 


2028 


5125 



OF Labor and Statistics 



31 



TABLE 10. 

TABLE SHOWING NUMBER AND PER CEN-T OF CHILDREN 
GRANTED ORIGINAL GENERAL AND VACATION PER- 
MITS AND OF CHILDREN GRANTED STREET TRADERS'* 
AND NEWSBOYS' BADGES BY THE BALTIMORE OFFICE 
OF THE BUREAU IN 1921 WHOSE AGES WERE AT- 
TESTED BY DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE AND THE 
NUMBER AND PER CENT WHOSE AGES WERE AT- 
TESTED BY AFFIDAVITS. 



Proof of Age 







in 




c 


>, 


a 


o 


o 

Si 


u 


+J 




c 


5J 


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a 


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-t-> 

o 



1. Official Public Birth Records: 

Baltimore City Records 

Maryland State Records 

Other State Records .., 

Foreign Records 

2. Religious Records: 

Baptismal Records 

Cradle Roll 

3. Other Documentary EWdence: 

Passports 



807 

105 

40 

14 

1211 
* 12 

16 



Total of Children presenting various 
classes of documentary e\'idence: 

Number '.. 

• Per Cent 



4. Affidavits: 
Number .. 
Per Cent . 

Grand Total: 
Number .. 
Per Cent . 



2205 

88.1 



298 
• 11.9 



2503 
100.0 



178 


581 


26 


92 


7 


33 


9 


19 


277 


738 


5 


6 


4 


15 



506 
85.2 



88 
14.8 



594 
100.0 



1514 

74.7 



514 
25.3 



2028 
100.0 



1566 

223 

80 

42 

2256 
23 

35 



4225 

82.4 



900 
17.6 



5125 
100.0 



v 



32 



Rkpokt of Makyland State Board 



TABLE 11. 

TABLE SHOWING FAMILY STATUS OF CHILDREN GRANTED 

GENERAL PERMITS AND OF CHILDREN GRANTED 

NEWSBOYS 'AND STREET TRADERS' 

BADGES BY THE BALTIMORE 

OFFICE IN 1921. 



Family Status 


r—4 

O 


Newsbovs and 
Street Traders 


O 




1. Two Parents in Family: 
Beth own parents 


1738 

106 

' 40 

75 

4 

314 

123 

5 

5 

48 

10 

27 

3 

2 

3 


1509 

75 
26 

63 

7 

225 

70 
2 
2 

32 
6 
6 
1 

4 


3247 

181 

66 

138 

11 

539 

193 

7 
7 

80 

• 16 

33 

4 
2 

7 


71.6 


Stepfather 


4. 


Stepmother 

2. One Parent in Family: 

Father away 


1.4 
3. 


Mother away 


.2 


Father dead 


11.9 


Mother dead 


4.3 


Stepfather away . . 


.2 


Stepfather dead 


2 


3. Child lives with Relatives 
or Friends: 

Both Parents dead 

Father dead 


1.7 
.4«< 


Mother dead 


.7 


Both Parents living 

Father away 


.1 

.1 


Unknown * 


.2 






Total . . . 


2503 


2028 


4531 


100.0 







OF Labor and Statistics 



33 



TABLE 12. 

TABLE SHOWING REASONS FOR GOING TO WORK AS- 
SIGNED BY CHILDREN GRANTED ORIGINAL GENERAL 
PERMITS AND BY CHILDREN GRANTED STREET 
TRADERS' AND NEWSBOYS BADGES BY THE 
BALTIMORE OFFICE OF THE BUREAU 
IN 1921. 



Reasons for Children Going 
to Work 











C o 






cS -3 






„ "3 






m i^ 




15 


Si ^ 






W 0) 




<u 


Q) - 


o 


O 


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o 
O 



Economic Pressure 

Self-Support 

Unsatisfactory school conditions 

Graduated 

To pay for further education. 

Wants to go to work 

To save money 

For spending money 

For War Stamps 

Miscellaneous reasons 

Total 



1846 


1785 


3631 


36 


10 


46 


83 




83 


257 




257 




1 


1 


279 


70 


349 




116 


116 




40 


40 




6 


6 


2^ 




2 


2503 

1 


2028 


4531 



80.1 
1. 
1.8 
5.7 

.05 
7.7 
2.6 
.9 
.1 
.05 



100.00 



34 



Report of Maryland State Board 



TABLE 13. 

TABLE SHOWING AVERAGE WAGE EXPECTED BY CHILDREN 

SECURING ORIGINAL GENERAL PERMITS IN 1921, 

ARRANGED ACCORDING TO INDl!sTRIES. 



Industry 



rS "^ +J 

TS (1) 

>> s 



c . 

° O C 
(1) 03 






o. 



o a 



C!3 g 

dl^ ^ 

:z; 






2.S 
Oh 






o 






c fac 

X u 






bt) 
03 



> 



Department, 5 & 10s stores 

Small retail stores 

Wholesale establishments 

Offices , 

Messenger service 

Clothing -.. 

Artificial flowers & feathers- 
Baskets, toys & willow ware... 

Bakery products 

Boots and shoes, cut stock 

and findings 

Bottle stoppers 

Boxes & bags, paper & fancy 
Brooms, brushes & hairwork 
Buttons, buckles and badges.. 
Canning & oyster shucking. 

Cigar boxes _ 

Confectionery 

Copper, tin and sheet iron 

products 

Food preparation & packirfg... 
Foundry and machine shop 

products 

Gas and electric machinery.. 
Glass (glass decorating) and 

mirrors 

Harness and leather goods 

trunks, etc 

Iron, steel works and rolling 

mills 

Jewelry, silver & plated ware 
Lumber products & millwork 

Manufacturing chemist 

Mattresses and spring beds 
Piano & musical instrument? 
Picture frames, furniture etc 
Pottery _. 



223 
308 
110 
114 
115 
653 
1 

19 
32 

23 

3 

30 

50 

13 

33 

3 

103 

257 
9 

17 
1 

16 



1 
13 

5 
21 

2 



6 



173 

205 

93 

95 

8 
368 

1 
14 
24 

19 
1 

18 

31 
8 
1 
2 

72 

47 
4 

7 
1 



1 
11 
2 
18 
2 
6 
5 
5 



50 








$6.80 


70 


i 


1 


31 


7.04 


16 




1 




6.99 


16 




2 


1 


7.36 


21 


86 






6.75 


266 


13 


2 


4 


6.90 
5.00 


3 


2 






6.46 


8 









7.67 


1 


3 






7.50 


2 








8.00 


12 








6.38 


16 


1 


2 




6.98 


5 








5.60 


5 


18 
1 


9 




8.00 
5.50 


25 


6 






7.14 


163 


22 


24 


1 


7.48 


5 








6.33 


9 




1 




7.40 










8.00 


9 








7.11 


1 








6.67 
10.00 


2 








6.81 


2 






1 


7.25 


3 








7.68 
9.00 


2 








6.45 


1 








8.43 


3 









8.50 



OF Labor and Statistics 



35 



TABLE 13— (Continued.) 



Industry 



c ' 

X! 0) 



•C CO 



o 






o O C 

12; 



?> c 



•^ p. 



o cj 






cS p 



C 

;-> 
So; 



bjO 



0) 



1^ 



U3 



0) 

be 
r5 



0) 

to 
a 
u 

> 



Printing, publishing, engrav- 
ing, etc „.. 

Sign & advertising novelties 

Straw hats ._ 

Umbrellas and canes , 

Textile - _ 

Wooden boxes 

Places of amusement - _ 

Auto, motorcycle, repair shop 
and garage 

Barbershop ,._ 

Building, contracting, car- 
penter 

Cleaning, pressing & dyeing... 

Electrical contracting 

Laundry 

Plumbing 

Restaurant, tea and lunch 
rooms 

Transportation 

Miscellaneous _ 



Total. 



92 
3 

23 

25 

31 

2 

2 

.15 
8 

15 
2 

10 
9 
9 

15 
12 
29 



2503 



78 
2 
11 
19 
18 
1 



6 
5 

10 



9 

6 
6 

12 

7 
18 



1460 



12 



11 
4 

13 
1 
1 

8 
2 

1 
2 
1 
2 

2 

1 

3 

10 



790 



159 



44 



50 



7.03 
7.50 

7.83 
6.65 

7.74 
8.80 



7.33 
5.00 

7.25 

"7.21 
6.40 
7.50 

5.56 
9.63 
6.84 



$7.20 



36 



Rkport of Maryland State Board 






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OF Labor and Statistics 



37 



Months Under Observation. 


Average 
No. of 
Months 
Under 

Observa- 
tion. 


•»tc--oiol^^'^^(^il-'il^cot^^t^^ 




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1 1—1 


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05 

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1-^ 


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1— t 




1 ^ 


1-1 


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1— t 1— t T— ' 


1 s 


1— 1 


•nH rH tH 


1 s 




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1 <=> 

1 L.-; 


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1—1 


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1 «^ 
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c^ — f eg — 1 


1 "-"^ 

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c^] oj eg — 1 


1 00 
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1— ( 


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eg 
eg 

1— i 


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eg -^ Ci (M eg i ; th 

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c:i 


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c; o Ci eg eg rf : 
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Less ' 
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;::::•:: 


LO 




No. of 

Permits 

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eg 

cgco'^uococ-coo^OT-icg'"' 

V-i ,H tH ^ 

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No. of Children Be- 
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a 

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38 



Report of Maryland State Board 



; 



TABLE 16 

TABLE SHOWING OCCUPATION OF PARENTS OF CHILDREN 

SECURING ORIGINAL GENERAL PERMITS AT THE 

BALTIMORE OFFICE OF THE BUREAU 

DURING 1921, 



LaDorer 

Mechanic 


Father's 
Occupation 

755 

747 


Merchant 

Professional - - 

Unemployed - - 

Unknown 


269 

14 

137 

115 


Deceased 


466 






Total 


2503 






Housewife 

T,aboring work 

Mechanical 

Mercantile 

Professional 

, Unknown _ 

Deceased .. _ 


Mother's 
Occupation 

1977 

. 191 

23 

13 
237 






Tctal....^ _ _ 


2503 



OF Labok and Statistics 



39 



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40 



Report of Maryland State Board 



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OF Labor and Statistics 



41 



TABLE 19. 

TABLE SHOWING RESIDENCE OF CHILDREN REFUSED 
PERMITS AT THE BALTIMORE OFFICE OF 
THE BUREAU DURING 1921. 



Residence 




o 
> 


>. 
o 


O 




Baltimore Citv 


151 
2 
1 


25 


76 


252 
2 
1 


98 8 


Baltimore County 


.8 


Howard County 






4 








Total 


154 


25 


76 


255 


100 







TABLE 20. 

TABLE SHOWING REASONS WHY CHILDREN WERE RE- 
FUSED PERMITS AT THE BALTIMORE OFFICE 
OF THE BUREAU IN 1921. 



Reasons 







w. 






c 


.^ 




c3 


o 


O 




c 


-1-3 


a 


OJ 


a 


(U 


o 


O 


> 


;2: 


H 



c 

Oh 



Below legal age 

Below physical standard _.. 

Below required school g'rade.. 
Cannot pass educational test 

Forbidden occupations 

Forbidden hours _ 

Total 



19 


24 


76 


109 


46 


5 




51 


40 






40 


12 


1 




13 


27 


2 




29 


10 


3 




13 


154 


25. 


76 


255 



42.7 

20. 

15.7 

5.1 
11.4 

5.1 



100.0 



42 



Report of Maryland State Board 



TABLE 21. 

TABLE SHOWING SEX AND COLOR OF CHILDREN REFUSED 

PERMITS AT THE BALTIMORE OFFICE OF 

THE BUREAU IN 1921 





White 


Colored 


s 




Kind of Permit 




-2 
£ 


13 
o 


0) 

13 


13 
S 

fa 


13 

-4-:> 
O 


Per Cent 




88 
13 

49 


60 
12 


148 
25 

49 


6 




6 


154 
25 

76 


60.4 




9.8 


Vacation - 

Newsboys' and Street 
Traders' 


27 




27 


29.8 






Total 


150 


72 


222 


33 




33 


255 


100.0 



TABLE 22. 

TABLE SHOWING AGE OF CHILDREN REFUSED AT THE 
BALTIMORE OFFICE OF THE BUREAU IN 1921. 



Age 






Under 12 years 

12 years 

13 years 

14 years 

15 years 

Total 



19 

82 
53 



154 



o 

S3 
o 

> 



1 
13 

10 

1 



25 



o 



76 



76 



o 



76 

1 

32 

92 

54 



255 



o 



29.8 
.4 
12.6 
36. 
21.2 



100.0 



OF Labor and Statistics 



43 



TABLE 23. 

TABLE SHOWING NUMBER OF GENERAL AND VACATION 

PERMITS REFUSED BECAUSE OF FORBIDDEN 

OCCUPATIONS IN 1921. 



Name of Industry 



Number of Children 



General ! Vacation 



Total 



Place of amusement 

Copper and tin (machine) 
Mill work (sand papering) 

Clothing (machine) 

Shipbuilding 

Cigar manufacturing 

Navigation • 

Printing 

Painting _ 

Textile (machine) 

Building and contracting .. 

Shoe making (machine) 

Forbidden hours 

Total _ 



6 
1 
1 
8 
2 
2 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
10 



37 



6 
1 
1 
9 
2 
3 
1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 
13 



42 



44 Kki'ORT of Maryland State Board 

PERMITS IN THE COUNTIES 

Fifty-four physicians were authorized to issue permits 
in the counties of Maryland during 1921, as shown by 
Table 1-A. Of this number 27 issued permits; 2 reported 
not issuing permits; 23 did not report and two resigned. 

In 1921, as shown by Table 2-A, 1,589 penmits, badges 
and over 16 statements were issued. Of this number 331 
were general and 842 vacation permits; 229 newsboys' 
badges and 187 statements of age. Allegany issued the 
largest number, about 48.5 per cent of the whole; Wash- 
ington about 23.7 per cent and Caroline about 10.9 per 
cent. 

As shown by Table 3-A, 38.7 per cent of the permits 
were issued to children in canneries, the other 62.3 per 
cent were divided between 23 different industries. 

In August, as shown by Table 4-A, the greatest number 
of permits were issued; this being 249 or 21.2 per cent of 
the 1,173 issued; June's percentage was 14.4; July 13.6; 
December 12.2 per cent and November 10.8 per ,cent of 
the whole. 

Documentary evidence of age was furnished by 808 or 
87.6 per cent and affidavits by 12.4 per cent. This is 
shown in Table 5-A. 

Table 6-A shows that permits were issued to 101 white 
boys; 60 colored boys; 197 white girls and 120 colored 
girls. This table does not include Western Maryland. 

The reasons for refusing permits to children is given 
in Table 7-A. This shows that the principal reason for 
refusal was that children were under legal age, 84.4 per 
cent of the 260 were refused on that account; 15 per cent 
because of being below legal grade at school. 

The age and sex of children refused is given in Table 
8-A. 

Table 9-A shows that 18 permits were revoked in the 
counties; 12 of which were for non-attendance at school 
and 6 had misrepresented their ages. 

Of the 285 children found at work by the inspectors, as 
shown by Table IQ-A, 227 were in canneries; 23 in cloth- 
ing and the other 35 were in 5 other industries. 

It iis shown in Table 11-A that 9,315 pemiits, badges 
and over 16 statements were issued in Maryland, including 
Baltimore City during 1921; 642 , inspections were made 



OF Labor and Statistics 45 

in which 3,367 children were found at work. Of this num- 
ber 126 were working in violation of the law; 57 firms 
were found violating the law and 52 firms and parents 
were prosecuted resulting in 34 convictions. 

Out of the 298 inspections made in canneries, as shown 
by Table 12-A, 77 employed 357 children of whom 37 were 
working in violation of the law. In 51 canneries no child- 
ren were employed ; 164 did not operate in 1921 and 6 had 
gone out of business. 



46 



RisroKT OF Maryl^vnu Statk Board 



TABLE NO. 1-A. 

TABLE SHOWING THE RETURNS MADE BY PHYSICIANS 

AUTHORIZED TO ISSUE PERMITS IN THE 

COUNTIES OF MARYLAND DURING 1921 



Counties 





■^3 








0) 








3 






be 


s*^ 






fi 


ti I— 1 


■«J 




o 
a. 




(3 be 


T3 

a) 




.1^ 


mbe 
port 


1/3 


o 


lg 


9 0) 


(U 


z 


^:p:; 


« 



c3 

■*-> 
o 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore County- 
Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Calvert 

Dorchester 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Queen Anne 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Total. 



2 

4 
6 
1 
1 
1 



1 
2 
2 
1 
2 











1 


1 




1 


1 




3 




1 


1 
1 






1 


Z' 


1 


3 
1 
2 
3 
1 
2 




...... 


"2 


"i 




2 




2 


23 


2 



4 

2 
2 
7 
S 
2 
1 
2 
4 
1 
2 
4 
3 
4 
1 
5 
2 



54 



OF Labor and Statistics 



47 



TABLE 2-A. 

TABLE SHOWING NUMBER AND KIND OF PERMITS ISSUED 

IN EACH OF THE COUNTIES OF MARYLAND 

DURING 1921. 



Counties 



Allegany 

Baltimore County.. 

Calvert - 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Dorchester _. 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Queen Anne 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington _.. 

Wicomico 



Total - 



Generals 


Vacation 




■ij 




-^ 




c 




c 




<u 




<v 


C 






3 

cr 


be 
O 


Xi 


a 




3 


o 


^ 



119 
1 

4, 

1 
2 

23 



106 
6 



262 



35 



33 
1 



69 



159 
17 

172 
68 
4. 
51 



2 

14 

46 

111 

16 



660 



117 



1 
11 



CO 

> So 



229 



52 



182 



229 






Total 



111 



75 



187 



Xi 

B 

3 



770 

18 

4 

173 

80 

6 

51 

23 

1 

2 

15 

46 

377 

23 



1589 



0) 

O 
Oh 



48.5 

1.2 

.3 

10.9 

5. 

.4 

3.2 

1.4 

.1 

.1 

.9 

2.9 

23.7 

1.4 



100.0 



48 



REroRT OF Maryland State Board 



TABLE 3-A. 

TABLE SHOWING NUMGER OF PERMITS ISSUED FOR THE 

VARIOUS INDUSTRIES IN THE COUNTIES OF 

MARYLAND DURING 1921. 



Industry 



General 



Total 



Vacation! Number 



Per Cent 



Canning 

Silk 

Bricks and cement 

Hosiery 

Glass 

Mercantile 

Office 

Hotels and restaurant 

Telegraph and telephone 

Pottery .• -. 

Lumter 

Laundry 

Building and contracting 

Printing and publishing 

Clothing 

Furniture and musical instru 

ments 

Boots and shoes 

Bakery 

Copper and tin 

Textile 

Retail 

Baskets and willowware -... 

Paper bags and boxes 

Miscellaneous 



Total.. 



26 

45 

25 

29 

21 

28 

4 

2 

3 

7 



3 
3 

4 
30 

22 

5 



2 
1 



262 



331 

77 

7 

18 

64 

37 

5 

4 

7 

1 

13 

1 

4 
31 

16 

7 
2 
2 
8 
4 
7 
2 
12 



660 



357 

122 

32 

47 

85 

65 

9 

6 

10 

7 

1 

16 

4 

8 

61 

38 

12 
2 
2 

10 
5 
7 
3 

13 



922 



38.7 
13.2 

3.5 

5.1 

9.2 

7. 

1. 
.7 

1.1 
.9 
.1 

1.7 
.4 
.9 

3.6 

4.1 

1.3 
.2 
.2 

1.1 
.6 
.7 
.3 

1.4 



100.0 



OF Lap.ou and Statistics 



49 



TABLE 4-A. 

TABLE SHOWING NUMBER OF PERMITS ISSUED EACH 

MONTH IN THE COUNTIES OF MARYLAND 

DURING 1921. 



Month 



General 


Vacj 




+j 






^ 






o 










c3 




• a 


S 


(1) 


c 

• 1—1 


'OD 


03 
JO 


be 


%•* 


S 


7~i 


O 


zn 


O 









Total 



3 
^ 



C 



January .... 
February . 

March -.. 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

IN ovember 
December 



19 




10 


15 


5 


10 


13 


5 


9 


10 


8 


6 


17 


4 


14 


27 


3 


123 


39 


8 


95 


39 


7 


186 


18 


8 


76 


14 


8 


11 


21 


6 


57 


30 


7 


63 


262 


69 


660 



4 

4 

2 

4 

7 

16 

17 

17 

14 

10 

43 

44 



182 



33 

34 

29 

28 

42 

169 

159 

249 

116 

43 

127 

144 



1173 



2.8 

2.9 

2.5 

2.4 

3.6 

14.4 

13.6 

21.2 

9.9 

3.7 

10.8 

12.2 



100.0 



50 



Report of Maryland State Board 



TABLE 5-A. 

TABLE SHOWING EVIDENCE OF AGE ACCEPTED IN THE 

ISSUANCE OF PERMITS IN THE COUNTIES 

OF MARYLAND DURING 1921. 



Proof of Age 


i 

1 General 

1 


Vacation 


Total 


Number Per Cfent 


Official birth records 


68 

55 

2 

117 


291 

150 

5 

120 


359 
205 

7 

237 


38.9 


Baotismal records 


22.2 


Cradle Roll -.. 

Other documentary proof with 
affidavit 

• 


.8 
25.7 


Total documentary proof 

Affidavits with doctor's ex- 
amination - 


242 
20 


566 
94 


808 
114 


87.6 
12.4 


Grand total , 


262 


660 


922 


100.0 



OP LAf.oii AND Statistics 



51 



TABLE 6-A. 

TABLE SHOWING AGE, SEX AND COLOR OF CHILDREN 

SECURING ORIGINAL GENERAL AND VACATION 

PERMITS IN THE COUNTIES DURING 1921. 





General 


Vacation 


Total 


Age and Sex 


0) 


o 


o 




T3 


o 


s 


a> 


Male: 

14 years _ 

15 years 


4 
4 




4 


59 
38 


39 
21 


98 
59 


102 
59 


33.4 
36.6 




Total _ 




4 


97 


60 


157 


161 


100.0 


Female: 

14 years _ 

15 years 


9 

4 




9 

4 


83 


60 


143 


9 

147 


5.9 

94.1 




Total 


13 

17 




13 


83 


60 


143 


156 


100 






Grand total 




17 


180 


120 


300 


317 


100 







Tnis does not include Western Maryland. 



TABLE 7-A. 



TABLE SHOWING REASON FOR REFUSING TO ISSUE PER- 
MITS IN THE COUNTIES OF MARYLAND DURING 1921. 



Reasons for Refusal 




Per Cent 



Below legal age _ „. 

Below legal grade 

iJelow physical requirements 

Foribdden occupations 

Forbidden hours 

Total 



80.4 

15.4 

.8 

2.3 

1.1 



100.0 



52 



Report of Maryland State Board 



TABLE 8-A; 

TABLE SHOWING AGE AND SEX OF APPLICANTS REFUSED 

PERMITS IN THE COUNTIES OF MARYLAND 

DURING 1921. 



Age 



Male 



Total 



Female 



Number 



Per Cent 



11 years 

12 years 
0.3 years 

14 years 

15 years 



Total.. 



1 

4 

150 

22 

16 



193 



1 

54 
5 

7 



67 



1 

5 

204 

27 

23 



260 



.4 
1.9 

78.5 

10.4 

8.8 



100.0 



TABLE 9-A. 

TABLE SHOWING NUMBER 01 PERMITS REVOKED IN THE 

COUNTIES OF MARYLAND AND REASONS FOR 

REVOKING SAME DURING 1921. 



Reason 



Per Cent 



Non-attendance at school 
Misrepresented age 

Total 




100.0 



OF Labor and Statistics 



53 



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< 






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12; 

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r ^ 

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54 



Rkpokt op Maryland State Board 



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aaquin^ 




00 -"t i 

CO ,-1 j 












! i 






j i 






to 

.2 

01 

"o 
> 


uajp[n{3 

JO jaquin^ 




00 iH i i 
i i 


00 i ! : 
i i 




j 


"~, 1 


j 


CO 


CO 
r-l 


SUUI^ 






i 


i 












(N 




Child Labor 
Inspections 


Children Found at 
Work 


F;^! 




00 rHOiO 

o 

CO 


00U3 

thco i 




CO 00 
rH 




tr- 
ee 
CO 
00 


Av^q JO 

UOI^^IOT^ UI 




Oi tr-eoeo 

00 7-1 




00 




: j 








CO 


CO 


^mx^^ UQ 




CO OJCO rf 
Oi 005O 
Oi 


00 c~ 

1-1 (M 


: iH 


CO 00 


00 


iH 
CO 


suoi:}38dsui 
JO jaquin^ 




CO 1-1 00 CD 
C~ 1-1 iH 


T— 1 


;ooc 


MtH 


r-tcq 


UO 


CO 


Permits Issued to Children 

Living- in Specified 

Counties 


panssi 


O CO 00 CC O ■<* «0 1-1 CO i-l 
C- (M r-lC- OO iO(N 1 
C-D- .-i 


: c^ LOCO t-co 

CO 


1—1 
CO 


s:juauia;B:;S 
9X -19^0 


1-1 CO 

T-l T-* 














i-( 








lO 


o 

CO 
CO 


siap^JX 

^99-I^S 


Ci 00 
(M OJ 
IMO 




















1 






UOE^BO'B^ 


«0 t-Cr-OQ OS 
t~^ 1-1 t-o 


■* 1-1 
in 


1 1 


iCgiCCOCOCO 

T-l 


OS 

00 

tH 


I'BJ.BlIBr^ 


'^ 00 ^ 

■r-l 00 


iH -^(M 


CO 1 


: i 






leo 


<3i 

CO 
1-1 




\ 


m 

o 
O 


i 

C 

< 

■< 


: •<- 

IOC 
i 0) q 
3 O c 

50.5.; 
1) +j +■ 

«5ma 


S 

3 

It 
3 < 

-1 ? 

S c 


PC 


= 1 

5 c 

-• r 

a c 


H 

> ^ 


• c 

: .1- 

: 

1 


4 

H C 

5^ 


i 1 j 
: : i 


1 1 
: 1 


h 

- J 

M 


U 




> 

i c 
:1 


H 

5 1 
3 S 

IS 

^ .r-l 


I 



TABLE SHOWING NUMBER OF PERMITS ISSUED BY THE BALTIMORE OFFICE OF THE BUREAU DURING 1021. 

CLASSIFIED BY INDUSTRIES. 









General 


Permits 












Vacation 


Permits 












Character of Imlustrj- 




Original 




Subsequent 


Original 


Sulisetiuent 


Total General ami 
Vacation Permits 




Male 


Female 


Total 


Male 


1 ■ 
Female 


Total 


Grand 
Total 


Male 


Female 


1 Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Granci 
Total 


Male 


Female 


Total 




93 
268 
93 
91 
115 
122 

30 
15 
3 

7 
34 

8 
14 

■'"lo 

196 

13 
1 

16 
2 
1 

12 
5 
6 
2 
7 
4 
5 

83 
3 
7 

13 
5 
2 
2 

15 
7 

16 
1 
8 
6 
8 

10 

12 

21 


130 

40 
17 
23 

531 
1 
2 
2 
8 

' 23 
16 

5 
19 

3 
93 

'I 
4 

2 

15 

1 
4 
1 
9 

'lii 
18 
20 

"" i 

2 
3 

1 
6 

8 


223 
30.'* 
110 
114 
115 
663 

1 
19 
32 
23 

3 
30 
50 
13 
33 

3 
103 
267 

9 
17 

1 
10 

4 

1 
13 

5 
21 

2 

g 

8 

6 
92 

3 
23 
31 
25 

2 

2 
15 

8 
16 

2 
10 

9 

9 
15 
12 
29 


65 
170 

95 
101 
182 
114 

'l6 
22 
16 

6 
36 
12 
35 

15 
239 

14 

16 
2 

14 
9 
3 
9 

10 

. 3 

1 

I 
12 
73 

3 

4 

13 
11 

6 

' 11 
6 
3 

1 
12 

6 
17 

7 

5 
14 


80 
41 
10 

17 

404 
1 
6 
3 

13 
3 

44 
6 
7 

33 
3 

52 

64 
4 
2 

1 

8 

■ '2 
2 
15 

16 
17 
17 

" "2 

2 
"4 
10 


145 
211 
105 
US 
182 
618 
1 
21 
26 
29 
10 
50 
41 
19 
08 
3 
67 
303 
18 
17 
2 
15 
9 
3 
9 
10 
U 
1 
3 
4 
14 
88 
3 
19 
30 
28 
5 

11 
8 
3 
1 

12 
R 

17 

11 

24 


368 

519 

215 

232 

297 

1171 

2 

40 

57 

52 

13 

SO 

91 

32 

101 

6 

170 

660 

27 

34 

3 

31 

13 

4 

22 

16 

32 

3 

11 

12 

20 

ISO 

6 

42 

01 

53 

7 

2 

26 

• 16 

18 

3 

22 

17 

26 

26 

17 

53 


25 
60 
25 
13 
39 
27 

6 
8 

1 
1 
2 
7 

24 

5 

52 
2 
3 
1 
5 

1 
2 

16 

'4 

2 
1 

1 
1 
3 

S 

1 

i 
5 


27 

7 

2 

1 
103 

i 
1 
4 
1 
3 
2 

35 

23 
9 

1 
12 

1 
2 
3 


- 52 
67 
25 
16 
40 
130 

9 
6 
2 
5 
9 

"59 

28 

61 
2 
3 
1 
6 

1 
2 
2 
12 

"■" 4 
10 

1 

i 

1 
1 
3 

5 

3 

~ 1 


12 

4 

2 
16 

5 

4 

3 

i - 
1 
10 

23 
"2 

"""1 

^ "si 

' I 

1 

~ 1 
j- 

i 


C 
1 
1 
1 

22 

"1 

1 

6 
1 
2 
6 

3 


11 
13 
6 
3 
16 
27 
... ..^ 

4 

~1 
1 
1 
2 
10 
1 
2 
28 

2 

... 

5 

1 

i 
- 

1 
1 


63 
80 
30 

18 
56 
157 

11 
13 

3 
6 
10 
2 

1 
30 
89 
2 
5 
1 
5 

*1 
2 
2 

10 

"4 
21 

1 
8 
6 
1 

2 

1 
4 

5 
3 

.. 
1 
1 



188 
510 
217 
207 
352 
268 

43 
63 
32 
11 
15 
77 
21 
83 

30 
510 
21 
33 

4 
35 
11 

5 
22 
17 
10 

3 
10 

6 
21 
177 

6 
11 
31 
19 

8 

2 
28 
14 
22 

2 
26 
13 
26 
18 
18 
41 


243 

89 
28 
43 

1060 
2 

8 

26 
5 
71 
24 
13 
93 
7 
170 
139 
8 
6 

1 

2 

2 

38 

1 
6 
3 
24 

32 
38 
40 

3. 

i 

2 
7 
1 
9 

18 












Office 
















Baskets, rattan and willow ware, games and toys. 

Bread ami bread products , ^ _ ._ 


51 
70 










Brooms, brushes and hairwork - ^ .„ . — _- 


101 
34 


Canning and oyster sliucking . 


176 
7 
200 
649 
29 
39 
4 


Confectionery ^. . 


Food preparation and packing . 

Foundry and machine shop products 

Gas and electric machinery - ... . .^ _. 


Harness, leather goods and ti-unks, .-.. , .„ „ 


13 
















3 




11 






Picture frames and furniture-.- „ — _____ 


24 
















59 


Wnn.lcn »<nvP- 


s 












17 




22 








27 




20 




20 












59 






Total .. ... , ,. .... 


1413 


1090 


2603 


141S 


8S7 


230.1 


4808 


354 


240 


594 


100 


53 


1.13 


747 


32S5 


2270 


55.15 



OF Labor and Statistics 



55 



TABLE 12-A. 

CANNERIES INSPECTED BY THE BUREAU'S INSPECTORS 

DURING 1921. 



Location of 


o 


Canneries 
g Children 


Children 
on Permits 


orking in 
of Law 


ber of 
Working 


neries not 
Ig Children 


Canneries 
peration 


2 


Canneries 


3tal Numl 
Inspectio 


umber of 
Employir 


umber of 
Working 


umber W 
Violation 


3tal Num 
Children 


0. of Can 
Employir 


umber of 
Not in 


umber of 
Out of B 




H 


;z; 


2; 


^ 


H 


^ 


Z 


Z 


County: 


















Anne Arundel 


16 










2 


14 




Baltimore City 


30 


30 


94 


15 


109 








Baltimore County 


7 


1 


1 




1 




5 


i 


Caroline 


43 


18 


83 


8 


91 


10 


14 


1 


Carroll 


27 


6 


62 


5 


67 


12 


7 


2 


Cecil -._.- 


12 


4 


18 




18 


2 


6 




Charles — -.. 


4 












2 


2 


Dorchester _ 


13 


6 


• 26 


9 


35 


5 


2 




Harford - 


73 


8 


14 




14 


10 


55 




Kent - 


14 


1 


2 




2 


1 


12 


....- 


Montgomery 


3 












3 




Queen Anne 


11 













2 


9 


Prince George's... 


4 












4 





St. Mary's .._ 


10 












10 





Somerset 


1 












1 




Talbot 


26 


2 


18 




18 


3 


21 




Wicomico - 


3 


1 


2 




2 


2 






Worcester 


1 












i 





Total 


298 


77 


320 


37 


357 


51 


164 


15 







56 Kkport of Maryland State Board 

VIOLATIONS AND PROSECUTIONS 

In 1921, as shown by Table 13-A, 126 children violated 
the Child Labor Law, of which number 89 were in Balti- 
more City and 37 in the counties; 66 of these worked 
without permits; 22 were under age; 13 worked in for- 
bidden occupations and 25 worked during forbidden hours. 

Twenty-five firms and 32 parents were prosecuted dur- 
ing 1921; 12 firms and 22 parents were convicted; 5 firms 
and 9 parents were dismissed. .The number of children 
involved in the prosecutions was 48. The fines in the 
convictions ranged from $1.00 to $5.00 and costs. 

Three firms involving 22 children were reported to the 
Federal Child Labor Bureau. 

In Table 15-A are shown the industries in which the 
violations occurred. The greatest number was in the cop- 
per and tin, canning and printing industries, where out of 
76 children employed, 50 or about 65 per cent were vio- 
lating the law. 

A summary of the total number of applications for all 
classes of peiTnits in Maryland is given in Table 16-A. 



OF Labor and Statistics 



57 



TABLE 13-A. 
VIOLATIONS. 



Nature of Violation 


Baltimore 

1 City 


Counties 


Total 


No certificate on file 


43 

13 

8 

25 


23 
9 
5 


66 


Under legal working age ". 

Forbidden occupations ....- 

Forbidden hours - 


22 
13 
25 


Total 


89 


37 


126 







TABLE 14-A. 
PROSECUTIONS. 





Prosecutions 


Convictions 


Dismissed 


d 


















0) 


^ ^ 


Baltimore 


^~t 


^-1 


=M 


m 


«rH 


=rH 


0-2 


City 


o 


O tr. 


o 


C M 


o . 


O W 


■;2 S 


og 


and 
Counties 




liber 
aren 


53^ 


umber 
Paren 




p 03 




— o 

Oj !h 




qU. 


trOn 


5* 


S^i^ 


5Dh 


o^ 






2 


2 


2 


"^ 


2 


A 


2; 


H 


Baltimore 


















City 


13 


25 


8 


16 


5 


9 


41 


38 


Counties 


7 


( 


4 


6 






7 


14 






Total 


20 


32 


12 


.22 


5 


9 


48 


52 







58 



Rbport OP' Maryland Stath Board 



TABLE 15-A. 

TABLE SHOWING VIOLATION OF CHILD LABOR LAW DIS- 
COVERED THROUGH INSPECTION OF THE VARIOUS 
INDUSTRIES IN BALTIMORE CITY 
DURING 1921. 



Industry 



O 

g 
12; 






C 
0) 

o a 



o 

>-( fi 1^ 

r^ QOtM 
o 



o 



'-t o 



s 

O t/3 

T-l 

3W 



Clothing- 

Retail 

Wholesale - 

Paper boxes -». 

Canning _ - 

Copper and tin 

Harness and leather 

Jewelry and silverware 

Foundry and machine shops 

Electrical contracting 

Printing and publishing 

Wooden boxes - 

Transportation 

Amusements - 

Miscellaneous _ 

Total 



10 
6 
3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
4 
3 
2 
2 
1 



43 



17 
6 
3 
6 

25 

30 
6 
3 
1 
1 

21 
5 
2 
2 
5 



14 
6 
3 
2 

19 

18 
3 
1 
1 
1 

13 
4 
1 
1 
2 



133 



89 



9 
6 
3 

2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
4 
2 
1 
1 
1 



38 



OF Labor and Statistics 



59 



w 



Q 






Em 
O 

w 

w 

<: 

►J 
o 



OS 






W 
tH 

O ffi 
^H 
^O 

<; 

o 

PL^ 

Oh 

o 

PQ 

^ 

•J 
<i 
H 
O 
Eh 

O 

I— I 

O 

w 



Ye-^oj^ pireao 



(5 3 

03«*H 






saSp^a 



s^iuuaj 



stioi^BOiiddv 



panssi saSp-eg 
puB s:)iuiiaj 



panssj s'^uaui 
-^T^^ 91 ■19^0 



apBJO 
M^JM passBj Sui 
-ABi{ :}ou uajpiii{3 
o^ panssj s^iuuaj 



panssj srjiui 
IBjauaf) AjBJoduiax 



panssj 
saSpBg ,Si?oqsAV9^ 



panssj 



panss'i 



O 00 

eg 00 

O r-< 






TO O 



o 



(M 



mo 

(MOO 


OS 




o 


OiO 

rHCq 


CTS 

00 


CO : 


(M 


9930 
1589 


i-H 


eoo 

■^00 


o 

CO 
CO 






CO 


eo 


00 


00 


=£> ; 


«o 


00 05 


t> 


(N(N 


lO 


0<M 


(M 


(N 


<N 


t><M 


OS 


rf -^ 


00 


C-00 


LO 




i-H 


00 ^ 


05 


oco 


CO 


00 CO 


-H 


Ti< 


uo 



o 



60 Report op Maryland State Board 

NEWSBOYS AND STREET TRADERS 

There were 964 violations dealt with in 1921, compared 
with 772 in 1920. These were reported through the fol- 
lowing agencies. 

TABLE 1. 

NEWSBOYS' AND STREET TRADERS' VIOLATIONS IN BAL- 
TIMORE CITY DURING 1921. 



Reported by Inspector 

Reported by Police Department 

Reported by School Attendance Department.. 
Reported by other sources 



Total. 



643 

241 

28 

52 



964 



The reason of the greater number of violations in 1921 
than 1920 is attributed to the lack of employment among 
the people, the children trying to earn a little money to 
help out. In a number of ca^s it was found that the 
only money the parents had coming in was what the 
children earned in selling papers and other articles. 

Of the 964 violations 241 were reported by the Police 
Department, 28 by School Department, 52 by other 
sources and 643 by the inspectors. Of these 964 viola- 
tions, 713 were for selling papers without a license; in 28 
of the 713 cases the boys were taken home, as they were 
found selling papers near their homes, the parents being 
warned of future violations ; the other^Sl violations were 
the following Distributing circulars, selling candy and 
other articles, selling after hours, selling after school 
hours, selling on route service badges, helpers on huckster 
wagons, bootblacks, selling flowers and other articles. 

Table No. 2 shows that 574 boys and 5 girls were sum- 
moned to appear at the bureau with one of their parents. 
Of these, 512 were released after being warned of future 
violations. Of the 579 summoned to the bureau, 62 had 
their licenses revoked; 41 had previously violated the 
law and 21 for the following reasons: Three for steal- 
ing, 5 for fighting, 5 for lending badge to other boys, 5 for 
gambling and begging, 3 for selling on route service 
badges ; these badges were revoked on first violations and 
5 of the boys were taken to the Juvenile Court. 



OF Labor and Statistics 



61 



TABLE 2. 
SUMMONED TO OFFICE WITH PARENTS AND WARNED. 



Selling without badge 

Selling after hours > 

Selling during school hours _ 

Seling on route service badge - 

Having unlicensed boys selling 

Misconduct in school _ 

Helpers on huckster wagons and bootblacks.. 

Lending badges to other boys 

Gambling and begging on street _..- 

Fighting on street _ 

Not wearing badge : 

Selling candy, gum, cards and flowers 

Stealing papers 

Selling after badge was revoked _.... 

Distributing circulars 

Girls selling papers ;.. 



Total. 



379 
79 

14 
8 

37 
3 
6 
5 
5 
5 
7 

18 
3 
1 
4 
5 



579 



-7- 



Parents or Guardians were notified b^^ letter in 357 
cases of violations, as set forth in Table No. 3, the greater 
number of these violations being* for selling papers with- 
out a badge. The parent or guardian is usually notified 
by letter if the boy is under the legal age to get a badge. 



TABLE 3. 
PARENTS NOTIFIED OF VIOLATIONS BY LETTER. 



Selling papers without license _ 

Distributing- circulars on street 

Selling candy, gum and other articles 
Not wearing badge in plain sight 

Total 



310 

4 
16 
27 



357 



62 



Report oi*" Maryland Statk Board 



TABLE 4. 
SUMMONED TO OFFICE, BADGES REVOKED 



Selling after hours.. 



Selling during school hours.. 
Selling on route badge 



No. 



Having unlicensed boys selling for them 



Playing crap and begging on street.. 



Lending badge to other boys.. 

Misconduct in school 

Fighting on street _ _. 



Stealing papers 



Not wearing badge. 



14 

4 
6 

16 



Time Revoked 



6 for 
3 " 



5 days 
10 " 



5 
2 
5 



TotaL :_ I 62 



3 


« 


30 


tt 


2 


it 


60 


it 


2 


n 


10 


tt 


2 


« 


30 


tt 


2 


<( 


30 


it 


3 


it 


2 


months 


1 


it 


3 


it 


7 


it 


.5 


days 


7 


a 


10 


tt 


2 


it 


30 


it 


2 


ii 


10 


it 


2 


it 


30 


tt 


1 


it 


2 


months 


5 


tt 


10 


days 


2 


it 


10 


it 


3 


n 


10 


tt 


1 


« 


30 


tt 


1 


<< 


6 months 


1 


« 


60 days* 


1 


it 


6 months 


1 


tt 


1 


year 


2 


tt 


5 


days 



62 



*Stealing another boy's check. 

TABLE 5. 
BOYS TAKEN TO JUVENILE COURT. 



Committed 1 To Cheltenham 

Paroled - 2 

Fined - i: Fined $1.45 

Total ; 5 



Forty-one homes were visited for the purpose of inter- 
viev/ing parents of boys v/ho failed to answer summons. 



OP Labor and Statistics 63 

Twelve newspaper agents were summoned to the bureau 
in reference to violations; 14 were notified by letter for 
having unlicensed boys selling and sei'ving for them. 

From the report of the Cumberland office of the Bureau, 
as shown by Table J., it is seen that there were 273 appli- 
cants for newsboys' badges, 229 of which secured the 
same and 44 were refused. The ages of the boys being 
granted the 229 licenses were as follows: Fifty-three 
were 12 years of age ; 63 were 13 ; 36 were 14 years of age ; 
33 were 15 years; 7 were 10 years and 37 were 11 years 
of age. The boys under 12 years of age receive only route 
servers badges ; these can only deliver papers but cannot 
sell them. There were 37 violations in 1921. The nature 
of the various violations was as follows: Twelve were 
unlicensed; 2 were selling after 8 P. M. ; 4 sold during 
school hours; 7 did not wear their badges; 5 supplied 
papers to unlicensed boys ; 5 had unlicensed boys to assist 
them; and 2 loaned their badges to other boys. Fifteen 
boys violating the law were warned on the street; the 
parents of 13 were notified; 2 had badges revoked and 
7 parents were visited. 



64 



Report op Maryland State Board 



AGE AND SEX OF CHILDREN WHO RECEIVED PERMITS TO 

APPEAR ON THE STAGE IN BALTIMORE 

CITY IN 1921. 



Age 



Male 



Female 



Total 



Per Cent 



5 years 

6 years 

7 years 

8 years 

9 years 
lu years 

11 years 

12 years 

13 years 

14 years 

15 years 

Total 



2 
2 
1 



1 
2 

4 
3 
4 
2 



21 



1 
3 
3 
3 
1 



9 

13 
1 

4 

2 



40 



1 
5 
5 
4 
1 
1 
11 
17 
4 



61 



1.0 
8.2 
8.2 
6.6 
1.6 
1.6 

18. 

27.9 
6.6 

13.1 
6.6 



100.0 



As will be seen by the table 80.3 per cent of these child- 
ren were under 14 years of age. 

Four permits were refused because the children did not 
have the proper certificates from other cities. 

Of the 61 permits issued 5 were for Colored males and 
3 for colored females. 



01-" liABOK AND STATISTICS 



65 



TABLE A. 

TABLE SHOWING NUMBER OF NEWSBOYS AND OTHER 
STREET TRADERS LICENSED IN BALTIMORE CITY 
AND CUMBERLAND IN 1921, CLASSI- 
FIED BY AGE. 



• 

Kind of Street Traders 


Age of Boys at Time 
of Licensing 


Grand 
Total 


Per 
Cent 


10 

|Yrs. 


11 

Yrs. 


12 

|Yrs. 


13 
Yrs. 


14 
Yrs. 


15 
Yrs. 


BALTIMORE CITY: 
Boys selling newspapers 
Boys selling newspapers 

and ether articles 

Route servers 


65 


119 


512 


548 


478 
47 


222 
37 


1760 

84 
184 


78 

3.7 

8.2 






Total _ _..... 


65 


119 


512 


548 


525 


259 


2028 


89.9 


* 

CUMBERLAND: 

Boys selling newspapers 

Route servers _ 


-j 


37 


■ 53 


63 


36 


33' 


185 
44 


8.2 
1.9 


Total „ 


1 '7 


37 


53 


63 


36 


33 


229 


10.1 


Grand total 


72 


156 


565 


611 


561 


292 


2257 


100.0 



66 



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71 



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OF Labor and Statistics 81 

INDUSTRIAL SURVEY BY THE WOMAN'S BUREAU 

Upon the invitation of Governor Ritchie, the Women's 
Bureau of the United States Department of Labor made 
an industrial sui-vey of the hours and working- conditions 
of women in Maryland during the latter part of the year 
1921. 

The sui*vey covered 240 establishments and included 
plants in Baltimore, Cumberland, Hagerstown, Annapolis, 
Sahsbury, Cambridge, Frostburg, Havre de Grace, Elkton, 
Lonaconing, Alberton, Oella, Luke, Ilchester and Parsons- 
burg, Of the plants visited 142 were located in the City 
of Baltimore and 98 in the rest of the State, and comprised 
manufacturing, mechanical and laundry establishments 
and restaurants. 

The repoi-t states that 14,097 women and girls were 
found at work in the 240 establishments visited, of which 
5.6 per cent were colored and 2.8 per cent were under 16 
years of age. The distribution of women was in the fol- 
lowing proportions: In manufacturing establishments, 
68.1 per cent; in mechanical establishments, 24.2 per cent; 
in laundries, 5.3 per cent, and in restaurants, 2.3 per cent. 
The largest group employed in any one of the manufac- 
turing industry was in the garment factories, which em- 
ployed 22.5 per cent. The nativity of 6,527 women was 
ascertained, of which only 6.0 per cent were found to be 
foreign-born. Of the 6,571 reporting their conjugal con- 
dition, 67.6 per cent were single, 18 per cent were married 
and 14.4 per cent widowed, divorced or separated. Of the 
6,720 reporting their living conditions 87.9 per cent were 
living at home and 12.1 per cent were hving independently. 
Of the 6,519 reporting their age 35.7 per cent were under 
20 years, 35.8 per cent were between 20 and 30 and 28.5 
per cent were over 30 years. 

The report is not at all favorable to the State of Mary- 
land in its findings, as it states that dangerous defects 
and unsanitary working conditions exist with serious 
strains and other handicaps in the majority of the places 
visited, which affect the efficiency of the woman worker. 
One of the most striking features of the report was that 
regarding fire hazards which, it was stated, existed in 148 
of the 240 places visited ; 81 of which were in the City of 
Baltimore. Other conditions complained of were the un- 
satisfactory cleaning of work rooms, crowded condition of 
workers, inadequate lighting and ventilation; lack of, or 



82 Rei'ort of Maryland State Board 

unsatisfactory seats; drinking water and washing facili- 
ties ; inadequate and insufficient number of toilets and bad 
condition of same. The report further states that there 
was a lack of lunch and rest rooms and facilities for wraps, 
with no first aid or hospital room or doctor and nurse in 
attendance in a number of the establishments visited. 

Among- the many different types of buildings in which 
the 240 fimis included in the sui'vey were located, 16 were 
used also as dwellings. Canneries were not included be- 
cause the time of the investigation was not coincident with 
the canning season. 

The law regulating the hours of labor for females in 
Maryland, Acts 1916, Chap. 147, Sec. 14, requires that no 
female shall be employed or permitted to work in any 
manufacturing, mechanical, mercantile, printing, baking 
or laundering establishment more than ten hours in any 
one day, nor more than sixty hours in any one week, nor 
more than eight hours in any one day, if any part of the 
work is done before six o'clock in the morning or after 
ten o'clock in the evening of the said day, nor shall any 
female be employed or permitted to work for more than 
six hours continuously at any one time in any of the 
aforesaid establishments in which three or more such per- 
sons are employed, without an intei'val of, at least, a half 
hour, except that such female may be so employed for not 
more than six and a half hours continuously at one time, 
if she shall not be permitted to work during the remainder 
of the day in her said employment." "But the provisions 
of this section shall not apply to females employed in the 
canning or preserving or preparing for canning or pre- 
serving of perishable fruits and vegetables." 

There is nothing in the act requiring fire escapes, sani- 
tary conditions, lighting or ventilating, neither is there in 
the Child Labor Law. 

The law relating to Workshops and Factories, Code 
.1904, Art. 27, Sec. 243, does require that all factories, 
manufacturing establishments or workshops in which cer- 
tain articles of clothing are made, shall be kept in a cleanly 
condition and free from any nuisance and shall have 500 
cubic feet of air space to each person employed and shall 
be well and sufficiently lighted and ventilated. This law is 
being enforced in everj^ particular by the inspectors of 
this bureau, which even goes further by requiring that all 
applicants for pemiits to make articles under the act, 



OF Labor and Statistics 83 

whose factory or workroom is above the second floor must 
provide proper fire escapes, and the attention of the Build- 
ing Inspector (whose duty it is to enforce this measure) 
is called to the case in question and the permits are with- 
held until the fire escapes are provided. While the law 
requiring Seats for Female Employees, Balto. City Code 
1906 (1900 Chap. 589), Sec. 505 places the enforcement 
under the Commissioner of Health, ordinance 1910-1911 
No. 547, Sec. 1, the inspectors of this bureau are instructed 
and do call the proprietor's attention to any such viola- 
tions and have found no trouble in having the law com- 
plied with. The law regulating the Hours of Employment 
for Females in certain kinds of establishments does not 
include women employed in all industries and this bureau 
was instrumental in having an amendment to the act pre- 
pared and introduced at the Session of 1922, so as to 
include women employed in any capacity except as 
domestics or in the canning or presei'ving of perishable 
fruits and vegetables, but the bill failed to pass. 

Another bill intending to establish an eight hour day 
for females was also introduced at this session and was 
also defeated. 

The above reference to these laws is made for the pur- 
pose of showing that the existing bad conditions as found 
and reported by the Federal authorities is not due to 
neglect in the enforcement of any existing laws, but to 
show that the necessary laws do not exist. 



84 REroRT OF Maryland State Board 

SYNOPSIS OF TEN HOUR LAW TABLES 

As shown by the Summary A*, 2,448 establishments 
in 1921 were inspected under the Ten Hour Law for 
Women in Baltimore City and the counties of Maryland, 
employing 42,218, compared with 2,003 inspections made 
in 1920 involving 43,265 women. This is an increase of 
445 in the number of inspections and a decrease of five in 
the average number employed in each establishment. Of 
the 2,448. inspections made 2,374 were in Baltimore City, 
employing 39,615, and 74 in the counties in which 2,603 
women were employed. 

As shown by Table B*, 1,124 of these establishments 
were engaged in manufacturing. These employed 27,910 
women. Of this number 2,260 worked in offices; 28 were 
in the salesrooms and 25,622 were in the workrooms. 

Of the number of women employed in manufacturing 
industries, 11,938, or about 42.8 per cent, worked on 
men's clothing; 3,525, or about 11.8 per cent, on women's 
clothing; 2,442, or about 8.7 per cent, in the manufactur- 
ing of cigar and cigarettes, and 10,000, or about 36.7 per 
cent, were employed in 21 other industries. 

There were 1,056 mercantile establishments inspected in 
1921, as shown by Table C*, employing 11,279 women. Of 
this number 3,787 were employed in offices ; 6,252 in sales- 
rooms and 1,240 in workrooms. Of the 11,279 women, 
5,469, or nearly half, worked in the department stores; 
2,191 in wholesale establishments; 848 in retail estab- 
lishments and the other 2771 in 16 other industries. 

In Table D* it is shown that 128 mechanical establish- 
ments employing 1,196 women were inspected ; 90 printing 
establishments employing 718 ; 10 bakeries employing 289 
and 40 laundries employing 826 women. 

It is shown by Table E* that of the 1,124 manufactur- 
ing establishments, 182 employed one woman; 325 from 
2 to 4; 171 from 5 to 9; 197 from 10 to 24; 193 from 25 
to 99 ; 53 from 100 to 499 and 3 estabhshments from 500 
to 1,000 women. 

Of the 1,056 mercantile establishments inspected, as 
shown by Table F*, 437 employed one woman; 350 from 
2 to 4 ; 135 from 5 to 9 ; 86 from 10 to 24 ; 32 from 25 to 
99; 13 from 100 to 499 and 3 establishments employed 
from 500 to 1,000 women. 



OF Labor and Statistics 85 

As shown by Table G*, of the 268 printing, mechanical, 
baking and laundering establishments, 92 employed 1 
woman ; 86 from 2 to 4 ; 45 from 5 to 9 women ; 24 from 
10 to 24 ; 14 from 25 to 99 ; 6 from 100 to 499 and 1 estab- 
lishment from 500 to 1,000 women. 

As shown by Table H*, of the 27,910 women employed 
daily in the 1,124 manufacturing establishments, 1,906 
worked less than 8 hours; 5,217 were employed 8 hours; 
9601 worked between 8 and 9 hours ; 7,467 were employed 

9 hours; 2,393 between 9 and 10 hours, and 1,326 were 
employed 10 hours. 

Table I shows the hours this same number of women 
worked on Saturdays. Of the 27,910 employed 25,082 
worked less than 8 hours; 89 eight hours; 49 between 8 
and 9 hours; 247 worked 9 hours, 5 ten hours and 2,438 
did not work on Saturdays. 

In Table J are shown the number of hours 10,976 women 
worked daily in 999 mercantile establishments, which do 
not keep open at night. Of this number 8,516 worked 
less than 8 hours; 1,469, 8 hours; 699 between 8 and 9; 
164 worked 9 hours; 92 between 9 and 10 hours; 14 
worked 10 hours and 22 did not work daily. On Satur- 
days 9,138 of these women worked less than 8 hours ; 715 
worked 8; 500 between 8 and 9; 116 worked 9; 302 be- 
tween 9 and 10; 175 were employed 10 hours and 30 did 
not work on Saturdays. 

Table K* shows that out of 303 w^omen employed daily 
in the 57 mercantile establishments which keep open as 
late as 10 o'clock at night, 87 were employed less than 8 
hours ; 115 worked 8 hours ; 48 were employed between 8 
and 9 hours ; 26 worked 9 hours ; 14 between 9 and 10 and 

13 did not work daily. On Saturdays these women worked 
as follows: 1,056 worked less than 8 hours; 124, 8 hours; 

10 between 8 and 9 and 3 worked 9 hours. 

In the 40 laundries, as shown by Table M*, 97 of the 
826 women worked daily less than 8 hours; 11 were em- 
ployed 8 hours ; 151 between 8 and 9 ; 71 were employed 9 
hours ; 495 between 9 and 10 and 1 did not work daily. 

On Saturdays 727 worked less than 8 hours; 16 were 
employed 8 hours ; 5 between 8 and 9 ; 14 worked 9 hours ; 

14 between 9 and 10 hours ; 1 worked 10 hours and 49 did 
not work on Saturdays. 

In Table N* it is shown that 318 out of the 1,007 women 
working daily in the 100 printing and baking establish- 
ments worked less than 8 hours; 134 were employed 8 



86 Kioi'ORT OF ^Iaryland Statk Board 

hours; 328 between 8 and 9 hours; 222 worked 9 hours 
and 5 between 9 and 10 hours. On Saturdays, 975 of 
these women worked less than 8 hours ; 16 worked 8 hours ; 
1, 10 hours, and 15 did not work on Saturdays. 

As shown by Table 0*, 334, or 82.6 per cent, of the 404 
manufacturing establishments reporting office force give 
their employees one hour for lunch. In the salesrooms, 
11 out of 13 establishments gave one hour for lunch. In 
the workrooms 424 of the 1,005 reporting gave one-half 
hours and 576 had an one-hour lunch period. 

Of the 770 mercantile establishments reporting office 
force, as shown by Table P*, about 90 per cent allowed 
one hour for lunch. In the 465 salesrooms two-thirds 
were allowed one hour for lunch and in the 143 workrooms 
about 63 per cent gave one hour, and about 26 per cent 
gave one-half hour. 

As shown in Table Q*, of the 52 mechanical establish- 
ments having office force, 48 had one hour for lunch; in 
the 81 workrooms 68 had one hour. In the offices of the 
54 printing establishments 37 gave one hour for lunch; 
in the 58 workrooms of these establishments 38 had one 
hour for lunch. All of the office force in the 10 bakeries 
had one hour for lunch ; in the salesrooms they had more 
than 1 hour and in the workrooms 5 had one-half hour and 
3 one hour. In the 29 offices of the 37 laundries, 21 had 
one hour for lunch and in the 21 workrooms 11 were 
allowed one-half hour and 7 one hour. 

It is shown in Table R* that in 808 of the 1,124 manu- 
facturing establishments work begins daily between 8 and 
9 o'clock; in 199 betwen 7 and 8, and in 11 work begins 
before 7 A. M. On Saturdays 717 begin between 8 and 9 ; 
184 between 7 and 8 ; 10 before 7 A. M. 

In Table S* is shown that 616 of the 1,056 mercantile 
establishments begin work daily betwen 9 and 10 A. M. ; 
399 between 8 and 9 ; 28 between 7 and 8, and in 13 work 
begins at 10. 

On Saturdays in 573 establishments work begins be- 
tween 9 and 10 ; in 376 between 8 and 9, and in 29 between 
7 and 8, and in 64 at 10 A. M. 

Sixty-four of the 128 mechanical establishments, as 
shown by Table T*, begin work daily between 9 and 10; 
60 between 8 and 9. On Saturdays the hours for begin- 
ning work in 65 establishments was between 9 and 10 ; 59 



OF Labor and Statistics 87 

between 8 and 9. More than one-half of the 90 printing 
estabhshments began work daily between 8 and 9; and 
about one-sixth between 7 and 8. The hours were the 
same on Saturdays. The majority of the 10 bakeries be- 
gan work daily and Saturdays between 8 and 9 A. M. 
Twenty-four out of the 40 laundries began work daily be- 
tween 8 and 9 A. M.; 11 between 7 and 8. On Saturdays 
16 out of the 40 began work about 10 A, M,, and 4 estab- 
lishments were closed. 

Over nine-tenths of the 1,124 manufacturing establish- 
ments, as shown by Table U*, closed daily between 5 and 
6 P. M. Over one-half of these establishments closed on 
Saturdays between noon and 1 P. M, ; about one-fourth 
between 1 and 3 P. M., and 113 were closed on Saturdays. 

About three-fourths of the 1,056 mercantile establish- 
ments closed between 5 and 6 P. M. daily; one-sixth be- 
tween 6 and 7 ; 34 close at 10 P. M. On Saturdays 465 
close between 1 and 3 P. M. ; 216 between 5 and 6 P. M. ; 
103 between 6 and 7, and 14 are closed on Saturdays. 

In the mechanical, printing, baking and laundering 
establishments the principal hour for closing daily was 
between 5 and 6 P. M., and on Saturdays about 33 per 
cent closed between 1 and 3 P. M.; about 17 per cent 
between 5 and 6 P. M., and about 26 per cent between noon 
and 1 P. M. 

There were 646 schedules sent out during 1921. 

There were 84 violations of firms not having schedules 
posted and two violations by firms in which were involved 
32 women working over 10 hours a day. Both firms were 
prosecuted and found guilty. Fines were reserved in both 
cases. 



88 



Report of Maryland Statr Board 



TABLE A* 
SUMMARY. 





No. of 
Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


1 

i Number of Females Employed 


Character of 
Establishments 


Office 


Sales- 
room 


Work- 
room 


Total 


Baltimore City 
Manufacturing 


1055 

1055 

127 

90 

10 

37 


2214 

3786 

311 

249 

39 

69 


28 

6252 

16 

3 


23117 
1240 
862 
469 
247 
713 


25359 


Mercantile 

Mechanical 


11278 
1189 


r rinting 

Bakeries 


718 
289 


Laundries 


782 


f 




Total 


2374 


6668 


6299 


23648 


39615 






Counties 
Manufacturing 


69 

1 
1 
3 


46 
1 




2505 

7 

44 


2551 


Mercantile - 

Mechanical 

Laundries 


1 

7 
44 


Total 


74 


47 





2556 


2603 






Grand Total 


2448 


6715 


6299 


29204 


42218 


, . ,, . «, 





OF Labor and Statistics 



89 



TABLE B* 

SHOWING NUMBER OF WOMEN EMPLOYED DURING NOR- 
MAL SEASON IN BALTIMORE CITY AND THE COUN- 
TIES OF MARYLAND IN MANUFACTUR- 
ING ESTABLISHMENTS IN 1921. 



Character of 
Establishments 



Number of Females Employed 



No. of 
Estab- 
lish- 
ments 



Office 



Sales- 
room 



Work- 
room 



Total 



Baltimore City 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Paper products 

Cigars and tobacco 

Confectionery _ 

Drugs and chemicals 

Food preparations 

Hats and caps (felt and 
woolen) 

Straw hats 

Mattresses, bedding, etc 

Textile 

Boots and shoes 

Artificial flowers 

Brooms, brushes and hair- 
work 

Corks, seals & bottle caps 

Cigar boxes 

Furniture, including pianos 
and other musical in 
struments 

Glass and pottery 

Jewelry and silverware 

Fur garments 

Copper and tin specialties... 

Lumber and millwork 

Iron, steel, foundry and 
machine shop 

Miscellanecub 



471 
178 
16 
29 
24 
15 
16 

20 

7 
2 
23 
8 
1 

2 

3 

10 



14 
8 
10 
17 
20 
3 

29 
129 



Total 1 1055 



638 
79 
26 

213 
61 
78 
82 

4 
37 
11 
67 
15 



110 

7 



37 

25 

20 

6 

121 



209 
362 



2214 



3 

3 



28 



9315 

3443 

346 

2125 

1232 

403 

217 

116 
971 

10 

1376 

186 

31 

19 
228 
101 



42 

123 

9 

57 

1065 

1 

130 

1571 



2311"? 



9953 

3525 

372 

2338 

1296 

481 

302 

120 

1009 

21 

1443 

201 

31 

19 

338 
108 



79 

148 

36 

72 

1186 

7 

339 
1935 



25359 



90 



Rbi'ort op Maryland State Board 



TABLE B*— (Continued.) 





No. of 
Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Number of Females Employed 


Character of 
Establishments 


Office 


Sales- 
room 


Work- 
room 


Total 


Counties 
Men's clothing 


47 

7 

10 

1 

4 


7 

5 

34 


TZ 


1978 

104 

289 

12 

122 


1985 


Cigars and tobacco .. . 


104 


Textile 


294 


Tin decorating _ 

Miscellaneous 


12 
156 






Total 


69 


46 




2505 


2551 






Grand Total „ 


1124 


2260 


28 


25622 


27910 



OF Labor and Statistics 



91 



TABLE C*. 

SHOWING NUMBER OF WOMEN EMPLOYED DURING NOR- 
MAL SEASON IN MERCANTILE ESTABLISHMENTS 
IN BALTIMORE CITY AND THE COUNTIES 
OF MARYLAND DURING 1921. 



" 


No. of 
Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Number of Females Employed 


Character of 
Establishments 


Office 


Sales- 
room 


Work- 
room 


Total 


Baltimore City 

Departm.ent stores _ 

5c and 10c stores 


22 

11 

81 

27 

14 

26 

50 

37 

26 

56 

10 

26 

"23 

55 

5 

16 

1 

404 

165 


820 

16 

84 

42 

5 

42 

26 

3 

92 

141 

2 

38 

79 

123 

2 

33 

2 

1633 

603 


4264 

349 

454 

170 

38 

126 

159 

86 

17 

58 

23 

31 

82 

10 

10 

185 
190 


385 
153 

4 

44 

148 

6 

36 

26 

10 

373 
55 


5469 
365 


Ready-to-wear clothing 

Boots and shoes 


691 
212 


Drv eocds 


43 


Drugs 


172 


Confectionery _ 

Millinery * _ 

Groceries 

Furniture 


229 
237 
115 
235 


Retail bakeries 


25 


Jewelry and silverware 

Stationery 


69 

187 


Auto and auto supplies 

Leather sroods 


123 

12 


Food nreparations 


53 


Transportation 


2 


Wholesale stores 


2191 


Other retail stores 


848 






Total 


1055 


3786 


6252 


1240 


11278 


Counties 
Transportation 


1 


1 






1 






Total 


1 


1 


1 




1 


Grand Total 


1 10% 
1 


37P7 

\ 


3252 


1240 


11279 



92 



RwroRT OF Maryland States Board 



TABLE D*. 

SHOWING NUMBER OF WOMEN EMPLOYED IN MECHAN- 
ICAL ESTABLISHMENTS BASED ON NORMAL SEA- 
SON IN BALTIMORE CITY AND THE COUN- 
TIES OF MARYLAND DURING 1921. 



• 


No. of 
Estab- 
lish- 
ments 


Number of Females Employed 


Character of 

Establishments 


Sales- 
Office room 


Work- 
room 


Total 


Baltimore City 

Hairdressing 

Electrical contracting 

Cleaning and pressing 

Dress plaiting 


27 
19 
32 
7 
20 
22 


3 

43 
14 

212 
39 


16 


141 

40 

29 

61:3 

29 


144 
43 
70 
29 


Telegraph and telephone... 
Miscellaneous 


835 
68 










Total 


127 


311 


16 


862 


1189 


Printing & engraving, etc. 

Total - 

Bakeries 






90 


249 




469 


718 


90 


249 




469 


718 


10 


39 


3 


247 


289 


Total 




10 


39 


3 


247 


289 








Laundries 


37 


69 




713 


782 






• Total 


• 37 


69 




713 


782 


Grand total for Balto. City 


264 


668 


19 


2291 


2978 


Counties 
Telegraph 


1 
3 






7 
44 


7 


Laundries 


44 


Total 






4 






51 


51 


Grand Total 


268 


668 


19 


2342 


3029 







OF Labor and Statistics 



93 



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94 



Kp:i'ort of Maryland State Board 



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111 



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01' Labor and Statistics 



113 



TABLE O*. 

SHOWING LENGTH OF LUNCH PERIOD IN THE 1055 MANU- 
FACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS INSPECTED IN 
BALTIMORE CITY AND THE COUNTIES 
OF MARYLAND, BASED ON NOR- 
MAL SEASON IN 1921. 



Length of Lunch Period 


Number of Establishments 


Office 


Salesroom 


Workroom 


BALTIMORE CITY 
One-half hour 


50 

327 

17 

2 


11 
2 


395 


One hour 


538 


More than 1 hour 


5 


No lunch hour .. .. 








jTotal number reporting... 
No force 


396 
659 


13 
1042 


938 
117 






Total - 


1055 


1055 1055 


COUNTIES 

One-half hour 

One hour 


1 

7 




29 
38 


* 

Total number reporting... 


8 





67 


No force . .. 


61 


69 


2 






Total 


69 


69 


69 


Grand Total 


1124 


1124 


1124 







114 



Report of Maryland State Board 



TABLE P*. 

SHOWING LENGHT OF LUNCH PERIOD IN THE 1055 MER- 
CANTILE ESTABLISHMENTS INSPECTED IN BAL- 
TIMORE CITY AND THE COUNTIES OF 
MARYLAND, BASED ON THE NOR- 
MAL SEEASON IN 1921. 



Number of Establishments 



Length of Lunch Period 








Office 


Salesroom 


Workroom 


BALTIMORE CITY 

One-half hour - 

One hour 


16 
693 

57 
3 


31 
308 

97 
29 


38 
92 


More than 1 hour 


If 


No lunch hour 








Total number reporting... 
No force - - 


769 
28.6 


465 
590 


143 
912 


Total - 


1055 


1055 


1055 


COUNTIES 

One hour _ 

No force 


1 


• 

i 


1 






Total - 

Grand Total 


1 
1056 


1 

1056 


1 
1056 















OF Labor and Statistics 



115 



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116 



Rei'ort of Maryland State Board 



TABLE R*. 

SHOWING EARLIEST HOUR WOMEN BEGIN WORK DAILY 
AND ON SATURDAYS IN THE 1055 MANUFACTUR- 
ING ESTABLISHMENTS INSPECTED IN BAL- 
TIMORE CITY AND THE COUNTIES 
OF MARYLAND IN 1921. 



Hours for Beginning 


Work 


Number of 
Establishments 


Daily 


Saturdays 


Before 7 A. 


BALTIMORE CITY 

M 


1 

147 

801 

101 

5 


1 


7 to 7.59 A 


M 




137 


8 to 8.59 A. 


M 




710 


9 to 9.59 A. 


M. 




88 


10 A. M. and after 


6 


Establishments closed 


113 










Total . 


1055 


1055 






Before 7 A. 


COUNTIES 
M 




10 

52 

7 


9 


7 to 7.59 A. 


M 




47 


8 to 8.59 A. 


M. .._ 




7 


Establishments closed 


6 










Total 


69 


69 




rotal 






Grand ' 


1124 


1124 











OF Labor and Statistics 



117 



TABLE S*. 

SHOWING EARLIEST HOUR WOMEN BEGIN WORK DAILY 
AND ON SATURDAYS IN THE 1055 MERCANTILE 
ESTABLISHMENTS INSPECTED IN BALTI- 
MORE CITY AND THE COUNTIES 
OF MARYLAND IN 1921. 



• 

Hours for Beginning 


Work 


Number of 
Establishments 


Daily 


Saturdays 


BALTIMORE CITY 
7 to 7.59 A. M 


28 
399 
615 

13 


29 


8 to 8.59 A. M _....- _ _ 


376 


9 to 9.59 A. M _.. 

10 A. M. and after _. _ _ 


572 
64 


Establishments closed 




14 


Total... 


1055 


1055 






COUNTIES 
9 to 9.59 A. M 


- - 


1 


1 


Grand Total 


1056 


1056 







118 



Rki'ORT of Maryland State Board 



TABLE T*. 

SHOWING EARLIEST HOUR WOMEN BEGIN TO WORK 
DAILY AND ON SATURDAYS IN CERTAIN MECHAN- 
ICAL, PRINTING, BAKING AND LAUNDERING ES- 
TABLISHMENTS IN BALTIMORE CITY AND THE 
COUNTIES OF MARYLAND, BASED ON 
NORMAL SEASON IN 1921. 





Number of Establishments 




Daily 


Saturdays 


Hours of Beginning- Work 


o 

'S 

u 


be 


m 

(V 

a 

m 


C 

a 


15 


c 




c 


BALTIMORE CITY 
Before 7AM 


3 

60 

64 


15 
52 
23 


1 
1 
7 
1 


1 
11 
24 

1 


3 
59 
65 


15 
51 
23 

1 


1 
1 

8 


1 


7 to 7.59 A. M 


8 


8 to 8 59 A M 


6 


9 to 9 59 A. M 


2 


10 A M and after 


16 


Establishments closed 


4 


Total 


127 


90 


10 


37 


127 


90 


10 


37 






COUNTIES 
7 to 7.59 A. M. . ... 


1 






2 
1 


1 


' 




2 


8 to 8.59 A M 


1 






Total 


1 






3 


1 






3 






Grand Total 


128 


90 


10 


40 


128 


90 


10 


40 







OF Labor and Statistics 



119 



TABLE U*. 

SHOWING LATEST HOUR WOMEN STOP WORK DAILY AND 
ON SATURDAYS IN THE MANUFACTURING ESTAB- 
LISHMENTS INSPEECTED IN BALTIMORE 
CITY AND THE COUNTIES OF MARY- 
LAND, BASED ON NORMAL 
SEASON IN 1921. 



Hours for Stopping Work 



Number of 
Establishments 



Daily I Saturdays 



BALTIMORE CITY 

Before 12 M 

Between 12 and 12.59 P. M 

Between 1 and 3.59 P. M 

Between 4 and 4.59 P. M 

Between 5 and 5.59 P. M 

Between 6 and 6.59 P. M 

Between 7 and 8.59 P. M 

Between 9 and 9.59 P. M 

10 P. M. and after 

Establishments closed 





15 


1 


605 


1 


252 


46 


17 


966 


43 


32 


8 


2 




1 


1 


2 


1 




113 



Total.. 




1055 



COUNTIES 

Before 12 M 

Between 12 and 12.59 P. M.. 

Between 1 and 3.59 P. M 

Between 4 and 4.59 P. M 

Between 5 and 5.59 P. M 

Between 6 and 6.59 P. M 

jiistablishments closed 



Total. 



Grand Total 





6 




55 




1 


1 




59 


1 


9 






6 


69 


69 


1124 


1124 



120 



Rri'ort op Maryland Statk Board 



TABLE V*. 

SHOWING LATEST HOUR WOMEN STOP WORK DAILY AND 
ON SATURDAYS IN THE MERCANTILE ESTABLISH- 
MENTS INSPECTED IN BALTIMORE CITY 
AND THE COUNTIES OF MARYLAND 
BASED ON NORMAL SEASON 
IN 1921. 



Hours for Stopping Work 


Number of 
Establishments 


Daily 


Saturdays 


BALTIMORE CITY 
Before 12 M 


4 

21 

810 

173 

7 

6 

34 


1 


Betwen 12 and 12.59 P. M 


78 


Between 1 and 3.59 P. M 


465 


Between 4 and 4.59 P. M. .. 


15 


Between 5 and 5.59 P. M. 


216 


Between 6 and 6.59 P. M _ 

Between 7 and 8.59 P. M 


103 
21 


Between 9 and 9.59 P. M 


47 


10 P. M. and after 


95 


Establishments closed 


14 






Total 


1055 


1055 






COUNTIES 
Between 4 and 4.59 P. M. 


i 


1 


Between 5 and 5.59 P. M. 








Total -..'. 


1 


1 






Grand Total _ ^ 


1056 


1056 



OP Labor and Statistics 
TABLE W*. 



121 



SHOWING LATEST HOUR WOMEN STOP WORK DAILY AND 
ON SATURDAYS IN CERTAIN MECHANICAL, PRINT- 
ING, BAKING AND LAUNDERING ESTAB- 
LISHMENTS IN BALTIMORE CITY AND 
THE COUNTIES OF MARYLAND 
BASED ON NORMAL SEA- 
SON IN 1921. 





Number of Establishments 




Daily 


Saturdays 


Hours for Stopping' Work 


13 
'2 


Ph 


A! 


in 

C 

3 
03 


13 

'S 

(1) 


c 

Ph 


03 


m 

u 

c 

3 


BALTIMORE CITY 

Before 12 M 

Between 12 & 12.59 P. M. 
Between 1 and 3.59 P. M. 
Between 4 and 5.59 P. M. 
Between 5 and 5.59 P. M. 
Between 6 and 6.59 P. M. 
Between 7 and 8.59 P. M. 
Between 9 and 9.59 P. M. 
10 P. M and after 


10 
92 

24 

1 


i 

4 
85 


6 
3 
1 


22 
15 


■■■24 

42 

2 

38 

20 

1 


6 
43 
36 

1 
3 

1 


"i 
5 

2 

1 

1 


■ 2 
3 

■4" 
4 

16 
4 


Establishments closed 


4 


Total 


127 


90 


10 


37 


127 


90 


10 


37 






COUNTIES 
Between 12 & 12.59 P. M. 
J^etween 1 and 3.S9 P. M. 
Between 4 and 4.59 P. M. 
Between 5 and 5.59 P. M. 
10 P. M 


1 






i 

2 


1 






1 
1 
1 






Total 


1 






3 


1 






3 






Grand Total 


128 


90 


10 


40 


128 


90 


10 


40 







122 Report of Maryland State Board 

FACTORY INSPECTION LAW 

The inspectors of this bureau made 1,666 inspections 
under the Factory Inspection Law in Baltimore City in 
1921, involving 24,923 persons, compared with 1,426 
inspections made in 1920 in which were found 27,002 em- 
ployed. This is an increase of 240 in the number of inspec- 
tions made in 1921, but a decrease of 2,079 in the number 
of persons employed. Of the 1,666 inspections, 1,439 were 
regular inspections of workshops; 39 were re-inspections 
and 197 were inspections of homeworkers' establishments. 

Of the 24,923 persons employed, 9,371 were males and 
15,016 females over 16 years, and 64 males and 472 
females were under 16. 

About 27 per cent of the 24,923 were employed in the 
manufacture of men's and boys' cotton clothing; 22 per 
cent in the men's and boys' cotton and woolen clothing 
industry ; about 19 per cent were engaged in making men's 
and boys' woolen clothing and about 11 per cent in the 
manufacture of women's and children's cotton clothing. 
The other 21 per cent were divided among 12 different 
industries. 

In Table B it is shown that 457 of the inspections were 
made in manufacturing establishments; 312 contractors; 
423 custom-tailors and 238 were cleaning and dyeing 
establishments. 

One license was revoked in 1921, because of unsanitary 
conditions in the establishment. This condition was later 
remedied and a new license was issued. 

Table C shows that 52 establishments were inspected 
in the counties of Maryland during 1921 in which were 
engaged 1,861 persons. This is an increase of 24 inspec- 
tions in 1921 over 1920 and an increase in the number of 
people employed. 

All of these establishments were engaged in manu- 
facturing. 

Of the 1861 persons employed 156 were males and 1,701 
were females over 16 years of age. 



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125 



TABLE C. 

SHOWING NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS INSPECTED UN- 
DER THE FACTORY INSPECTION LAW IN THE 
COUNTIES, NATURE OF PLACES INSPECTED 
AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES IN 
EACH CLASS IN 1921. 



Industrial Nature of 
Places Listed 



to 


Number of Employees 








Over 16 


Under 16 










js-^ 










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a;— +J 




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Men's and boys' cotton 

clothing 

Cigars and cigarettes 

Total _ 



43 


33 


1595 




4 


9 


123 


106 






52 


156 


1701 




4 



1632 
229 



1861 



]^6 Rki-ort of Maryland State Board 

STEAM BOILER AND BOARD OF BOILER RULES 

INSPECTIONS 

The results of the enforcement of the Steam Boiler 
Inspection Law, which requires the inspection of all sta- 
tionary steam boilers of three horsepower and upward, 
located within the City of Baltimore, and the enforcement 
of the Board of Boiler Rules, which re<}uires that all 
boilers over 15 pounds to the square inch installed within 
the State after January 1st, 1921, shall be constructed and 
installed in conformity to the Boiler Code of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, are shown by Table 
No. 1. 

As shown by this table there were 258 inspections made 
during the fiscal year ending September 30th, 1921, of 
which 92 were inspections of old boilers, under the Steam 
Boiler Inspection Law, located in the City of Baltimore, 
that do not cany insurance ; 74 were new installations in 
the City of Baltimore under the Board of Boiler Rules 
and 92 were new installations in the counties of the State 
under the same law. The table shows the date of inspec- 
tion, number of the boiler, number of certificate, location, 
condition at time of inspection, pressure allowed, amount 
paid for inspection and the name of the owner of plant. 

The amount collected for inspections under both laws, 
as shown by this table was. $1,539.50, and the amount 
received for stamping boilers in stock prior to January 
1st, 1921, under the Board of Boiler Rules, was $77.50, 
making a total of $1,617.00. 

Table No. 2 shows the amounts paid the State by the 
Boiler Insurance companies by months, the total of which 
is $1,303.00, making the total receipts for the year under 
both laws $2,920.00. 

Seventeen States and twelve cities have now adopted 
the boiler code of the American Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers, whose efforts, directed from the national head- 
quarters of the society in New York, aim at regulating 
conditions which, it is declared, already have cost this 
country thousands of lives and millions in money. The 
perils hidden in steam boilers, engineers say, are greater 
than those inherent in dynamite and other high explosives. 
Standards of design and construction as laid down by this 
code are reforms which are vitally necessary and points 
to the lessening of industrial accidents. The adoption of 



OF Labor and Statistics 127 

the code by the rest of the States, it is thought, is only a 
matter of a short time. The States that have adopted the 
code are New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, 
Michigan, California, Missouri, Arkansas, Oregon, Rhode 
Island, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Ohio, Indiana, Oklahoma, 
and Maryland. The cities include Philadelphia, Detroit, 
Erie, Kansas City, St. Louis, St. Joseph, Mo.; Nashville, 
Scranton, Pa.; Seattle, and Pittsburgh, Pa.; Chicago, 111., 
and Memphis, Tenn. 

There was one violation found under the Boiler Inspec- 
tion Law, and upon being prosecuted was dismissed upon 
the payment of costs. 



128 



Keport op Maryland State Board 



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OF Labor and Statistics 



129 






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OF Labor and Statistics 141 

STATE MINING INSPECTION 

The following' summaries are taken from the report of 
the Mining Inspector of Maryland for the year ending 
May 1st, 1921, which is the forty-fifth annual report of 
that department: 

COAL PRODUCTION. 

The total production of coal for Allegany county during 
the year was 2,635,365 tons, being an increase of 475,077 
tons over the previous year, and the total production in 
Garrett county was 789,069 tons, or an increase of 34,668 
tons over 1920. In addition to the coal mined in Allegany 
county there was a production of 54,719 tons of fire clay 
for the year, being an increase of 4,050 tons over 1920. 

The total tonnage of coal and clay mined in the State 
was 3,479,153 in 1921, compared with 2,965,358 in 1920, 
showing an increase of 513,795 tons, or 17 1/3 per cent. 
This does not reach the total tonnage of 1919 (which was 
3,716,559) by 237,406 tons. 

In Allegany county there was a production of 1,003 
tons of coal for each miner employed, and Garrett county 
showed a production of 926 for each miner employed dur- 
ing the year, while the production of clay was 760 tons 
for each miner employed. 

Allegany county employed during the year 2,626 miners, 
854 drivers, 569 inside laborers and 664 outside laborers, 
making a total of 4,213 men, being an increase of 47 men 
as compared with 1920. 

The number of men employed in Garrett county during 
the year was 852 miners, 116 drivers, 191 outside laborers 
and 167 inside laborers, making* a total of 1,326 men, or 
an increase of 265 over 1920. 

In Allegany county there was 439,227 tons of coal pro- 
duced for each fatal accident, and in Garrett county there 
was 789,069 tons produced for each fatal accident during 
the year. 

The clay mines in Allegany county employed 72 miners, 
14 drivers, 43 outside and 20 inside employees, making a 
total of 149 men, which is a decrease of 3 men compared 
with 1920. 

There were seven fatal accidents during the year, only 
one of which was in Garrett county. There were 280 non- 



142 Riji'ORT OF Maryland State Board 

fatal accidents in Allegany county and 104 in Garrett 
county, a detailed report of '\\hich is given. 

The report gives the name and location of the different 
mines, date of inspection, names of genei'al manager, su- 
perintendent and mine foreman, by counties, also the 
address of the principal office, name and address of presi- 
dent and secretary. 

A detail account of the tonnage produced by each mine 
is given and the name of the coal seam worked. 

A list of improvements is shown by mines, also a de- 
scription of the mines and other valuable infomiation. 

STRIKES 

Our Federal Government after carefully compiling the 
figures of wages lost in this country during the year 1920, 
to men on strike, estimated the total loss to be the stupen- 
dous sum of $4,000,000,000. After eliminating six national 
holidays and 52 Sundays, it would mean a loss of $13,000,- 
000 for every working day. 

The cost of strikes and lockouts during the year 1921, 
as estimated by the Federal Department of Labor was 
$5,000,000,000 or $1,000,000,000 more than the estimate 
for 1920. 

The audit made public by Peter Monat, secretary-treas- 
urer of the New York Joint Board of the Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers of America, shows that the 22 weeks' 
strike in the New York market, which ended June 1st, and 
a number of individual walk-outs cost the union alone 
nearly $2,000,000. This does not include lost wages. The 
workers still are burdened, striving by weekly assessments 
to pay off a $250,000 strike fund deficit. The expense to 
manufacturers who lost their spring season production is 
estimated at $20,000,000. 

While the workers and employers share the largest pro- 
portion of the loss, the cost to the public indirectly is 
known to have been very great, but cannot be estimated 
within a reasonable degree of accuracy. A propaganda to 
convince workers and employers that mediation should be 
undertaken in every case before work is stopped or the 
workers locked out, now is being carried on in all sections 
of the country by the Bureau of Mediation and Concilia- 
tion. The bureau is working through its 30 mediators 
located in all big industrial centers. Ift several of these 



OF Labor and Statistics 143 

centers this propaganda has resulted in a steady decrease 
in the number of strikes, Government officials say. Offi- 
cials of the clothing union contend that the big clothing 
strike could have been avoided if the manufacturers had 
arbitrated at first, instead of at the end of the long con- 
flict, invQlving nearly 60,000 workers in the men's cloth- 
ing trade. 

According to a study of industrial absenteeism on file 
in the Labor iDepartment, illness, injury from accident and 
"personal" reasons now cause the average industrial 
worker to lose 20 days a year from work. There are 
approximately 13,000,000 workers now regularly employed 
in industrial pursuits, Secretary Davis estimated. On this 
basis, loss of time from illness and personal causes means 
the loss to industry annually of 260,000,000 days of work. 
On the basis of an average wage of $5.00 per day, the 
financial loss to workers from causes other than strikes is 
$1,300,000,000 a year. Because of the economic depres- 
sion and pai-t-time operation of most mills and factories, 
unemployment during 1920 and 1921 has cost workers 
nearly $10,000,000,000, according to estimates made for 
the National Conference on Unemployment. 

Despite economic depression and widespread unemploy- 
ment, strikes seemed to have been almost as common 
throughout the country in 1921 as in the preceding year, 
when factories were operating at full time and the num- 
ber of workers w^as less than the number of jobs. This 
condition did not apply to Maryland, however, as there 
were only about half the number of strikes throughout 
the State in 1921 as compared with 1920. 

There were eleven strikes in Maryland during the year 
1921, compared with 21 in 1920; 22 in 1919, and 37 in 
1918. 

Of the eleven strikes only two were of any great im- 
portance, as to the number involved, duration and money 
loss, and they were the Printers' strike, which occurred on 
May 1st, involving about 400 persons, and continued until 
December 31st without reaching an agreement. The other 
was the Marine Workers' strike, which started at the same 
time, May 1st, and continued until June 1st. There were 
about 600 men involved in this strike and practically tied 
up the shipping interests of the port of Baltimore. 

The following table gives the name and location of the 
employing Company, where the striks occurred, date of 



144 Report op Maryland State Board 

beginning and ending, duration of strike, number involved, 
number of working days lost, estimated loss in wages and 
to the firms, whether organized or unorganized, result 
and cause given for the strike. The table also shows that 
of the 11 strikes, one was successful, 4 partly successful, 
4 were unsuccessful and 2 were not settled at the close of 
.the year. The total number involved in the 11 strikes 
was 2,443, the number of working days lost was 146,276, 
the estimated loss in wages was $490,050 and the loss to 
the firms was $291,600. The cause given for nine of the 
strikes was because of -reduction in wages, one was because 
of a demand for a reduction in hours and an increase in 
pay being refused, and one was because of a demand for 
a renewal of an agreement. Following the table is a 
detailed account of each strike in the order in which they 
occurred : 



OF Labor and Statistics 



145 



Cause Given 

for 

Strike 


Reduction in pay 
of 18c per hour 


Reduction of 12 V2 
per cent in pay 


Reduction in 
wages 


Demand . of 44- 
hour week, in- 
stead of 48, and 
$10 per week in- 
crease in pay. 


Reduction in 
wages 


Reduction in pay 
from $1.12 Va to 
95c 




Result of 
Strike 


Nf settle- 
ment, men 
secured 
work else- 
where. 


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Wages, $9,000 
Firms, $5,000 


Wages, $55,000 
Firms, $10,000 


Wages $50 
Firms, $100 


Wages, $200,000 
Firms, $100,000 


Wages, $30,000 
Firms, $50,000 


Wages, $6,000 
Firms, $5,000 


Working 
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Dui*ation of 

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Working IDays 


24 days out 
of work 


68 days out 
of work 




210 days 


26 days 


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Date of Begin- 
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Jan. 11 to 

Feb. 7 


Feb. 24 to 

May 14 


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5. Marine Workers' 

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146 



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Reduction in 
wages 


Renewal of pre- 
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agreement 


9 because of re- 
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1 demand of re- 
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pay 

1 demand for re- 
newal of agree- 
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Result of 
Strike 


Partly 
successful 


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Estimated 
Loss 


Wages, $38,000 
Firms, $10,000 


Wages, $100,000 
Firms, $10,000 


Wages, $50,000 • 
Firms, $100,000 


Wages, $1,000 
Firm, $1,000 


Wages, $1,000 
Firm, $500 


Wages, $490,050 
Firms, $291,600 


Working 
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43 females 


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July 11 


June 1 to 

Aug. 30 


June 11 to 

July 11 


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Dec. 21, 1921 
Jan. 12, 1922 




Name of Company 

and 

Location 


7. Pipefitters & Build- 
ing Trades, Balti- 
more 




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OF Labor and Statistics 147 

SHIPBUILDERS' STRIKE 

About fifty boilermakers, riveters and ship caulkers of 
the Union Shipbuilding Company at Faii-field quit work 
on January 11th, following an announcement by the com- 
pany that their pay would be cut 18 cents an hour. While 
the strike has not been settled, most of the men secured 
positions elsewhere. The report of loss to the Shipbuild- 
ing Company was approximately $5,000, and the loss sus- 
tained by the men is estimated at $9,000. 

IRON MOLDERS' STRIKE 

About 168 iron molders employed by four Baltimore 
firms went on a strike on February 24th by an order issued 
by the officials of their local union, because of a reduction 
of 121/2 pel' cent in wages. It was stated that the molders 
had been receiving a minimum wage of $8.00 per day. 

The strike lasted until May 14th, when the men returned 
to work, most of them agreeing to a reduction in wages. 

The estimated loss in wages was fixed at $55,000, while 
the loss to the firms was approximated at $10,000. 

BARBERS' STRIKE 

Union Ijarbers in three of the down-town shops of Bal- 
timore City, involving about 28 men, went on a strike on 
April 14th. The men were told that their wages would 
be reduced $3.00 per week, the average wage being about 
$24.00, and as they refused to accept the reduction it 
resulted in the closing of two of the larger shops. 

The proprietors reached an agreement with' their men 
the next day whereby they were to return to work on 
non-union basis, it was stated. For refusing to adhere to 
the union scale of wages President' A. Adler of local No. 
219 was fined $500 and 28 journeymen $100 each, all to 
remain suspended until the fines were paid. Mr. Adler 
made a statement in which the "boss barbers" told the 
barbers in the down-town shops that they must accept a 
pay of $19 per week and half of all the money they took 
in over $30. They had been getting $20 per week and 
half of all they took in over $28. Mr. Adler and the rest 
of the barbers agreed with the bosses and nearly all of 
the men returned to work the next day. 

The estimated loss to the employers is $100, while the 
barbers claim that only about $50 was lost in wages, and 
the loss to the finiis is estimated at $100. 



148 Report op Maryland State Board 

PRINTERS' STRIKE 

The printers' strike, which had been threatening for sev- 
eral weeks and scheduled to take effect May 1st, became 
an actual fact on Monday, May 2d, when between 300 and 
400 members of the Typographical Union went on a strike 
in Baltimore City, involving about 100 shops. The printers' 
strike was not confined to Baltimore, but was nation-wide, 
and was reported to involve about 10,000 members of the 
International Typographical Union. The printers claimed 
that an agreement was made in December last year 
between the employers and the union heads whereby 44 
hours was to constitute a week's work, and the employers 
maintained that no such agreement was reached. The 
only discussion on this point, the employers claimed, was 
their promise that should 50 per cent of the cities through- 
out the country adopt the 44-hour week, Baltimore would 
fall in line. 

In addition to a reduction from 48 to 44 hours per week, 
the printers also asked for an increase in pay from $40 to 
§50 per week. 

It was stated that the agreement as to pay provided 
that an adjustment would be made up or down in propor- 
tion to the cost of living. According to this agreement 
the pressmen were granted an increase of 7 8/10 per cent 
last September. The new period of adjustment was March 
1st, and Chief Judge Morris A. Soper of the Supreme 
Bench was chosen by the workers and employers to settle 
the wage dispute, and as he decided on April 7th that the 
cost of living had decreased, wages were cut 10 per cent, 
to take effect March 1st to May 1st. It was' stated that 
members of the Typographical and Pressmen's Union were 
being assessed a certain percentage of their wages to sup- 
port the strike, and that the Union had decided to pay 
strike benefits to those who f aile dto go to work as follows : 
$24.00 a week to married journeymen; $16.00 a week to 
single men, with an additional allowance for dependents, 
and provision made for apprentices who go out with the 
journeymen. There was a wide difference between the 
statements of the representatives of the parties to the 
strike as to the results on the second day. The union 
officials stated that few or none of the shops which had 
not signed the agreements were running, and a represen- 
tative of the Typothetae stated that only 15 per cent of 
their shops in their organization were completely closed; 



OF Labor and Statistics 149 

20 per cent were running with full force in the composing- 
room and that the remaining 65 per cent were running 
with crippled forces. 

The pressmen and assistants, bookbinders and bindery- 
women's unions voted unanimously to join the strikers in 
their effort to force a 44-hour week, and the decision went 
into effect May 4th, when about 200 bookbinders, 250 
bindery women and 350 pressmen joined the 400 printers, 
making a total of about 1,200 on strike. 

Mr. George K. Horn, president of the Typothetae of 
Baltimore, stated that their membership constituted about 
95 per cent of the employing printers of the city, and 
after being informed of the action of the pressmen and 
bookbinders, he issued a statement binding the printing 
industry to a fight to the finish on the 44-hour issue. He 
stated that he had heard definitely from 115 of their 116 
active members, 111 of whom had not signed the 44-hour 
agreement. Four members had granted the 44-hour week. 

At the end of the first week those who were out on a 
strike were paid benefits by the unions, and there seemed 
no chance of an early settlement. It was stated on May 
10th that the Typothetae regarded all agreements, prom- 
ises and offers made to unions prior to the strike at an end, 
that four of the largest printing firms in the city had come 
out as open shops, and that 40 new men had been put to 
w^ork in addition to some of the strikers who had returned 
to their old positions. 

Strike benefits were paid at the end of the second week, 
with no apparent settlement in sight, while members of 
the Typothetae claimed that they were able to do all the 
work they had orders for. Mr. George K. Horn, president 
of the Typothetae, speaking after a weekly meeting held 
on May 17th, stated that "statistics gathered from 81 of 
the 117 members of the Typothetae showed that in 81 
shops there were 1,014 employed who remained at work 
while 743 were on strike, more than 100 employees from 
other cities or from other industries in Baltimore had been 
put to work and between 25 and 30 strikers had returned." 
On June 1st, at the end of the first month's duration of 
the strike. Mr. Horn stated that "we have made no over- 
tures to the unions, we will not make any, nor will we 
have fui-ther dealings with them." 

On April 14th an article appeared in the Industrial In- 
formation Service-Labor Organized and Unorganized, in 



150 Kei'ORT of Maryland State Board 

reference to the 44-hour week and is responsible for the 
following : 

"The Educational Conference of New England Printers 
is issuing a series of leaflets contesting th^ claim of the 
trade unions that the United Typothetae committed them- 
selves to the installation of the 44-hour week on May 1, 
1921. It calls attention to the fact that the 44-hour agree- 
ment was actually subscribed to only by the Closed Shop 
Branch of the Typothetae, and that the number of Closed 
Shop members voting in favor of the 44-hour resolution 
was equivalent to only 4 per cent of present membership 
of the United TjT)othetae of America, Of the members 
so voting two-thirds were registered as representatives 
from printing plants in New York City. 

"Thus," the Conference states, "the whole claim of the 
unions as to the existence of an agreement to shorten the 
work week rests solely on the false assumption that a 
handful of printers in one city could speak for the employ- 
ing printers of the entire country." 

Representatives of the Typographical Union called at 
the office of the State Board of Labor and Statistics on 
May 10th and reported that boys under 16 years were 
being employed by several printing establishments to 
operate presses in violation of the law. The names of the 
several firms were given and upon a careful investigation 
no boys under 16 were found to be employed as repre- 
sented. The bureau at that time offered its services as 
mediator between the parties to the dispute, stating that 
it would be pleased to render any sei-vice possible, with a 
view of bringing about a compromise or settlement. On 
May 18th Mr. Fox called on a representative of the 
Typothetae- and offered the services of the bureau, which 
was declined with a statement that he felt nothing could 
be done at that time, but he would be pleased to call on us 
whenever he felt we could be of any assistance. 

On September 28th, or at the end of five months, Mr. 
Arthur L. Jackson, president of the Unions, which had 
been holding sessions daily, stated that the situation was 
unchanged and was "in an absolute deadlock." The mem- 
bers of the Typothetae of Baltimore (the employing 
printers' organization) had for nearly two months past 
declined to recognize the existence of the strike in the 
industry and stated that all plants were operating efl?i- 
ciently. These conditions continued without any apparent 
change until December 31st. 



OF Labor and Statistics 151 

The following was taken from the Survey of December 
7th: 

John L, Elliott of the Hudson Guild, the arbitrator for 
the New York Employing Printers and Typographical 
Union No. 6, in upholding the present wage scale for com- 
positors, turned aside from the question of wage differen- 
tials and the cost of living and based his decision chiefly 
on the craftsmanship of the worker. 

In regard to the wage differential (Mr. Elliott said) the 
arbitrator is of the opinion that the differentials should 
not be decided entirely on precedent and present' condi- 
tions, which are often the result of mere wage bargaining 
power, that they should be determined over and above a 
living minimum by the value of the service. This again 
must be judged to no small extent by the skill and quality 
of the service rendered." 

This he apparently expected to be understood by both 
sides to the controversy, for he added: "It is admitted, I 
think, that in this respect both the League (employing 
printers) and Typographical Union No. 6 hold a unique 
position. Nowhere in this country and, so far as the 
arbitrator knows, nowhere in the world has there been 
such co-operation between an employers' group and a trade 
union for the improvement of standards of workmanship." 
Later he emphasized this point again: "The arbitrator 
believes that it will be the quality of workmanship much 
more than any adjustment of the wage scale that will 
eventually increase the prosperity of the industry as a 
whole." 

The Typographical Union reported that there were 376. 
males and 10 females on a strike from May 1st to Decem- 
ber 31st, or 35 weeks which, at $40 per week, would equal 
$540,000. As many of the printers secured employment 
elsewhere, it is estimated that the loss in wages would 
not equal half this amount, or about $200,000 loss in 
wages, which was being offset by the benefits paid by the 
unions. The loss to the printers is hard to estimate, but 
must have been $100,000. 

MARINE V^ORKERS' STRIKE 

On May 2d the crews of three vessels at the port of 
Baltimore walked out and the departure of two crafts 
was delayed. The strike was threatened for some time 



152 Kei'out of Maryland State Board 

and because of expected trouble 16 crafts were hurriedly 
cleared on Saturday, April 30th. 

The cause of the strike was the announcement of a new 
scale of wages by the new Shipping Board, which provided 
a 15 per cent reduction in wages, abolition of pay for over- 
time and no discrimination as to union affiliation. 

It was stated that the chief engineers on ships of 20,000 
tons were receiving prior to May 1st, $387.50 a month 
and that this amount is graded down according to the 
license the engineers hold. The pay of a chief engineer 
on a ship of 2,000 to 3,000 tons was said to be $215. The 
proposed cut in the pay of a chief engineer of the 20,000- 
ton ships, which are known as Class A vessels, calls for 
a reduction of $97.50. The average reduction, the local 
marine engineers claimed, would be about $71.88 for all 
classes. 

Chairman Benson of the Shipping Board announced 
there could be no compromise over the 15 per cent wage 
cut, and the Ship Owners' Association rejected Secretary 
Hoover's plan for an unofficial board of mediation. 

On May 3d the walkout continued to spread and the 
tie-up was virtually complete, which was marked by con- 
siderable rioting, in which about 1,000 men participated, 
resulting in several being badly used up. In New York 
it was stated that more than 100 ships were directly 
affected, on all of which some of the men walked out. 
Winthrop L. Marvin, general manager of the Steamship 
Owners' Association, stated that approximately 40 per 
cent of the American flag tonnage was idle, due to lack of 
cargo offerings. His estimate was that 65,000 men would 
be concerned in the strike. The estimate of the union 
leaders placed the number at 125,000. It was claimed by 
William H. Hyman, secretarj^ of the Marine Engineers' 
Beneficial Association, that over 700 were out in Balti- 
more, which included both engineers and seamen. It was 
also estimated that the daily cost of the ship strike in 
Baltimore was near $100,000. 

In a statement published by Admiral Benson, chairman 
of the United States Shipping Board on May 17th, it was 
stated that the reduction in wages of the Steamship Em- 
ployees, as ordered to take effect May 1st, was done in an 
effort to overcome the handicap under which the Ameri- 
can Merchant Marine was laboring due to costs that made 
it impossible to compete with foreign shipping interests. 



OF Labor and Statistk^s 153 

The following comparison of the present wages with the 
1914 wages and the American wages with those of foreign 
vessels was given. 



o-" 



AMERICAN WAGES PER MONTH 

Class C 1921 

Engine Department 1914 (Prior May 1) 

Chief Engineer ...' $150.00 $332.50 

First Assistant Engineer. 100.00 228.75 

Second Assistant Engineer 90.00 200.00 



Totals $340.00 $761.25 

AMERICAN AND BRITISH WAGES PER MONTH 

Class C British 

Present (before 

American reduction) 

Chief Engineer _ $285.00 $152.88 

First Assistant Engineer 195.00 113.68 

Second Assistant Engineer 170.00 92.12 

Totals $650.00 $358.68 

It should be realized that the new wage scale of May 1, 
1921, is 90 per cent higher than the pay which the men 
received in 1914 before the war. It is 87 per cent higher 
than the scale of the British marine engineers in effect up 
to May 1, 1921. 

After a number of conferences and much rioting, the 
marine engineers were the first to yield to a 15 per cent 
reduction and the elimination of overtime on June 15th. 
This was followed by the unions of the marine works in 
the Atlantic and Gulf ports and other organizations on 
June 22d, which included the seamen, firemen, cooks, 
stewards and radio operators. Of the hundreds who ap- 
plied to the Sea Service Bureau for positions (it was 
stated) only a few were hired. Others were told they 
would be given work as quickly as possible, but that it 
would be several months before all would be engaged, as 
under no conditions would strikebreakers be discharged. 

The following article appeared in one of the Baltimore 
daily papers on July 12th: 

"Though a month has passed since the climax of the 
recent shipping strike, more than 1,000 men are loitering 
about the foot of Broadway and sleeping at night in vari- 
ous union halls, unable to obtain a ship upon M'hich to 
leave the country. Most of those left here are foreigners, 



154 Kpu'ort of Maryland State Board 

it is said, coming from Brazil, Spain, France, Italy and 
from the Scandinavian countries. They have been unable 
to sign for a complete voyage because shipping masters 
fear they will desert the ship as soon as a port is reached 
that is within easy distance of their homes. 

"Men familiar with their habits during the recent strike 
trouble say they receive onli^one meal a day from the 
unions, and that consists of j^tatoes, bread and coffee." 

The loss estimated by the United States Shipping Board 
was $50,000, while the loss in wages to those who went on 
strike is estimated at $30,000. 

PLUMBERS' STRIKE 

A strike was declared at Cumberland by the plumbers, 
members of the Master Plumbers' Association, to take 
effect on May 1st, and lasted until May 17th, involving 
about 50 men. The cause of the strike was because of the 
men being notified that their wages would be reduced 
from $1,121/2 to 95 cents per hour. The strike is reported 
as being unsuccessful and the loss in wages is estimated 
at $6,000 and the loss to the firm at $5,000. 

PIPEFITTERS' STRIKE 

On June 1st about 300 pipefitters quit work because of 
a new wage scale about to be put into effect. 

The employers notified the men that they would make a 
reduction of 25 per cent, which meant a reduction from 
$1.00 to 75 cents an hour for steamfitters and from 75 
to 65 cents for helpers. 

On June 13th about 100 men, comprising plumbers, 
painters, plasterers and sheet metal workers, in accord- 
ance with orders issued by their respective leaders identi- 
fied with the Allied Building Trades Council of Baltimore, 
went out for the purpose of backing up the pipefitters. On 
June 16th all those who w^ere out on a strike returned to 
work except the pipefitters, until the conference had a 
chance to settle the difference between the pipefitters and 
their employees. 

As a result of the conference the pipefitters returned to 
work on July 11th. While the terms of the settlement 
did not provide for a permanent continuance of the condi- 
tions prior to June 1st, it placed the strikers in a position 



OF Labou and Statistics 155 

to resume further negotiations. The estimated loss in 
wages was $38,000, while the loss to the employers due to 
delay in their work under contract about $10,000. 

PAINTERS' STRIKE 

On June 1st about 350 painters who were members of 
the Painters and Decorators Union No. 1, and employed 
by ten of the largest shops in Baltimore, quit work as a 
protest ag-ainst a reduction of wages. The painters had 
been receiving 90 cents an hour for a 44-hour week, and 
were notified that they would only be paid 75 cents an 
hour after June 1st. 

Some of the painters returned to work at the old scale 
of wages and by August 30th all of the firms, except two, 
agreed to continue to pay the old rate of wages for the 
present. Later on the painters agreed to accept a reduc- 
tion. 

The total loss in wages is estimated at $100,000, and 
the loss to the employers $10,000. 

BREWERY WORKERS' STRIKE 

• 

About 200 brewery workers employed by four local com- 
panies went on a strike on June 11th and were joined by 
about 200 more the following day, making a total of about 
400. It was stated that the cause of the strike was of an 
attempt to cut their pay $8.00 and $10.00 per week. The 
strike practically tied up all the breweries in the city, 
which lasted until July 10th, when three of the largest 
breweries reached an agreement with their employees 
whereby they would accept a reduction of $4.00 a week. 

Some of the strikers had not reached an agreement and 
were still out December 31. 

The loss in wages was fixed at about $50,000,: and the 
loss to the breweries at about $100,000. 

PLUMBERS' STRIKE 

On September 1st seven plumbers employed by the 
American Sugar Refinery plant, in course of construction 
in South Baltimore, walked out because they refused to 
accept a 10 per cent reduction in wages in addition to a 10 
per cent agreed upon at a previous conference. The strike 
lasted until October 20th, when they returaed to work, 



156 REi'pnT OF Maryland State Board 

agreeing to accept a reduction of 50 cents per day from 
November 1st. The loss in wages only amounted to about 
$1,000, as some of the men secured work elsewhere. The 
lirm's loss was also fixed at $1,000. 

CLOAKMAKERS' STRIKE 

A strike affecting 378 men and women cloakmakers, 
employed by 26 firms, occurred on December 21st. The 
following scale of wages was submitted by the union, 
which the majority of the manufacturers refused to 
accept, viz. : A minimum wage of $50.00 a week for oper- 
ators, $48.00 a week for skirt operators, $27,50 a week for 
coat finishers, $20.50 a week for skirt finishers, and $44.00 
a week for pressers. For cutters a minimum wage of 
$45.00 a week was demanded and spreaders not to be paid 
less than $38.50 a week. A demand was also made for 
the continuation of the 44-hour week and that the new 
contract to be entered into stipulated that workers shall 
be allowed to have Washington's Birthday, Labor Day, 
and a half day on Election Day with full pay. It was fur- 
ther stipuluated in the agreement that each shop signing 
the contract must give to the shop chairman of the union 
the right to examine the employer's books to ascertain 
correctly the earnings of the workers employed and also 
to ascertain the names of the manufacturers and jobbers 
to whom the employer was sending work. 

The agreement, it was stated was a practicable renewal 
of the agreement under which the employers and em- 
ployees worked under last year. The employers objected 
to the clause in the agreement calling for four holidays 
with pay, and also to the clause giving permission to the 
chairman of the shop committee to examine the firm's 
books. It was stated that both of the clauses were in 
force during the last year. 

The strike lasted until January 12th, when an agree- 
ment similar to the one in force last year w^as signed by 
nearly all of the manufacturers affected, and work was 
resumed. The loss to the strikers was estimated at $1,000 
and the firms $500. 



OF Labor and Statistics 157 

IN LABOR CIRCLES * 

The Forty-first Annual Convention of the American 
Federation of Labor was held at Denver, Colorado, June 
13th to 25th, inclusive. 

The following are the officers of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor for the year 1921-1922 : 

President „ —Samuel Gompera....- Washington, D. C. 

First Vice-President .James Duncan. Quincy, Mass. 

Second Vice-Presdent Joseph F. Valentine _ Cincinnati, Ohio 

Third Vice-President ..Prank Duffy Indianapolis, Ind. 

Fourth Vice-President...William Green _..Indianapols, Ind. 

Fifth Vice-President W. D. Mahon ...Detroit, Mich. 

Sixth Vice-President .T. A. Rickert ..Chicago, 111. 

Seventh Vice-President. Jacob Fisher. Indianapolis, Ind. 

Eig-hth Vice-President ..Matthew WoU Chicago, 111. 

Treasurer Daniel J. Tobin Indianapolis, Ind. 

Secretary Prank Morrison. _ Washington, D, C. 

There were 300 unions represented, having 521 dele- 
gates, who represented 38,293 votes. 

The first day's session, Monday, June 13th, 1921, was 
called to order at 10 o'clock A. M. by Mr. S. P. Oplinger, 
representing the local convention committee who made the 
opening address, which was followed by several others, 
including addresses by President Samuel Gompers, the 
Governor of Colorado and the Mayor of Denver. The aft- 
ernoon session was called to order at 3 o'clock by Presi- 
dent Gompers, and the appointment of committees fol- 
lowed. 

The reports of the A. F. of L. Executive Council and 
Secretary Morrison were made. 

The Secretary made the following report: 

RECEIPTS 

Balance on hand April 30th, 1920 $ 203.980:46 

Total receipts for year ending April 30, 1921... 832,169.96 

Total $1,036,150.42 

Total expenses for year...... _ 857,887.70 

Balance on hand April 30, 1921 _ $ 178,262.72 



The membership of the American Federation of Labor 
increased from about 50,000 in 1881 to nearly 4,000,000 
in 1921, and it is predicted that it will reach the 5,000,000 
mark in 1922. 



158 Report of Maryland State Board 

The Federation is divided into 110 National and Interna- 
tional Unions; 36,247 Local Unions; 941 Local Trade and 
Federal Labor Unions; 973 City Central Bodies; 49 State 
Federations ; 783 Local Department Councils and 5 Depart- 
ments. 

The total benefits paid the members by affiliated organi- 
zations during the past year were : Death benefits, $3,046,- 
300.62; death benefits to members' wives, $20,741.10; sick 
benefits, $1,209,903.49;' traveling benefits, $33,517.65; tool 
insurance, $274.80, and unemployment benefits, $903,- 
461.49. 

LABORiB CONFERENCE OF FEBRUARY 23-24, 1921 

Because of the general situation confronting the labor 
movement and threatening its effectiveness, if not its ex- 
istence, in a most serious manner, President Gompers 
called together on December 29th a number of officials of 
trade unions and friends of the labor movement for a dis- 
cussion of the entire subject. After a survey of various 
movements aiming at the destruction of the trade union 
movement and the destruction of standards of labor, by 
the American Federation of Labor, it was decided to rec- 
ommend the advisability of a conference of officials and 
representatives of national and international unions affili- 
ated to the American Federation of Labor. It also was 
the recommendation that a special effort should be made 
to more thoroughly organize the dissemination of infor- 
mation about the trade union movement and its work, in 
order that there might be a more thoroughly informed 
state of public opinion in relation to questions affecting 
the welfare of the workers. 

Acting on these recommendations President Gompers 
laid the entire subject before the Executive Council, with 
the result that the council directed the president to sum- 
mon a conference of officials and representatives of na- 
tional and international trade unions to be held in Wash- 
ington on February 23d. On that date the duly author- 
ized officials and representatives of the labor movement 
convened in the Executive Council Chamber of the head- 
quarters building in Washington. So important were 
the issues discussed and so deeply in earnest were the 
representatives of labor, that the conference remained in 
session throughout all of two days. 



OF Labor and Statistics 159 

The conference had before it the recommendation of 
the Executive Council proposing a systematic work of in- 
fonnation dissemination and by unanimous vote approved 
that proposal. It was the expressed view of the confer- 
ence that every possible effort should be made to make 
accessible to everyone the fullest information about the 
work and aims of the trade union movement. 

After thorough consideration of all of the issues in- 
volved and of an expression of the views of practically all 
of the delegates, a declaration was adopted setting forth 
labor's position and declaring its unalterable determina- 
tion to resist with all possible strength the efforts of the 
enemies of labor to undermine and destroy our move- 
ment. This declaration is as follows: 

"We ask the American people to give solemn considera- 
tion to this declaration. It is the pronouncement of a 
movement that is consecrated to the cause of freedom as 
Americans understand freedom. It is the message of 
men and women who will not desert the cause of freedom, 
no matter what the tide of the struggle. 

"The American labor movement in this crucial hour 
here lays before the people the full story and asks them 
to rally with labor to the defense of our imperiled insti- 
tutions. 

"Labor speaks from no narrow or selfish point of view. 
It speaks from the standpoint of American citizenship. 
And the indictment it lays is an indictment of the enemies 
of freedom and progress. 

"American labor battling for the presei-vation of Amer- 
ican democracy and American institutions today stands 
betwen two converging destructive forces. 

"Standing between two opposing forces, uncompromis- 
ing toward both, the American trade union movement 
today finds itself and every American institution of free- 
dom assailed and attacked by the conscienceless autocrats 
of industry and the followers of radical European fanati- 
cism. If either of these wins, the doors of democratic 
freedom and opportunity can never be reopened in our 
time. 

"Though inspired by vastly different motives, these two 
unrelenting forces work toward the destruction of the 
same ideals, each using the other as a tool in the struggle 
to ovenvhelm democracy and put an end to American 
progress, politically and industrially. 



160 Rki'ort of Maryland State Board 

"On the one hand labor is compelled to meet in a wide 
variety of manifestations the determination of reaction- 
ary industrial autocrats, autocrats who would destroy the 
organizations of labor and remove from the field of indus- 
try the only agencies through which the workers may 
protect themselves from aggression and the only agency 
through which they may offer to industry their co-opera- 
tion in the improvement of industrial processes and the 
expansion of productive energy with that improvement of 
the product and lowering of prices justly demanded by 
the public. 

REACTION CASTS OFF ALL PRETENSE 

"Reactionary employers have joined their might in a 
campaign which they are pleased to call a campaign for 
the "open shop," which they have been waging vigorously 
since the signing of the araiistice. Compelled by the 
pressure of public opinion to accept labor's co-operation 
duiing the war, when the utmost conservation of pro- 
ductive energy was necessaiy to the life of the nation, 
they cast off all pretense immediately upon the passing of 
the emergency. 

"This entire campaign on the part of the combined 
reactionary employers is in no sense a campaign for the 
"open shop," no matter what definition may be given to 
that teiTn. The campaign is (distinctly and solely) one 
for a shop that shall be closed against union workmen. It 
is primarily, a campaign disguised under the name of an 
'open shop 'campaign, designed to destroy trade unions 
and to break down and eliminate the whole principle of 
collective bargaining which has for years been accepted 
by the highest industrial authorities and by the American 
people as a principle based upon justice and established 
pemrianently in our industrial life. 

"Not onlj^ during the war, but during every years since 
the labor movement has had a place in our industrial life, 
it has justified its existence and proved the necessity 
therefor, by making possible the necessary co-operation 
between employers and workers, on the one hand, and on 
the other hand by rescuing the workers from autocratic 
domination and developing for them a standard of living 
and of working conditions fitting to American citizenship. 
The American trade union movement is here because it is 
a necessity. 



OF Labor and Statistics 161 

UNSCRUPULOUS FINANCIAL SPECULATION 

"The unscrupulous pirateers of finance, having squeezed 
the consumer throughout the period of the war, are now 
broadening their field and enriching themselves by 
squeezing both the producer and the consumer. Fortunes 
are being made today by commodity and financial specu- 
lation. 

FLAGRANT PROFITEERING CONTINUES 

"It is astounding, but true, that even after so great a 
lapse of time since the ending of hostilities there is, so far 
far as the average family is concerned, practically no re- 
duction in the high cost of living. It is admitted freely 
that in some commodities there has been a reduction of 
price in the wholesale markets, but there has been no ap- 
preciable reduction in the retail prices at which the work- 
' ing people must make their purchases. 

"Labor has time after time indicted the employers-arid 
the commercial interests of the country for wanton profi- 
teering. We declare again that the government has been 
and continues impotent in the face of the criminal opera- 
tions of profiteers and must therefore accept the responsi- 
bility for a great portion of the indignation and resent- 
ment of the people against those who have filched their 
pockets for no reason except that they have had the 
power to do so. 

"Going hand in hand with profiteering there has been, 
and is, a shameful and undoubtedly unjustified overcapi- 
talization of industrial and commercial projects, compell- 
ing the consuming public to pay interest in the fonn of 
inflated prices on vast sums of money, back of which 
there is no foundation of intrinsic value or productive 
capacity. 

CURTAILING CONSUMING POWER 

"Due to the maladministration of industry, and prin- 
cipally and primarily because of the studied and calcu- 
lated arbitrary policies of reactionary employers, there 
has come upon us a state of unemployment which is de- 
priving fully three and one-half million working people 
of the opportunity to eara a living. That there should be 
this tragic situation at a time when hardly any portion 
of the world has a sufficient supply of the necessaries of 
• 



162 Keport of Maryland State Board 

life is a commentary upon the methods of those respon- 
sible for the conduct of industry which they cannot jus- 
tify. It is a rebuke to their methods which only prompt 
and fundamental remedial action can remove. The con- 
dition of unemployment has been accentuated by keeping 
open the flood gates of immigration, which has added to 
the confusion and given employers an additional weapon 
in their efforts to reduce the American standard of living. 
"One result is the effort to lower wages. The stupidity 
of such policies as these, whether or not apparent to em- 
ployers inspired only by a desire for monetary gain, is a 
matter which should give the most serious concern to the 
American people as a whole. Every reduction of wages 
is a reduction in the consuming power of the wage-eaniers 
and a direct blow at the prosperity and well-being of the 
country. 

"Labor not only insists upon maintaining the present 
standard of wages and working conditions, but declares 
its -solemn purpose to continue its struggle to further im- 
prove those standards. Where the unorganized worker's 
are concerned, while they benefit by the protests and 
progress of the organized workers, they find themselves 
unable to meet properly the present crucial situation. 
Their recourse is to join the organizations of their trades 
or callings, and we demand for them the right freely to 
follow such a course and to exercise all of the powers and 
privileges which that implies. Collective bargaining is 
one of the great stabilizing influences in industry in the 
relations betwen employers and workers. It is censurable 
that employers have in too many instances dissipated 
these friendly and mutually advantageous arrangements: 
We strongly urge upon both employers and unions to keep 
inviolate the instrumentality of collective bargaining. 

TRAGIC PENALTIES OF MALADMINISTRATION 

"Another manifestation of the unscientific and inhu- 
mane policies of industrial autocracy is found in what is 
commonly known as 'labor turnover,' which means the re- 
peated hiring and discharging of individual workers with- 
out any opportunity for an expression on the part of those 
workers in determining the terms or the conditions under 
which they shall give service. 

"This endless movement of workers from shop to shop, 
with its inevitable burden of idleness and loss of produc- 



OF Labor and Statistics 163 

tion, is the individual protest of the unorganized against 
conditions of employment which they have no power to 
remedy. Where there is organization of labor and the 
opportunity for negotiation and agrement, labor turnover 
IS eliminated as a check and drain on industrial life. 

"Those manifestations of autocratic policy in industry 
already cited are almost entirely of a purely industrial 
character. There remain other abuses equally serious, if 
not more so, finding expression more often through our 
political machinery. Through reactionary decisions of 
courts, through the unwarranted and reckless use of the 
writ of injunction, through laws establishing industrial 
courts and boards, through compulsory arbitration laws, 
and through the utter failure of Congress and of State 
legislative bodies to attempt anything which might sei've 
as a stimulus to labor in these trying times, the welfare 
of the entire country and, in fact, the stability of many 
of our democratic institutions are most seriously men- 
aced. These are matters of paramount interest to every 
American. 

INDUSTRIAL COURTS DESTROY FREEDOM 

• "Through the establishment of industrial courts, em- 
ployers are seeking to inject into American industrial 
life a device through which they may annul constitu- 
tional guarantees and deprive workers of freedom and 
of the right to function through their organizations. 
Aside from the denial of guaranted rights brought about 
by the establishment of industrial courts, these instru- 
ments serve to create in industry a disharmony which 
inevitably must result in a chaotic industrial condition 
and consequent loss of production. 

"The joint relationship betwen organized workers and 
employers which exists when these two industrial forces 
meet in voluntary conference to reach voluntary agree- 
ments is a relationship of negotiation; that which exists 
when industrial courts are established to determine the 
conditions in industry is a relationship between liti- 
gants — litigants never voluntarily yield a jot. Trade 
unionism establishes a condition of harmony through mu- 
tual effort toward a common puiToose, while the industrial 
court establishes a condition of antagonism, each party 
in hostile suit against the other and each inevitably hos- 
tile toward the court itself when the decision is unfavor- 
able. Industrial courts and the like, created by law, are 



164 Report op^ Maryland Statp: Board 

pernicious devices, the fundamental error of which must 
become more clear as time passes. The paradox of the 
situation is that those employers who look upon them as 
devices for their benefit and who are propagating the idea 
with the zeal of faddists will, in the long run, suffer equal- 
ly with labor as a penalty for their short-sightedness. 

INJUNCTIONS RESTORE FEUDALISM 

"The revival of the unrestrained use of the injunction 
also imperils the stability of our economic structure. • For 
six years the Clayton act, accepted on all sides as the 
established law of the land, to an appreciable degree 
checked the abuse of the writ of injunction. A majority 
of the justices of the Supreme Court have swept away 
this strong barrier against a feudalistic legal concept and 
labor finds itself again at the mercy of an unlimited use 
of judge-made law. The injunction as it is now used and 
abused in labor disputes is without sanction either in the 
constitution or in the fundamental law of the land. It is 
a pure usuipation of power and authority. The only pos- 
sible and practical remedy in the face of a power so 
usurped and so completely unjustified lies in a flat refusal 
on the part of labor to recognize or abide by the tenns 
of injunctions which seek to prohibit the doing of acts 
which the workers have a lawful and guaranteed right to 
do, or which seek to compel workers to do those things 
which they have a law and guaranteed right to refuse to 
do. This is the only immediate course through which 
labor can find relief and this course it purposes to pur- 
sue. Labor realizes fully the consequences of such a 
course, but in the defense of American freedom and of 
American institutions it is compelled to adopt this course, 
be the consequences what they may. 

"The workers maintain that the Constitution of the 
United States is a living document, its provisions and 
guarantees as applicable today as when they were adopt- 
ed. The workers maintain that in their every-day life 
and work rights which the Constitution declares to be 
inalienable should in practice, as well as in theory, be in- 
alienable. Among these rights is the right of liberty — 
freedom from involuntary servitude or compulsory labor, 
except as punishment for crime. This guarantee of the 
thirteenth amendment lives, and the workers are deter- 
mined that it shall not be denied them. Nor shall this 
guarantee of their freedom be so distorted as to compel a 



OF Labor and Statistics 165 

group slavery in modern industry as reprehensible as was 
the individual chattel slavery of old. Slavery, compulsory 
labor, the tying- of men to their jobs, will be no more tol- 
erated now than was chattel slavery then. It has no 
more right to exist and is just as repugnant under our 
democratic form of government as it would be under a 
monarchical, bureau^'atic or any form other of govern- 
ment. 

"The Clayton Act was made law by Congress and by 
the signature of the President for the express puipose 
of correcting a condition under which cases such as the 
Danbury hatters' case were possible. It was made law 
for the express puipose of instructing judges in the limi- 
tation of their powers. Shortly after placing his signa- 
ture to the Clayton Act with its labor provisions the 
President of the United States made the following decla- 
ration : 

" 'A man's labor is not a commodity but a part of his 
life. The courts must now treat it as if it were a com- 
modity, but must treat it as if it were part of his life. I 
am sorry that there were any judges who had to be told 
that. It is so obvious that it seems to me as if section 6 
of the Clayton act were a return to the primer of human 
liberty; but if the judges have to have the primer opened 
before them, I am willing to open it.' 

TRADE UNIONS DEFEND LIBERTY 

"The greatest force in American life capable of re- 
straining predatory capital and to that extent capable of 
maintaining the democratic institutions of the country is 
the trade union movement. The trade union movement 
would be false to its tnist, false to the ideals of our re- 
public and false to the great public whose confidence it 
must have, as well as false to its own members, whose 
interests it is organized to protect, if it neglected any 
proper effort in behalf of the liberty or well-being of the 
great masses of our people. 

"To that end this movement of the organized workers 
sets its face against all forms of compulsion, including 
such devices as so-called industrial courts, the un-Amer- 
ican and repugnant idea of compulsorj' arbitration and 
the vicious, tyrannical abuse of the writ of injunction. 
Through such devices, in addition to the great danger 
which they constitute to the general public welfare, leg- 
islative enactments are set aside so that the organizations 



166 Report of Maryland State Board 

of labor may be mulcted, crippled or destroyed. Through 
such devices voluntary, democratic and constructive or- 
ganizations of labor are practically outlawed. 

LABOR RESISTS REACTION 

"However great may be the determination of the insti- 
tutions of reaction to destroy the organizations of labor 
by these means, the resistance of labor will be uncom- 
promising and unremitting. The organizations of labor 
must not and will not be destroyed. Trade unions foster 
education, uproot ignorance, shorten hours, lengthen life, 
raise wages, increase independence, develop manhood, 
balk tyranny, reduce prejudice, protect rights, abolish 
wrongs, and make the world better. 

"It should be the purpose of government properly to 
stimulate our industrial processes. It should be the pur- 
pose of government to make voluntary negotiation more 
easily entered into. If, on the other hand, all of the safe- 
guards set up in our constitutional and legal structure for 
the protection of the workers are to be destroyed by 
judicial construction, as the vitality of the Clayton act 
has been destroyed, then labor demands the immediate 
and sweeping repeal of all of that body of laws known as 
anti-combination and conspiracy laws. 

"Labor is anxious to serve. It has made this declara- 
tion repeatedly. It has lived and practiced that deter- 
mination. It has done this in the face of most wanton 
and brutal opposition. Government has given little as- 
sistance. It has even destroyed the simplest and most 
obvious beginning of what might have been an effective 
employment service labor repeats it is time for the imme- 
diate and comprehensive restoration of this service. 

FANATICAL PROPAGANDA AND INTRIGUE 

"Converging upon labor from the extreme right is auto- 
cractic reaction, while from the opposite extreme is the 
insidious propaganda of radical European fanaticism, 
which is particularly and peculiarly deadly in its hatred 
of the American labor movement because of its demo- 
cratic character and its steadfact refusal to adopt revo- 
lutionary destructive policies. It is a curious and start- 
ling fact that this propaganda of fanaticism has the sym- 
pathy and support of many of those in our country who 
style themselves as liberals, but who do not distinguish 



OF Labor and Statistics 167 

between that which is truly liberal and that which is de- 
structive and fraudulent, 

"Because of its opposition to the American labor move- 
ment, this overseas propaganda has even secured in the 
United States the support, at times secret, of some of the 
most reactionary American employers because of a com- 
mon antagonism to the trade union movement. There is 
an unscrupulousness and a natural , aptitude for intrigue 
in this fanatical propaganda which makes it a most subtle 
menace to every democratic ideal and institution in our 
country. 

"This propaganda, this constant effort to undermine the 
constructive organizations of American labor, this con- 
stant poisoning of the very foundation of our democi'acy, 
finds its expression everywhere and through countless 
agencies. It is assisted in its work of destruction not only 
by the publications devoted to a pei'verted expression of 
'liberal thought, but it' is assisted as well by many of 
those who speak from our platforms and who write and 
edit our periodical publications and our daily newspapers. 
Much of this assistance is involuntary and unconscious, 
Avhich testifies to the subtlety of the propaganda and to 
the need for constant study and alertness on the part of 
all those who have at heart the presei'vation of democratic 
life in America. 

LABOR'S PURPOSEFUL DETERMINATION 

"In face of the situation here set forth, which is still 
further embittered by the activities of private detectives 
and agents provocateur paid by many employers, the 
American trade union movement, speaking through its 
duly authorized representatives, offers on the one hand 
constructive practical suggestions for relief and remedy, 
and on the other hand utters its uncompromising pro- 
test against the injustices and the autocratic policies 
which reaction seeks to impose. It declares in measured 
and emphatic tones its unalterable deteiTnination to re- 
sist at every point and with its entire strength the en- 
croachments both of industrial tyranny and fanatical, 
revolutionary propaganda. The American labor move- 
ment is determined at all costs to maintain that freedom 
and those liberties which constitute American democracy. 
The labor movement believes this policy to be one em- 
bodying the highest statesmanship, as the only policy 



168 Report op Maryland State Board 

than can presei've and maintain and develop that har- 
monious relationship in industry without which our pro- 
ductive processes must be sacrificed to a reign of chaotic 
disorganization. The labor movement offers those volun- 
tary and conciliatory methods of negotiation, arbitration 
and agrement through which it is possible to develop in 
our industrial life the highest degree of good will and the 
highest degree of productivity, in order that there may be 
for all of our people the fullest enjoyment of life and the 
loftiest standards of life. 

VOLUNTARY PRINCIPAL IS VITAL 

"The effort to crush the voluntary organizations of the 
workers may be designed by employers as an effort to 
secure their own immediate enrichment, but no such ef- 
fort can stop at that point. Whether its sponsors will it 
or not, it is an effort to bring upon our whole national 
organization of society unprecedented disaster and retro- 
gression. The principle of voluntary agreement is the 
kernel from which has grown the success of this country 
as a democracy. If that is destroyed in our industrial life, 
it cannot exist in any other phase of our life, and the 
social organization that has made America must crumble 
and disappear. Neither the principle of state dictatorship 
nor the principle of private autocratic dictation in indus- 
try can be permitted to gain a foothold in America, for 
where either of these comes in freedom and democracy 
must cease to be. 

"American trade unionists have long since made their 
choice of principles. Their movement is founded upon the 
principles laid down in the foundation stones of the re- 
public. It is now for the American people as a people to 
make a choice. We are confronted with a supreme crisis. 
Not even in the days when the nation hovered on the 
brink of war was the situation more critical. The path 
of progress and constructive peaceful achievement and 
evolution is laid down by the trade union movement. The 
road to autocracy, unfreedom and chaos is laid down by 
its enemies. The choice is now before the country. 

"This conference calls for public support and recog- 
nition of : • 

"The right of the working people of the United States 
to organize into trade unions for the protection of their 
rights and interests. 



OF Labor and Statistics 169 

"The right to, and practice of, collective bargaining by 
trade unions through representatives of their own choos- 
ing. 

"The right to work and to cease work collectively. 

"The right collectively to bestow or withhold patronage. 

"The right to the exercise of collective activities in 
furtherance of the welfare of labor. 

"This conference proposes and urges public support for: 

"Enactment by Congress of legislation which shall pro- 
tect the workers in their organized capacity against the 
concept that there is a property right in the labor of a 
human being. 

"No application of the use of injunctions in industrial 
disputes where they would not apply in the absence of 
such disputes. fp 

"Prohibition of immigration for a period of not less 
than two years. 

'^More general application of the initiative and refer- 
endum in the political affairs of the United States and of 

our several States. 

* 

"Removal by Congress of the usui-ped power of courts 
to declare unconstitutional laws enacted by Congress. 
"Election of judges. 

"Immediate restoration of exemption from or the re- 
peal of all anti-combination and so-called conspiracy laws. 

"Restoration of an adequate federal employment ser- 
vice. 

"Administration of credit as a public trust in the inter- 
est of all the people. 

"Repeal by the States of all industrial court laws and 
all restrictive and coercive laws, including the so-called 
open port law of Texas, and freec^om from decisions of 
courts holding trade unions and individual members 
thereof liable in damages for the unlawful acts of others. 

"Enactment by Congress of a law declaring that labor 
organizations are not co-partnerships and shall not be so 
treated in law or in equity. 

"Investigation by Congress of the activities of so-called 
private detective agencies in the field of industrial re- 
lations. 

"We urge upon the unorganized workers the urgent 
necessity of joining the unions of their trades and call- 
ings, their haven of refuge and protection. 



170 Report of Maryland State Board 

"We call upon the workers to resist the efforts to de- 
stroy trade unions, whether by the false pretense of the 
'open shop,' the usurped authority of courts through 
writs of injunction, or otherwise. 

"We call upon the trade unions for a closer banding to- 
gether, a greater solidarity and unity of purpose. 

"We call for united support in the protection of stand- 
ards of wages and conditions already gained and we sum- 
mon the workers to continued efforts to increase the con- 
suming power, raise the standards and improve the con- 
ditions of life and work. 

"We call upon the workers and all of our people to give 
the support, their effort and their combined strength of 
righteous pui-pose to this appeal for the preservation of 
the spirit and the letter of that great declaration which 
was written to guarante to all Americans 'the right to 
life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness and' freedom 
from involuntary servitude." • 

The above declaration and appeal was signed by the 
officers and other representatives of the national and in- 
ternational trade unions of America, assembled in the 
Executive Council Chamber of the American Federation 
of Labor, Washington, D. C, February 23, 1921, pledging 
themselves and those whom they represented. 

SOME EECENT IMPORTANT DECISIONS 

It is not our purpose to discuss under this heading 
cases which may be important in individual jurisdictions, 
says the official report of the proceedings of the confer- 
ence, although it is noted that a number of such exist. 
We desire to comment briefly upon four cases (two de- 
cided and two awaiting decision) before the Supreme 
Court of the United States. 

HITCHMAN COMPANY CASE 

The Hitchman case was decided in 1917. One of the 
most deplorable effects of the world war was that the 
attention of the community was of necessity largely di- 
verted from matters of domestic policy which deserve and 
ordinarily receive careful consideration in times of peace. 
A decision of the United States Supreme Court dealing 
with important phases of the relationship between "capi- 
tal" and "labor" arouses wide discussion, not only among 



OF Labor and Statistics 171 

lawyers but also among the people at large. But the 
Hitchman Coal and Coke Company case was handed down 
at a time when public attention was distracted and it went 
comparatively unnoticed by all but the organized labor 
movement and by members of the legal profession, the 
latter did not give it the attention it deserved and normal- 
ly would have received. As time went on, however, the 
far-reaching result of that decision revealed itself, and 
the blow which it gave to labor became readily apparent. 

In the Hitchman case, the question was presented to 
the Supreme Court as to whether or not members of a 
labor union could be enjoined from conspiring to persuade, 
and persuading, without violence or show of violence, 
plaintiff's employes, not members of the union, and who 
were working for plaintiff not for a specified time, but 
under an agreement not to continue in plaintiffs' employ- 
ment if they joined the union, this agi'ement being fully 
known to defendants, secretly to agree to join the union 
and continue working for plaintiff until enough had 
agreed to join, so that a strike could be called, and plain- 
tiff be thereby forced to unionize its business of mining 
coal. This is the essence upon which the Hitchman Coal 
and Coke Company predicated its case. 

The Hitchman Company resorted to the practice after 
the original case had been started of requiring each of its 
employes to sign employment cards to the following 
effect : 

I am employed by and work for the Hitchman Coal & 
Coke Company with the express understanding that I am 
not a member of the United Mine Workers of America, and 
will not become so while an employe of the Hitchman Coal 
& Coke Company; that the Hitchman Coal & Coke Com- 
pany is run non-union and agreed with me that it will run 
non-union while I am in its employ. If at any time I am 
employed by the Hitchman Coal & Coke Company I want 
to become connected with the United Mine Workers of 
America or any affialiated organization, I agree to with- 
draw from the employment of said company, and agree 
that while I am in the employ of that company I will not 
make any efforts amongst its employes to bring about the 
unionizing of that mine against the company's wish. I 
have either read the above or heard the same read. 

The question of the validity and effect of this agree- 
ment was largely discussed in the case under considera- 
tion and the majority opinion (Justices Brandeis, Holmes, 
and Clarke dissenting) sustained this contract as a valid 



172 Rbi'ORT op Maryland State Board 

one capable of enforcement against any outsider who 
might interfere with it, a strange part of the situation 
being that of course it was not enforceable against the 
party signing it, if at any time he saw fit at any moment 
to quit employment, nor was it at any time enforceable 
against the coal company which could discharge its em- 
ploye without a moment's notice. 

Assuming the contract as valid as we have stated, the 
Supreme Court maintained the right of the judiciary to 
restrain any person from urging an employe of the com- 
pany to break his contract. He might not be solicited to 
join a trade union while the so-called contract was in ex- 
istence, the solicitor knowing such fact. 

Much of the language contained in the case is very 
broad, as for instance : 

Upon all of the facts we are constrained to hold that the 
purpose entertained by defendants to bring about a strike 
at plaintiff's mine in order to compel plaintiff, through fear 
of financial loss, to consent to the unionization of the mine 
as the lesser evil, was an unlawful purpose. 

Following the literal language of this decision an em- 
ployer has but to enter into psuedo contracts with his 
employes and thereafter any attempt to unionize them 
may be the subject of an injunction. 

In this case the majority members of the court lost 
sight of the fact that what the defendants were doing was 
done in self-defense and not maliciously, and in view of 
recent decisions throughout the country declaring the 
right of industrial combatants to push their struggle to 
the limits of the justification of self-interest, the decision 
of the majority members of the United States Supreme 
Court is surprising, but as previously stated it dealt labor 
a severe blow and for this reason: It so happens that 
the Hitchman case is only binding in the federal court 
because no federal statute was construed and no consti- 
tutional question was involved, but it is undeniable that 
that decision will largely influence every state court. It 
has been quoted with approval by the Supreme Judicial 
Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and by the 
New York Court of Appeals in the case of Auburn Dray- 
ing Company vs. Wardel. Hence the importance of some 
legislative relief. 

Since the employer in the Hitchman case could arbi- 
trarily dismiss an employe any time for the most ca- 



OF Labor and Statistics 173 

* 

pricious reason, and had not exacted any agreement by 
which the employe agreed not to join a labor union, it 
seems incredible that a court should hold it was improper 
to lay before such employes the advantages of joining a 
labor organization. Yet that is what the decision comes 
to when finally analyzed. As it would not be possible for 
Congress to pass any law which affects intrastate trade 
or business, it is obvious that both national and state leg- 
islation will have to be obtained in order to protect labor 
adequately. 

DUPLEX PRINTING COMPANY CASE 

The case of Duplex Printing Press Company vs. Deer- 
ing, which was decided by the United States Supreme 
Court, January 3, 1921, is even a greater disappointment 
than the decision in the Hitchman case, because the opin- 
ion of the majority members of the court clearly reveals 
that section 20 of the Clayton act has been emasculated 
of any protection that labor was supposed to enjoy there- 
under. 

Section 20 of the Clayton act is as follows : 

That no restraining order or injunction shall be granted 
by court of the United States or a judge or the judges 
thereof, in any case between an employer and employes, 
or between employers and employes, or between persons 
employed and persons seeking employment, involving, or 
growing out of, a dispute concerning terms or conditions 
of employment, unless necessary to prevent irreparable 
injury to property, or to a property right, of the party 
making the application, for which injury there is no ade- 
quate remedy at law, and such property or property right 
must be described with particularity in the application, 
which must be in writing and sworn to by the applicant 
or by his agent or attorney. 

And no such restraining order or injunction shall pro- 
hibit any person or persons, whether singly or in concert, 
from terminating any relation of employment, or from 
ceasing to perform any work or labor or from recom- 
mending, advising, or persuading others by peaceful means 
so to do; or from the purpose of peacefully persuading any 
person or persons may lawfully be, for the purpose of 
peacefully persuading any person to work or to abstain 
from working; or from ceasing to patronize or to employ 
any party to such dispute, or from recommending, advising. 



174 Report of Maryland State Board 

or persuading others by peaceful and lawful means so to 
do; or from paying or giving to, or withholding from, any 
person engaged in such dispute, any strike benefits or other 
moneys or things of value; or from peaceably assembling in 
a lawful manner, and for lawful purposes; or from doing 
any act or things which might lawfully be done in the 
absence of such dispute by any party thereto; nor shall 
any of the acts specified in this paragraph be considered 
or held to be violations of aijy law of the United States. 

The Duplex Company sought to enjoin officials of the 
machinists' and affihated unions from interfering with its 
business by inducing their members not to work for plain- 
tiff or its customers in connection with the setting up of 
presses made by it. Unlike Hitchman Coal and Coke 
Company vs. Mitchell, there was no charge that defend- 
ants induced employes to break their contracts, nor was 
it urged in the arguments that defendants threatened 
acts of violence. The defendants admitted interference 
with plaintiff's business but insisted that by the common 
law of New York and by section 20 of the Clayton act, 
the facts constituted a justification for this interference 
with plaintiff's business. Referring to section 20 of the 
Clayton act, Mr. Justice Brandeis in his dissenting opin- 
ion, with whom Mr. Justice Holmes and Mr. Justice Clarke 
concurred, said: 

This statute was the fruit of unceasing agitation which 
extended over more than twenty years and was designed to 
equalize before the law the position of workingmen and em-» 
ployer as industrial combatants. Aside from the use of 
the injunction, the chief source of dissatisfaction with 
the existing law lay in the doctrine of malicious combina- 
tion, and in many parts of the country, in the judicial 
declarations of the illegality at common law of picketing 
and persuading others to leave work. The grounds for 
objection to the latter are obvious. The objection to the 
doctrine of malicious combination requires some explana- 
tion. By virtue of that doctrine, damage resulting from 
conduct such as striking or withholding patronage or 
persuading others to do either, which without more might 
be damnum absque injuria because the result of trade com- 
petition, became actionable when done for a purpose which 
a judge considered socially or economically harmful and 
therefore branded as malicious and economic ideas of 
judges, which thus became translated into law, were preju- 



OF Labor and Statistics 175 

dicial to a position of equality between workingman and 
employer; that due to this dependence upon the indi- 
vidual opinion of judges great confusion existed as to 
• what purposes were lawful and what unlawful; and that in 
any event congress, not the judges, was the body which 
should declare what public policy in regard to the indus- 
trial struggle demands. 

By 1914, the ideas of the advocates of legislation had 
fairly crystallized upon the manner in which the inequality 
and uncertainty of the law should be removed. It was to 
be done by expressly legalizing certain acts regardless of 
the effects produced by them upon other persons. As to 
them congress was to extract the element of injuria from 
the damages thereby inflicted, instead of leaving judges to 
determine according to their own economic and social views 
whether the damage inflicted on an employer in an indus- 
trial struggle was damnum absque injuria, because an in- 
cident of trade competition, or a legal injury, because in 
their opinion, economically and socially objectionable. This 
idea was presented to the committees which reported the 
Clayton act. The resulting law set out certain acts which 
had previously been held unlawful, whenever courts had 
disapproved of the ends for which they were performed; 
it then declared that, when these acts were committed in 
the course of an industrial dispute, they should not be held 
to violate any law of the United States. In other words, 
th^ Clayton act substituted the opinion of Congress as to 
the propriety of the purpose for that of differing judges; 
and thereby it declared that the relations between employ- 
ers of labor and workingmen were competitive relations, 
that organized competition was not harmful and that it 
juustified injuries necessarily inflicted in its course. Both 
the majority and the minority report of the house com- 
mittee indicates that such was its purpose. If, therefore, 
the act applies to the case at bar ,the acts here complained 
of cannot 'be considered or held to be violations of any law 
of the United States,' and hence do not violate the Sherman 
act. 

As a result of the decisions in this and in the Hitch- 
man case it is undeniable that labor has been unjustly- 
stripped of important rights to which it is under law and 
right entitled in the federal courts and unless there is 
some adequate legislative relief it is obvious that certain 
employers throughout the United States who seek to 



176 Report of Maryland Statk Board 

crush labor will take advantage of those decisions and 
insist upon the open shop, so-called, which virtually means 
that labor will be reduced to the same low standard that 
obtained nearly a century ago; that the lot of the work- 
ing man will be the same as it was in mediaeval times, 
that his wages will be a mere pittance, his hours of labor 
intolerable, his home a hovel, his clothes rags, his degra- 
dation as base as in the days now happily passed. 

THE CORONADO CASE 

The Coronado case against the United Mine Workers of 
America, District No. 21, of the mine workers and others 
was brought originally about eight years ago. After a 
legal history not necessary to be detailed, it resulted in a 
judgment which was affirmed in the Circuit Court of i*p- 
peals for the Eighth Circuit in favor of the plaintiffs for 
$625,000, being treble damages under the Sherman act. 
In brief, the defendants, including the United Mine Work- 
ers of America, District No. 21, United Mine Workers of 
America and twenty-seven local unions, were held liable 
for acts of alleged violence which had been committed in 
Arkansas against some seven mines, although the United 
Mine Workers and District No. 21 had no connection with 
any of these alleged acts. The international organization 
was held responsible because of having failed to discipline 
the members of local unions or of District No. 21 and on 
scarcely better grounds was District No. 21 held liable. 
From such decision as stated, an appeal was taken to the 
Supreme Court of the United States and a writ of cer- 
tiorari asked. The case was argued in December and no 
decision up to the preparation of this report has yet been 
announced. 

The substantial fact is that if the decision below is sus- 
tained any international body may be held liable on the 
scantiest suggestion of evidence for the misconduct of in- 
dividuals not directed by them and of whose methods 
they may have no knowledge and be without special 
means of inquiry. For the first time and erroneously, we 
believe, a court has held labor organizations directly re- 
sponsible as if they were incorporated bodies. Irrespec- 
tive of any discussion upon the merits we will anticipate 
that the United States Supreme Court will find it neces- 
sary to sustain the appeal for this among other reasons 
which have their technical as well as legal force. But if 



OF Labor and Statistics 177 

a different view is taken by the Supreme Court of the 
United States no international labor organization may- 
consider itself safe irrespective of any precautions it may 
take and irrespective of its innocence of even technical 
wrongdoing, at least until the federal law has been 
changed. 

It is therefore in the power and in the hands of the 
United States Supreme Court to decide whether the 
United Mine Workers of America and all other voluntary 
organizations of workers are unlawful organizations and 
whether it will be unlawful to belong to them, and sim- 
ply because of membership therein their members be sub- 
ject to civil and criminal laws. It will also determine 
whether any employer or groups of employers doing busi- 
ness with a national or international union are violating 
the laws. If the court determines that eveiy agreement 
held by national or international unions with employers is 
unlawful, this decision will, unless remedied by law, make 
it impossible for the wage-earners of America to organize 
for their protection and the promotion of their rights and 
interests upon the constructive basis as the labor move- 
ment of America now exists. In that event collective bar- 
gaining will be unlawful. Suits will be begun in every 
State where coal is mined. The operators who have had 
contracts with the. United Mine Workers. may sue this 
organization for damages sustained while strikes have 
been in progress. Already the coal operators of several 
States have refused to operate the machinery of the 
agreement for the collection of assessments to aid the 
strikers in West Virginia and other States. 

Other cases have been brought against the United 
Mine Workers of America, based upon the same grounds 
as those involved in the Coronado case. One of these is 
the suit of the Pennsylvania Mining Company. Through 
this persecution, under the guise of prosecution, the funds 
of the United Mine Workers of America have been tied 
up, in perfecting bonds so that the appeal might be made, 
in the sum of over $1,100,000. 

The Executive Council recommend to this conention 
that every effort be made by the American Federation 
of Labor to secure the enactment of a law by Congress 
which will bring relief to the workers from such con- 
ditions. 



178 Rei'ORt of Maryland State Board 

TRUAX VERSUS- CORRIGAN 

A fourth case (one of those awaiting decision) is that 
of Truax vs. Corrigan on appeal to the United States Su- 
preme Court from the State of Arizona. This case was 
ai-gued last April and indirectly involves the constitution- 
ality under the federal constitution of the labor pro- 
visions of the Clayton act, including particularly the right 
of picketing. After the adoption of the Clayton act, the 
State of Arizona pass-ed an enactment similar in all re- 
spects. Its constitutionality under the federal constitu- 
tion was challenged by the plaintiffs who failed in the 
lower court and on appeal in the Supreme Court of the 
State, but thereafter brought their appeal to the United 
States Supreme Court. 

EFFECT OF DECISIONS 

The decision in the cases reported seems to deny the 
privilege of a union to increase its membership and there- 
fore increase its power for collective bargaining by so- 
liciting and persuading workmen to terminate their em- 
ployment in order to join the union. It is difficult to 
reconcile this conclusion with those decisions which per- 
mit striking employes to induce by peaceful persuasion 
others to quit >vork or withhold their patronage from the 
employer. The other cases referred, and still pending for 
final decision, go even further and question the validity 
of trade unions. 

In view of these decisions and the tendency of our 
courts generally to restrict rather than to enlarge the 
workers' right to promote their own welfare, a conference 
was held in the Executive Chamber of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor, February 21, 1921. Those present were: 

Executive Council, American Federation of Labor — Samuel 
Gompers, William Green, W. D. Mahon, Matthew Woll, 
Daniel Tobin, Joseph F. Valentine and Frank Morrison. 

Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric Railway 
Employees of America — W. D. Fitzgerald and L. D. 
Bland. 

International Association of Machinists — William H. John- 
ston. 

United Mine Workers of America — John L. Lewis, Philip 
Murray, John Moore, Percy Tetlow and Walter J. 
James. 



OF Labor and Statistics 179 

Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel and Tin Workers — 
M. F. Tig-he. 

Mining Department of the American Federation of Labor — 
James Lord. 

Union Label Trades Department, American Federation of 
Labor — John J. Manning. 

International Molders' Union of North America — John P. 
Frey. 

Metal Trades Department, American Federation of Labor — 
James O'Connell. 

Legislative Committee, American Federation of Labor- 
Edward F. McGrady, Edgar Wallace and W. C. Rob- 
erts. 

Attorneys — Samuel Montgomery, West Virginia, Miners; 
Harry Warrum, United Mine Workers of America; 
Frank Mulholland, International Association of Ma- 
chinists; Jackson Ralston, American Federation of 
Labor; James S .Bryan, Rochester Central Trades and 
Labor Council; Gilbert E. Roe, New York. 

A thorough discussion of all the angles of these de- 
cisions and their effect on the future of trade unions fol- 
lowed. Suggestions were made as to the best methods 
of combating these decisions and whether it is best to 
promote legislation making such individual contracts un- 
lawful, to take away the powers assumed by the Supreme 
Court, the election of federal judges by the people, or 
such other action as would be a protection to labor. Un- 
derneath all the discussion was the feeling that the trade 
unions will have to adopt some new methods in their ac- 
tivities. 

As a result of this conference and discussion of these 
cases the following proposed legislative measure was 
adopted and agreed to and approved later by the Execu- 
tive Council: 

AN ACT CONCERNING LABOR ORGANIZATIONS 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of the United States of America in Congress assem- 
bled, That it shall not be unlawful for working men and 
women to organize themselves into or carry on labor 
unions and to persuade or induce others to join with them 
for the purpose of regulating the hours of labor, or regulat- 
ing the wages, or otherwise bettering the condition of the 



180 Eei'ort of Maryland State Board 

members of sush organizations, or doing any act iti pur- 
suance thereof not forbidden by law if done by a single 
individual. Labor unions and the individual members 
thereof shall not be liable in damages for the unlawful acts 
of their officers or of other members thereof, unless they 
shall have personally aided, counselled and advised the 
same. 

Section 2. No restraining order or injunction shall be 
granted by any court of the United States or any judge or 
judges thereof in any case involving or growing' out of a 
dispute concerning terms of employment or conditions of 
labor which shall prohibit any person or persons, whether 
singly or in concert, from terminating any relation or con- 
tract of employment or from ceasing to perform any work 
or labor; or from recommending, advising, inducing, or per- 
suading others so to do; or from attending at any place 
where any person or persons might lawfully be for the pur- 
pose of obtaining or communicating information; or from 
inducing or persuading any person, firm or corporation; or 
from recommending, advising, inducing, or persuading 
others so to do; or from paying, or giving to, or withhold- 
ing from any person engaged in such dispute any sti'ike 
benefits or other moneys or things of value; or from doing 
any act or thing which might lawfully be done in the ab- 
sence of such dispute by a single individual. The acts 
specified herein shall not be construed or held to be illegal 
or unlawful in any court of the United States. 

Section 3. No person shall be indicted, prosecuted, or 
tried in any court of the United States for entering into or 
participating in any arrangement, agreement, or combina- 
tion made with a view of joint! action for the purpose of 
regulating the number of hours of labor, or regulating 
wages, or bettering the condition of working men and 
women, or for any act done in pursuance thereof unless 
such act is in itself forbidden by law if done by a single 
individual. 

Section 4. All acts or parts of acts inconsistent here- 
with are hereby repealed. 

In the proposal to exert extraordinary efforts to have 
the foregoing legislative measure enacted into law in 
every State of the Union as well as by our national gov- 
ernment, it is not the intention to subordinate the expres- 
sions and relief declared for by the labor conference held 
in Washington as above noted. In addition to declaring 



OF Labor and Statistics 181 

for legislative redress this conference likewise declared 
for the elimination of all anti-conspiracy laws and doc- 
trines as well as all legal fictions designed to prohibit and 
restrain combinations of wealth, but which in reality have 
only served the purpose of restricting and prohibiting the 
organizations of wage-earners in their voluntary and 
normal activities to improve their conditions of work and 
to promote their standards of life. — Taken from the Re- 
port of Proceedings. 

President Gompers presided over the balance of the 
sessions, which were taken up with addresses, resolu- 
tions, reports of committees and the usual routine of 
business. 

The convention adjourned at 5.50 o'clock P. M., Satur- 
day, June 25th, after selecting Cincinnati as the city in 
which to hold the convention of 1922. 

THE INJUNCTION'S OTHER EDGE 

Double-edged is the injunction weapon, and the hitherto 
unused side of the blade must henceforth be reckoned 
with in labor controversies, say a number of the editors 
who point out the significance of the judicial decision in 
favor of labor which ended the garment workers' strike 
m New York in January, 1922. Organized labor has long 
been fighting the employers' use of the court injunction 
to restrict strike activities, as witness the hostile nick- 
name, "Injunction Bill Taft,' and the epigram, "In case 
•of the injunction in labor disputes, contempt of court is 
respect for law." For years workers have heard our 
courts denounced by their leaders as the seat of "gov- 
ernment by injunction." Labor on its part, as the New 
York Globe notes, "has refrained from seeking injunc- 
tions. Consistency, a belief that on the whole the courts 
were prejudiced against them, poverty, and unfamiliarity 
with the resources of the law have, with other factors, 
explained the reluctance of the unions to go into the 
courts." But now, remarks the New York Herald: 

"The workers find themselves in possession of one of 
those dreadful injunctions. It enjoins their employers 
from further abrogating the bi'oken contract. It opens 
the way for an employees' suit to recover damages. It 
shows the men and women of organized labor that they 
may find in the courts the justice which never can be 
attained through violence and disorder." 



182 Kki'ort of Maryland Statk Board 

Considerations like these lead many a newspaper to 
look upon the issuance of the gaiTnent strike injunction 
by Justice Wag-ner of the New York State Supreme Court 
as, in the New York Evening World's phrase, "a milestone 
in the development of labor law in the United States." 
The facts in the case can be stated briefly. The Cloak, 
Suit and Skirt Manufacturers' Protective Association in 
New York have a three-year agreement with the Inter- 
national Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, covering 
wages and working conditions, which terminates June 1, 
1922. In October the employers, who wanted to hold their 
markets as against other cities, and, as the Brooklyn 
Eagle notes, saw no way of doing so "except by less slack- 
ing, longer hours, and the piece-price plan," tried to intro- 
duce hours and rates inconsistent with the agreement. 
The strike ensued. A temporary injunction in another 
court was made pennanent by Justice Robert F. Wagner 
of the New York State Supreme Court on January 11. 
Justice Wagner calls upon the employers to cease from 
"taking or continuing in any concerted action involving 
the violation or repudiation" of the existing agreement 
with the union. He says of the union's request for an 
injunction: 

"It is elementary and yet sometimes requires emphasis 
that the door of a court of equity is open to employer and 
employee alike. It is no respecter of persons; it is keen 
to prot&ct the legal rights of all. Heretofore the employer 
alone has prayed the protection of a court of equity 
against threatened irreparable illegal acts of the em- 
ploye. 

"But mutuality of obligation compels a mutuality of 
remedy. The fact that the employes have entered 
Equity's threshold by a hitherto untraveled path does not 
lessen their rights to the law's decree. 

"Precedent is not our only guide in deciding these dis- 
putes, for many are worn out by time and made useless 
by the more enlightened and humane conception of social 
justice. That progressive sentiment of advanced civili- 
zation which has compelled legislative action to correct 
and improve conditions which a proper regard for hu- 
manity would no longer tolerate, can not be ignored by 
the courts. Our decisions should be in harmony with 
that modern conception and not in defiance of it. 

"It cannot be seriously contended that the plaintiffs 
have an adequate remedy at law. That the damages re- 



OF Labor and Statistics 183 

suiting from the alleged violation of the agreement would 
be irremediable at law is too patent for discussion. There 
are over 40,000 workers whose rights are involved and 
over 300 defendant organizations. The contract expires 
within six months, and a trial of the issues can hardly 
be held within that time. It is unthinkable that the court 
should force litigants into a court of law. A court of 
equity looks to the substance and essence of things, and 
disregards matters of form and technical niceties." 

The issuance of the Wagner injunction was followed 
by the calling off of the strike and the agreement of the 
employers to reinstate the week-work system and the 
forty-four-hour week. President Benjamin Schlesinger of 
the Garment Workers' Union declares that the decision 
"will be hailed as important by organized labor through- 
out the whole length and breadth of the country, and 
will set a valuable precedent for all similar cases." 

Samuel Untermeyer, counsel for the union, is persuaded 
by the decision that his own belief in "the justice, wisdom 
and efficacy of the injunction in labor disputes" is vindi- 
cated. Morris Hillquit, another attorney for the workers, 
considers the decision "an impowtant moral victory for 
organized labor as a whole." It is an act of "poetic jus- 
tice to hurl one of such missiles against its inventors''; 
but, he continues, "organized labor will not become recon- 
ciled to the use of injunction in labor disputes because 
it may occasionally serve its own ends." In fact, Mr. 
Hillquit hopes that the decision will "tend to make in- 
junctions less popular with employers," and "will lead to 
a radical limitation and eventually the complete abolition 
of judicial interference in labor disputes by the means of 
injunctions." 

The Socialist New York Call, which has been strongly 
behind the garment workers, trusts that Justice Wag- 
ner's sentiments "will be read by his fellow judges 
throughout the United States." This decision, it goes 
on, "opens the way for other judges to put themselves on 
record that in dealing with living things the dead and 
musty past shall not be allowed to tyrannize." 



184 Rei'ort of Maryland State Board 

$608,000,000 EARNED BY ROADS FOR 1921 

By HAKDEN COLFAX 
(Copyright, 1922, by the P.altiniore Sun) 

Earnings of American railroads during 1921, the first 
full year of private operation since 1917, total $608,- 
000,000, or at the rate of 3.3 per cent on the value of the 
properties, taking them as a whole. 

The figures are approximate, as December returns are 
not yet compiled, but are accurate to within a few million 
dollars, one way or the other. 

This showing, which falls half a billion dollars short 
of what the Interstate Commerce Commission planned 
when it raised rates 17 months ago so" that the roads 
might earn approximately 6 per cent, on their invest- 
ment, was accomplished only by dint of drastic retrench- 
ment, which finds a parallel nowhere in the previous his- 
tory of American railroading. It is the smallest return 
to investors, under private control, since 1908, or within 
13 years. 

Executives of the carriers believe that the showing in 
1922 will be much better, although the winter months 
plTobably will be comparatively lean. 

The railroad history of 1921, in the light of fairly com- 
plete figures for the entire year, discloses that freight 
traffic fell oflf nearly 22 per cent from the 1920 volume 
and that passenger traffic declined 19 per cent. In all the 
years of American railroading there has not been so sharp 
a decline. 

The last few months of the year, fortunately, showed 
a steady trend toward better times — a trend that is car- 
rying the roads into 1922 with every indication of a much 
more prosperous year. 

During 1921 the gross receipts of the roads were 
$5,625,000,000. This is $600,000,000 less than they were 
in 1920. On its face this showing is disheartening. But, 
coming to the next item on the annual statement, we find 
that expenses of operation showed a decrease so much 
greater as to be startling. Thanks to cutting expenses 
down to the quick, it cost the roads nearly $1,200,000,00 
less to operate in 1921 than it did in 1920. 

Half of this huge economy was eflfected through a re- 
duction in what the roads call transportation costs. These 
are the cost items of running the freight and passenger 



OF Labor and Statistics 185 

trains, maintaining the offices and stations and keeping 
the machinery of the plant going. In 1920 the roads spent 
$2,907,000,000 in transportation costs; in 1921 they spent 
$2,300,000,000. 

The difference is $607,Q00.000— a sum which equals 
the net earnings for the year. It might be said, sui^pris- 
ingly, that the roads were able to make their 3.3 per cent 
return wholly because of the sharp cut in transportation 
costs, but the record shows many other factors entering 
into the situation. 

For instance, there is the big item of maintaining 
equipment in good shape. On this item alone the roads 
spent nearly $1,600,000,000 in 1920. In 1921 equipment 
was not kept up to the standard set in 1920. The roads 
spent $300,000,000 less on that item. They also spent 
$250,000,000 less on keeping up their roadbeds and main- 
taining the right of way. The total economy effected in 
these two items — and many persons question the real 
economy, claiming that the day of reckoning is coming — 
approximates $550,000,000, or nearly the entire amount 
of net operating income. 

In effecting their policy of retrenchment the roads laid 
off 30 per cent of their working forces in eight months. 
The record shows that in August, 1920, there were 2,197,- 
000 employes on the rolls. By December of that year the 
number had dropped to 1,976,000, and by April to 
1,542,000. That was the low mark. Thereafter the em- 
ployment figures began to climb. In October last more 
than 200,000 more men were on the rolls than in April, 
Out of every three men discharged during the period of 
retrenchment one had been taken back. 

The average earnings of the railroads' employes has 
been so much a subject of contention between the roads 
and their employes that the record on that phase of op- 
eration is of timely interest. 

In 1919, before the general and sweeping increase in 
wages, the average yearly wage of the man on the rail- 
road payroll was $1,486. The following year saw gener- 
ous upward revisions of the wage scales, which carried 
the average to $1,820 for every man in the railroad serv- 
ice. In the first three months of 1921, due to part time 
work and other effects of the economic situation, the av- 
erage wage dropped to $1,792 per year. During the next 
three months it dropped to $1,784. 



186 Kei'ORt of Maryland State Board 

Then came July and the wage decisions. The drop was 
decisive — to $1,573, or at the rate of abot $17 a month 
for every railroad employe. In August, the last month 
for which the figures have been compiled, the average rose 
again, about $54, to approximately $1,627. 

The foregoing figures cover the countrys' transporta- 
tion system as a unit. The earnings, however, were un- 
evenly distributed, the stronger roads earning a higher 
rate than others. Of the 201 carriers whose earnings are 
included in these totals, more than 40, or not far from 
one-fourth of the entire number, operated in 1921 at an 
actual deficit. These roads, for the most part, however, 
are improving their position. 

The following are taken from past and future wage 
levels, compiled by Halbert P. Gillette, editor of Engi- 
neering and Contracting: 

Table I gives the daily wage level for almost every year 
for the last 130 years. It also gives the wage level at 
five year intervals prior, to 1790. 

The last column of Table II gives the relative "real" 
wage, or the buying power of the average wage in Amer- 
ica for the last 130 years. It is deduced by dividing the 
numbiers in the second column by the corresponding num- 
bers in the third column. The buying power of the aver- 
age wage being 100 for the year 1913, it was 50 for the 
year 1860; and 20 for the year 1800. In other words, 
within 113 years the "real" wage of the average worker 
in America had increased fourfold, until it was fivefold 
as great at the end of that period as at the beginning. 
The same astonishing increase occurred in Great Britain. 



OP Labor and Statistics 187 



TABLE I 

WAGE LEVEL OR "INDEX" FOR AVERAGE DAY'S WAGE, 
THE AVERAGE WAGE IN 1913 BEING 100% 





Wage 




Wage 




Wage 




Wage 


fear 


Level 


Year 


Level 


Year 


Level 


Year 


Level 


1752... 


._ 15 


1846 


40 


1873 


75 


1900 


76 


1755... 


15 


1847 


41 


1874 


74 


1901 


80 


1760... 


„. 11 


1848 


42 


1875 


72 


1902 


82 


1765... 


16 


1849 


41 


1876 


..... 69 


1903 


85 


1770... 


15 


1850 


..... 41 


1877 


66 


1904 


85 


1775.... 


,._ 16 


1851 


41 


1878 


64 


1905 


86 


1780... 


19 


1852 


42 


1879 


64 


1906 


91 


1785... 


22 


1853 


... 42 


1880 


65 


1907 


92 


1790 


...:..... 18 
„. 25 


1854 

1855 


..... 43 
44 


1881 

1882 


..... 69 
70 


1908 


89 


1794... 


1909 


90 


1795... 


28 


1856 


44 


1883 


72 


1910 


93 


1797.... 


25 


1857 


45 


1884 


71 


1911 


95 


1800... 


..._ 25 


1858 


44 


1885 


71 


1912 


97 


1802.. 


33 


1859 


45 


1886 


71 


1913 


-.100 


1804 


35 


1860 


45 


1887 


71 


1914 


102 


1805.... 


40 


1861 


46. 


1888 


72 


1915 


103 


1810.... 


>45 


1862 


47 


1889 


74 


1916 


Ill 


1815... 


42 


1863 


54 


1890 


76 


1917 


128 


1820... 


52 


1864 


61 


1891 


77 


1918 


162 


1830 


36 


1865 


68 


1892 


77 


1919 


184 


1835... 


36 


1866 


71 


1893 


76 


1920 


220 


1840... 


37 


1867 


..... 75 


1894 


..... 74 




... 


1841... 


36 


1868 


.... 75 


1895 


74 






1842. 


38 


1869 


76 


1896 


75 






1843... 


38 


1870 


76 


1897 


75 






1844. 


38 


1871 


76 


1898 


..... 76 






1845.... 


39 


1872 


76 


1899 


77 







Note: From 1752 to 1840 these wage levels have been deduced 
by H. P. Gillette from wage statistics given in the annual report of 
the Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor for 1885, as com- 
piled in "Comparative Wages, Prices and Cost of Living," by Carroll 
D. Wright, and^are based mainly on New England wages paid to 
farm labor and to construction labor. From 1840 to 1890, the wage 
levels are those given in the Aldrich Senate Report, No. 1394, and 
are a weighted average of about 20 trades. According to that 
report, the average length of the working dav was 11.4 hours in 
1840; 11 hours in 1860, and 10 hours in 1890. * From 1890 to 1920 
these day wage levels have been deduced by H. P. Gillette from data 
in the monthly Labor Review of the U. S. Bureau of Labor, and in 
the monthly Labor Market Bulletin of the New York State Indus- 
trial Commission and in the monthly Crop Reporter of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture. 



188 Report of Maryland State Board 

TABLE II 

BUYING POWER OF AVERAGE DAILY WAGE IN 
UNITED STATES 

• 

Wholesale Buying 

Year Wage Price Power 

Level Level of Wage 

1790 18 88 20 

1800 28 136 20 

1810 45 136 • 33 

1820 52 96 54 

1830 36 83 43 

1840 37 89 42 

1850 41 83 49 

1860 45 90 50 

1870 76 117 65 

1880 65 93 70 

1890 76 84 90 

1900 76 82 93 

1910 93 97 97 

1913 100 100 100 

1920 220 243 91 

Note: The Buying Power of the Wage is deduced by dividing 
the Wage Level by the Wholesale Price Level. 

The seventeenth annual convention of the Maryland 
State and District of Columbia Federation of Labor was 
convened in Salisbury Monday morning, April 18th, in 
the auditorium of the new Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation Building. Francis J. Drum, president, presided 
over the sessions, which concluded Thursday evening. 
Secretary James stated that 150 delegates attended. 

The visiting delegates were officially greeted in an ad- 
dress of welcome by Mayor W. Arthur Kennerly. 

On Wednesday Glenn H. Plumb, author of the Plumb ' 
Plan, delivered a stirring two-hour address dealing with 
the present conditions of the railroads, and strongly ad- 
vocated his plan as a remedy. 

Immediately following the address of Mr. Plumb officers 
for the ensuing year were nominated, and, as there was 
no opposition slate put in the field, those nominated were 
elected on Thursday. 

Francis J. Drum of Cumberland was selected to head 
the organization for another year, and N. A. James was 
renominated for secretary, but later resigned. Henry 
Broening was elected secretary. The other officers elected 
were: C. C. Coulter, Montgomery County, first vice-presi- 
dent; Gertrude McNally, Washington, D. C, second vice- 



OF Labor and Statistpics 189 

» 

president; Thomas A. Cale, Cumberland, third vice-presi- 
dent; E. F. Isaacs, Baltimore, fourth vice-president; R. 
E. Burlett, Washington, fifth vice-president; R. B. Sny- 
der, Hagerstown, sixth vice-president; E. J. Chapman, 
Wicomico County, seventh vice-president, and J. E, Toone, 
Washington, treasurer. 

A lengthy debate ensued over the election of a dele- 
gate to the American Federation of Labor convention to 
be held in Denver this June. Frank J. Coleman of Wash- 
ington, D. C, was finally selected to represent the Mary- 
land Federation. 

The treasurers' report was as follows: 

Balance on hand, April, 1920 $ 905.17 

Receipts for year ending April, 1921 1929.35 

Total - $2834.52 

Expenses for year ending April, 1921 1815.65 

Balance in bank - $1018.87 

The meeting adjourned in the afternoon of Thursday, 
April 21st, subject to the call of the chairman. 

BALTIMORE LOCALS 

Asbestos Workers No. 11: 

Lewis Holland, 223 N. Rose St. 
Automatic Machine and Flow Operators No. 118 of Glass 
Bottle Blowers' Association: 

Wm. A. Murphy, 1927 Hollins St. 

Bakers No. 209 : 
President, F. Siskis. 
H. Hui-witz, 24 S. Washington St. 

Bakers and Confectioners No. 67: 

President, Hy. Neil, 1606 Clifton Place. 

Secretary, Louis Homrighmen, 424 N. Greene St. 
Barbers, Jour. International No. 241: 

G. W. Sanders, 800 E. 41st St. 

Beverage Dispensers No. 532: 

Bernard Stern, care Lyric Hotel, Maryland Ave. and 
Mt. Royal Ave. 

Beer and Soft Drink Bottlers No. 258 : 
Geo. Mauler, 719 S. Robinson St. 



190 REroRT OF Maryland State Board 

Beer Drivers Local No. 173: 

John A. Banz, 1122 Harford Ave. 
Bill Posters and Billers Alliance No. 36: 

P. 0. Box 833, Baltimore. 

Edw. F. Raysinger, 1822 N. Rutland Ave. 

Bindery Women No. 123: 

Mrs. B. McGonigle, 2405 Laurette Ave. 
Brotherhood Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders and Help- 
ers No. 193: 

J6hn Shallow, 46 E. Williamson St. 

James Chaney, 1419 Patapsco St. (Sec.) 
Brotherhood Blacksmiths and Helpers No. 240 : 

Secretary, B. L. Martin, 1728 Harford Ave. 
Book Binders No. 44: 

Jesse Griffith, 12 Eutaw Ave., Gardenville. 
Brewery Workers No. 8: 

John Neietzel, 1918 W. Lanvale St. 

Brewery Engineers and Firemen No. 177: 
O. H. Smith, 1724 N. Collington Ave. 

Boilermakers and Iron Ship Builders and Helpers No. 63: 
Pres. and Agent, Jesse Francis, 4118 E. Lombard St. 
Secretary, Arthur C. White, 1034 N. Appleton St. 

Cigar Makers No. 1 : 

Gus Mechau, Electro Mechanical Building, Calvert and 
Franklin Sts. 

Clothing Cutters and Trimmers No. 15: 

Secretary, Gus Franz, 819 S. Paca St. 

G. A. Ott, Agent, Emerson Tower Building. 
Coopers Local LInion No. 32: • 

Henry Kappauf, 329 S. Bentalou St. 

Wm. F. Weiss, Treas., 13 Anthony Av., Raspeburg, Md. 

Custom Ladies' Tailors No. 101: 
Joseph Tichy, 219 N. Gilmor St. 

Coopersmiths No. 80: 

Henry J. Menning, Secretary, 910 E. Biddle St. 

Elevator Constructors No. 7 : 

L. 0. Dorsey, 2411 W. North Ave. 

Electrical Workers No. 28: 

Frank J. Meeder, Secretary, 20 N. East Ave. 
Thomas J. Fagen, 1222 St. Paul St. 

Eastern and Gulf Sailors' Association: 
C. Rasmussen, 1710 Thames St. 



OF Labor and Statistics 191 

Federal Employes' L. U.. No. 155: 

Wm. H. Swann, 23 Custom House Building, 

Flint Glass Workers No. 90: 

Secretary, John Hulson, 414 E. 26th St. 

James F. Hollingsworth, Fin. Sec, Westpoii;, Md. 

Federal Labor Union No. 10875: 

F. J. Kohrs, 1108 E. Federal St. 

Westley Brannan, Bus. Agent, 405 S. East Ave. 
Federal Employe Union No. 21, Custom House: 
Goodman Isaac, Secretary, 325 Custom House. 
Charles L. Wiegand, President, Custom House. 

Federal Employe Union No. 147: 

Edw. F. Sneider, U. S. Coast Guard, Depot South Bal- 
timore P. 0., Md. 
Federal Employes Union No. 180 : 

Geo. Kell, Secretary, Aberdeen, Md. 

James Cpllins, Fin. Sec, Box 142, Ferryman, Md. 

Federal Employes L. U. No. 124: 

Basil E. Moore, 158 Conduit Ave., Annapolis, Md. 

Firemen and Oilers No. 516, International Brotherhood: 

W. G. Roberts, Secretary, 3337 Payne St., Hampden, 
Baltimore, Md. 
Federal Employes' Union No. 193: 

J. A. Boyd, 808 N. Calvert St. 
Federal Employes' L. U. No. 163: 

C. J. Amrheim, Secretary, 500 N. Washington St. 

President, B. A. Blain, 339 S. Bouldin St. 

Federal Employes' L. U. No. 209: 
Clarence M. Diggs, Secretary. 

Freight Handlers' No. 17393: 

James M. Whittington, 1316 N. Strieker St. 

Glass Bottle Packers Branch No. 80: 
George Mechs, 709 W. Hamburg St. 
George Bartlett, Box 154, Raspeburg, Md. 

Glass Bottle Blowers No. 9: 

George W. Speaks, Jr., 410 N. Hilton St. 

Garment Workers No. 244 (United) : 
George Metzger, 1200 N. Central Ave. 

Garment Workers' L. U. No. 167 (United) : 

G. 0. Ott, 702 Emerson Tower Building.. 

Hair Spinners No. 12353 : 

J. Wieber 3,704 Old Frederick Road. . 



192 Rei'ORT of Maryland State Board 

Horseshoers, Jour. No. 2: 

John T. Keefer, 1208 Cross St. 

Hod Carriers' Building and Commission Laborer Inter- 
national No. 644: 
James A. Nilson, Secretary, 882 Pierce St. 

Iron Moulders No. 19: 

John Kemper, Secretary, 2815 Parkwood Ave. 
Wm. Irwin, President, 2713 Belair Ave. 

Iron Moulders No. 24 (Stove) : 

Fred Detzel, 2132 Orleans St. 
Letter Carriers' Branch No. 176, Natl. Assn. : 

M. J. McHugh, 1800 E. Fairmount Ave. 
Lithographers' Prot. and Benf . Assn. No. 18 : 

Robert Bircher, President, Guilford Ave. 

Edw. Miller, 1815 Poplar Grove St. 

Longshoremen's Assn. No. 828: 

N. H. Ridgeway, 1466 Stevenson St. 

W. Zeidler, Treasurer, 1454 William St. 

Ernest A. Frestes, President. 
Ladies' Garment Workers No. 4 (Intl.) : 

Miss Hannah J. Hurwitz, 1441 E. Baltimore St. 

Samuel Goldberg, Treasurer. 

Ladies' Garment Workers No. 110 (Cutters) : 

Edward Sautter, 1441 E. Baltimore St. 
Longshoremen's Assn. No. 829: 

James Bukourka, Secretary, 2234 Fleet St. 

Longshoremen's Assn. No. 858: 

N. R. Jones, Secretary, 323 N. Strieker St. 
Chas. A. Nilson, 1340 Argyle Ave. 

Longshoremen's Assn. No. 921 : 

Geo. L. Brigerman, 1503 E. Clement St. 

Longshoremen's Assn. No. 953 (Deepwater Talleymen) : 
Thomas Dunn, 1502 Belt St. 

Machinists No. 405 : 

Howard Anderson, 210- E. Lexington St. 

Machinists' L. U. No. 186 My Md. Lodge: 

Geo. E. Wedmore, VanSant Bldg, 210 E. Lexington St. 

Charles Hayes, Secretary, 1662 Gorsuch Ave. 
Marine Firemen, Oilers and Water Tenders: 

P. J. Keane, Agent, 804 S. Broadway. 

Marine Cooks and Stewart Assn. of Atlantic and Gulf: 
Harry J. Myers, Agent, 1719 Thames St. 



OF Labor and Statistics . 193 

Master Mates and Pilots, Rescue Harbor No. 14, Amer- 
ican Association: 

Robert S. Lavender, 3038 Guilford Ave. 
Metal Polishers, Buffers, Brass and Silver Workers: 

Adam A. Reed, 1022 Aisquith St. 
Moving Picture Operatives No. 181 : 

N. Basil Morgan, 419 E. Baltimore St. 

G. Kingston Howard, President, 419 E. Baltimore St. 
Marine Engineers' Beneficial Association No. 5: 

Nicholas S. Harp, 1827 E. Lafayette Ave. 

Musical Union No. 543 (Colored) : 

Harrison Watts, President, 1607 Riggs Ave. 
Alex. Stevens, Secretary, 1412 Myrtle Ave. 

Musical Union No. 40: 

Thomas Francis, Secretary, 525 W. Lanvale St. 

R. M. Packard, 1808 E. Chase St. 
Paper Bag Workers' Union : 

Miss Loretta Dowd, 1109 W. Franklin St. 

Postoffice Clerks' Nat. Fed. No. 101 : 
Thomas B. Mevshaw. 
Anthony A. Smith, 2226 Cecil Ave. 

Paper Hangers No. 295: 

Thomas H. Cullington, Halethorpe, Md. 

Pattern Makers' Association : 

Wm. G. Araal, 1502 N. Madeira St. 
John W. Treder, 2808 Philadelphia Ave. 

Photo Engravers No. 2: 
Harry T. White, 
Albert Catelain, 2911 McElderry St. 

Plasterers' Union No, 155 (Oper.) 

George 0. Barnes, 747 W. Lexington St. 

Plumbers' and Gas Fitters' L. U. No. 48: 
W. J. Duthie, 704 Knickerbocker Building. 
J. N. Meekens, 1462 Woodall Street. . 

Printing Pressmen and Assistants No. 61 : 

James A. Evans, Secretary, 613 N. Washington St. 

Piano-Organ Instrumental Workers No. 4: 
Ferd H. H. Rock, 616 N. Lakewood Ave. 

Painters' and Decorators' L. U. No. 1: 
George N. Fehle, 529 N. Castle St. 

Pressmen's Union No. 31 (Web) : 
Vernon Smink, 416 Augusta Ave. 



194 Report ok Maryland Statk Board 

Rammers' Local Union No. 30: 

Steve Albright, President 1714 N. Regester St. 

Riggers and Machinery Movers No. 223: 

Wm. L. Boarman, 2001 E.. Pratt St. 
Railway Carmen No. 900: 

J. J. Tahaney, 1350 Herkimer St. 
Steam and Oper. Engineers No. 272: 

Fred W. Heuer, 1004 W. Lafayette Ave. 
Steam and Oper. Engineers No. 37: 

Wm. H. Hall, 1518 Carswell St. 

Stereotypers' Union No. 10: 
B. F. Appold, 307 S. Monroe St. 
R. A. Gellnes, 1737 Pennsylvania Ave. 

Structural Iron Workers No. 16, 37 Franklin Building: 
Dan. Scanlon, 1222 St. Paul St. 

Sheet Metal Workers No. 122 : 

Calvert Jones, 3724 Old York Road. ^ 

Ship Painters' L. U. No. 148 : 

John Quarles, Secretary, 2019 Penrose Ave. 
George Eye, President, Raspeburg, Md. 

Steam Fitters and Helpers No. 438 : 
Harry Leonard, 1623 E. Preston St. 
Fred Adam, President, St. Helena. 

Sprinkler Fitters No. 669: 

J. A. Mitchell, 2522 Ashton St. 

James F. Schafer, President, 12 Eutaw St. 

Stenographers, Typewriters, Bookkepers and Assistants: 
Miss L. Mahoney, 817 N. Charles St. 

Street Electric Railway No. 963 Amer. Asso. : 
Charles C. Roe, President, 2709 Hampden Ave.. 
John A. King, 100 E. Wylie Ave. 

Taxicab Drivers and Chauffeurs No. 271 : 

George Sampson, Secretary, 623 Dunbarton Ave. 

Theatrical Stage Employes No. 19: 
M. J. Fitzgerald, 1019 McCulloh St. 
G. Pittman, Secretary 515 N. Strieker St. 

Typographical Union No. 11, GeiTnan-American : 
Steven P. Pensky, 1932 W. Mulberry St. 

Typographical Union No. 12: 

A. W. Rutherford, 210 E. Lexington St. 
Upholsterers No. 101 : 

Herbert Keene, 1809 E. Gough St. 



OF Labor and Statistics 195 

Upholsterers No. 104: 

Carl J. Lorenz, 2028 Frederick Ave. 

United Gamient Workers No. 7: 
Mrs. F. Arnold, 517 Streeper St. 

Womens' Trade Union League : 

Miss Lucille Lippitt, Treasurer 1224 Light St. 
Miss Aimee Weber, 1302 W. Lexington St. 

Waiters' L. U. No. 717: 

W. J. Scorti, Secretary 126 N. Paca St. 

Waist, Dress and White Goods Workers No. 72: 

Agnes Stein, 1023 E. Baltimore St. 
Waiters' L. U. No. 836 (Colored) 

George Bell, Secretary, 403 Presstman St. 

Yeast Workers No. 323 : 

Michael Sweeney, President, 418 E. 20th St. 
John C. Nagel, Secretary, 108 N. Belnord Ave. 

Carpenters' Local Union No. 101. 

J. A. Witt, 715 N. Eutaw St. ' ' 

Coat Makers No. 36 : 

Samuel Rudow, 4 S. Central Ave. 

Dock Builders and Pile Drivers No. 1909 : 

Joseph Flaherty, 3214 Fait Ave. 
Granite Cutters: 

Robert Oliver, 613 W. West St. 

F. W. Hayden, 36 W. West St. 
Longshoremen No. 876 (Lumber Handlers) : 

Simon Woodson, Secretary, 1312 N. Strieker St. 
Potters' National Brotherhood Oper. No. 11: 

George G. Kastner, 736 S. Linwood Ave. 
Pants Makers No. 114, U. G. W. of A.: 

Miss Anna Mayer, 1803 E. Lombard St. 
Ship Carpenters and Joiners No. 318: 

Wm. A. Roberts, 439 E. 28th St. 
Sign and Pictorial Painters No. 1143: 

Charles Smack, 4804 Park Heights Ave. 

Slate and Tile Roofers: 

W. F. Zucker, 6 S. East Ave. 

Stone Pavers No. 20: 

J. J. Dulaney, 918 Bennett Place. 

Teachers of Baltimore L. U. No. 115: 
John A. Kratz, 4302 Springdale Ave. 



196 REroRT OP Maryland State Board 

Upholsterers No. 102: 

Walter Nelker, 1602 Clifton Ave. 
Wall Paperers No. 953: 

LOCALS NOT CONNECTED WITH THE FEDERATION 

Bricklayers No. 1 : 

I. Louis Wonder, Business Agt., Gay and Frederick Sts. 
Hod Carriers: 

Nelson J. Lyles, Secretary, 1902 Etting St. 

Wood, Wire and Metal Lathers: 

Wm. E. Pennington, Secretary, 2514 E. Federal St. 
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America: 

801 E. Baltimore St. 



OF Labor and Statistics 197 

BALTIMORE CITY 

An Outline Of The Origin And Growth Of Baltimore With 

A Brief Summary Of Its Present Conditions 

And Advantages 

(Taken from Baltimore Municipal Journal.) 

In 1607 the first pemianent settlement was made in 
Virginia by the English. In 1624 King James I arbi- 
trarily deprived the Virginia Company of its charter and 
made Virginia a royal province; and in 1632 gave to one 
of his secretaries, Sir George Calvert, absolute propriet- 
ary rights to a portion of it which included not only what 
is now Maryland but the whole State of Delaware and a 
large part of Pennsylvania. 

Sir George Calvert, after obtaining this concession, 
never set foot again in America ; but after his death the 
grant was confirmed to his son, Cecilius Calvert, the first 
lord proprietary of Maryland. He, however, never took 
up his residence in Maryland, but sent his brother, Leon- 
ard Calvert, with colonists to St. Mary's, where a govern- 
ment was established in which absolute religious tolera- 
tion was included. 

All the rivers that empty into the Chesapeake Bay had 
been explored by John Smith in 1608, including the Pa- 
tapsco, at the head of which in course of time grew a 
village called Baltimore, in honor of the first lord pro- 
prietary. Sir George Calvert was made a peer with the 
title of Baron Baltimore in 1625. 

This little place was not very important at first ; in 1729 
Baltimore Town was laid out and in 1768 became the coun- 
ty town; in 1797 the population was about twenty thou- 
sand, the town was incorporated and the first Mayor, 
James Calhoun elected. In 1870 it was made a port of 
entry. The excellence of its geographical situation and its 
harbor, however, soon caused Baltimore to outsl;iip in 
size and in cortimercial importance the other towns of the 
State, although Annapolis, the seat of the State govern- 
ment, for a long time remained the social capital, and is 
today, with its beautiful and dignified old residences, 
probably the best surviving example of an old colonial 
town in America. 

Annapolis is on the Severn river, about an hour's jour- 
ney from Baltimore by electric railway and is now famous 



198 Report of Maryland State Board 

the world over as the seat of the United States Naval 
Academy. 

From such small beginnings grew the modern Balti- 
more, one of the important cities of the world, with a 
population of three-quarters of a million, an area of 92 
square miles, a taxable basis of more than one billion 
dollars and bank resources of four hundred millions. 

ADVANTAGES OF BALTIMORE TODAY 

SOCIAL 

As a dwelling place Baltimore is unsurpassed. Acres of 
small, modern houses, for the most part owned by the 
occupants, ensure a healthy and contented class of labor. 
Many beautiful suburbs, now in the city limits, relieve the 
old-time congestion in the residential sections. It is one 
of the best paved cities in the United States. Jones' 
Falls, once an open sewer, is covered with a driveway 
from the harbor to Mt. Royal Avenue, lighted with th*? 
system of white lights in common with all the other great 
thoroughfares. 

The universities, hospitals, theatres, libraries, schools, 
churches, markets and parks, together with the prover- 
bial courtesy and hospitality of the people, combine in 
attracting a good class of population. 

INDUSTRIAL 

Baltimore leads the United States in the manufacture 
of straw hats, fertilizers, cotton duck and canned goods; 
and is active in many other fields. The largest copper- 
refining, tin-decorating, sulphuric acid and tidewater steel 
plants in the world are here. The municipality co-oper- 
ates with the citizens in- encouraging industries. All 
manufacturing tools, machinery, raw materials, goods in 
stock and in process, bills receivable and business credits 
due the manufacturer are exempt from municipal taxa- 
tion. Baltimore is the center of the bonding, security 
and casualty insurance business. 

COMMERCIAL 

The harbor is Baltimore's greatest asset. Land-locked, 
with a maximum tide of fifteen inches only, and a 35 
foot channel to the Atlantic Ocean, it is served by three 



OF Labor and Statistics 199 

trunk lines, two belt railways connecting them, grain 
elevators with ten million bushels capacity, 47 railroad 
and municipal piers, 4 ore piers, coal piers with a ca- 
pacity of 10,000 tons an hour, the largest drydock on the 
Atlantic coast and six others, railroad yard capacity for 
15,000 and ground storage for 14,000 freight cars, Th6re 
are 52 regular steamship liner services operating steam- 
ers to more than 100 foreign ports. 

Baltimore, being near to the great coal fields, has an 
advantageous freight differential and is the nearest At- 
lantic port to the center of population, is nearer than San 
Francisco to the Panama Canal, has the cheapest gas and 
electric power on the Atlantic coast, one of the best sew- 
erage and disposal systems in the world, high pressure 
service for fire protection, the most modern fire boats, 
underground wires and an excellent street car service. 

CLIMATE 

There is sufficient variation to escape the enervating 
effect of an even temperature throughout the year; yet 
there is not in Baltimore the extreme heat of the South 
nor the bitter cold of the North. The mean temperature 
in spring is 53.4, in summer 75.1, in autumn 57.4 and in 
winter 35.3 degrees. The average annual rainfall is 42.5 
inches, the number of days without rain 245 a year. The 
prevailing wind is southwest and the average velocity is 
6.6 miles an hour. 

The population of Baltimore, according to the census 
of 1920, is 733,826; the area of the city is 91.93 square 
miles. 

GEOGRAPHICAL ADVANTAGES OF THE PORT OF 

BALTIMORE 

Baltimore is nearer the center of population of the 
United States than Philadelphia, New York or Boston. 
It is nearer the centers of the greatest proportion of im- 
proved farm lands which are located, in order of rank, in 
Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, Illinois, Iowa and. Missouri; 
nearer the leading corn states (Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, 
Missouri, Nebraska, and Ohio) ; and nearer the centers of 
largest wheat production in the Western and Middle 
Western States. Baltimore is closely connected by short 
distance rail routes with the chemical plants of New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Michigan and Ohio ; also 



200 Keport of Maryland State Board 

with the pig-iron and steel centers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
Illinois, New York and Indiana. It is also connected 
with the important centers of the following industries: 
Electrical machinery in New York, Pennsylvania and New 
Jersey ; cars and car repair parts in Pennsylvania, Illinois 
and Ohio; carriages and wagons in Ohio, Indiana and 
Illinois; automobiles in Michigan, Ohio, Indiana and New 
York; as well as with the coal mining centers in Penn- 
sylvania, Illinois, West Virginia, Ohio and Indiana. In 
fact, according to the United States census of 1910, 43.6 
per cent of the products manufactured in this country 
are located in states which are directly connected with 
Baltimore by shorter rail routes than other ports. 

The following table of distances vividly demonstrates 
Baltimore's advantage over the competitive ports of Phil- 
adelphia and New York in shorter rail distances to large 
manufacturing points. 

SHORTEST RAIL DISTANCES IN MILES 

To To To 
Baltimore Philadelphia New York 

Buffalo 395 415 396 

South Chicago 780 802 889 

Cincinnati 560 654 744 

Cleveland 453 478 571 

Detroit 624 649 732 

Indianapolis 670 718 804 

Louisville 702 796 837 

Pittsburgh 328 346 433 

St. LQuis 896 959 1046 

Toledo 566 591 684 

The distance from Baltimore to the Panama Canal is 
but 1,901 miles, while from San Francisco to the Canal 
it is 3,245. 

The short haul from the great Middle Western terri- 
tory manufacturing so large a part of this country's ex- 
ports makes possible lower inland freight rates than to 
and from Boston, New York or Philadelphia. On all com- 
modities, except grain, from this territory Baltimore en- 
joys a three cent per 100 pounds differential on exports 
under New York and Boston and one cent under Phila- 
delphia. On grain all-rail from the West the differential 
in favor of Baltimore as compared with New York is 1^/2 
cents per 100 pounds when for export. On ex-Lake grain 
from West Fairport, Erie and Buffalo elevators the dif- 
ferential in favor of Baltimore as against New York is 
one-half of a cent per 100 pounds when for export. 



OF Labor and Statistics 201 

PILGRIMAGES THROUGH BALTIMORE TO AMER- 
ICAN SHRINES 

By WILLIAM M. BRITTAIN 
General Manager Export and Import Board of Trade 

Below will be found an array of some of the most in- 
teresting American historical scenes which are at, or 
within easy reach of, the termini of the passenger coast- 
wise steamship lines, radiating from Baltimore North, 
East and South. 

These Baltimore coastwise passenger steamship sei'v- 
ices are: 

The Merchants and Miners Transportation Company: 
To Boston, Mass. ; Providence, R. I. ; Savannah, Ga. ; Jack- 
sonville, Fla. 

The line to Boston and Providence connects by boat or 
rail, or both, with all historical points in New England, 
the Eastern and Maritime provinces of Canada and the 
State of New York. 

The line to Savannah and Jacksonville connects by boat 
or rail with all Southern points, the Gulf ports (Mobile, 
New Orleans and Galveston), and the West Indies. 

The Chesapeake Steamship Company: To Old Point 
Comfort, Va.; Norfolk, Va.; Richmond, Va. (via York 
River) . 

The Baltimore Steamship Packet Company: To Old 
Point Comfort, Va.; Norfolk, Va. 

These lines connect their Southern termini either by 
boat or rail with all historical points located in the penin- 
sulas between the Potomac and the James Rivers, as well 
as all such points South of the James. 

It has been asserted that there are a greater number of 
scenes of national historic interest between Baltimore and 
the territory served by these lines than any other section 
of the United States. 

The Baltimore and Philadelphia Steamboat Co.: To 
Philadelphia, Pa., (via Chesapeake Bay, Chesapeake and 
Delaware Canal and Delaware River.) 

Baltimore itself is the nearest Atlantic seaport to the 
national capital, with its galaxy of historic landmarks, be- 
ing but 45 minutes travel by rail. 

The city and harbor of Baltimore, with their environs, 
abound in historic interest. Here are Fort McHenry 



202 Report op Maryland State Board 

whose flag inspired Francis Scott Key to write the "Star 
Spangled Banner," our national anthem, also the battle- 
field of North Point where the British forces were de- 
feated and their general killed in the attempt to capture 
Baltimore. The battlefield of Antietam, one of the most 
sanguinary of the Civil War, is within a short distance 
from Baltimore by rail. 

Less than an hour's ride by rail from Baltimore is An- 
napolis, the capital of Maryland, and the State House 
within which is marked the spot where George Wash- 
ington stood when he resigned his commission as Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the American Army; and the Naval 
Academy, whose chapel contains the body of John Paul 
Jones. 

Between Washington and the Rappahannock and York 
Rivers in Virginia are: 

Alexandria, Va., with the Marshall House, the Brad- 
dock House, the Lodge of Free Masons of which George 
Washington was Master, and Christ Church of which he 
was a warden; 

Arlington, once the home of General Robert E. Lee, and 
now a national cemetery; 

Mount Vernon, the home of General Washington, where 
he and his wife, Martha Custis, died and the tomb in 
which they are buried; 

Some of the most important and decisive battles of the 
Civil War were fought in this territory, notably Bull Run, 
Fredericksburg, Spottsylvania, and The Wilderness. 

Between the York and the James Rivers, in Virginia, 
may be easily reached from the termini of the Chesa- 
peake Steamship Company and the Baltimore Steam 
Packet Company: 

Yorktown, where Comwallis surrendered and where 
may still be seen some of the American fortifications, 
the Moore House, in which the articles of capitulation 
were formulated, and the Nelson House, whose owner was 
one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence; 

Jamestown, the first permanent settlement of English 
colonists, ^vith its old church in which Pocahontas is said 
to have been baptized and its tombstones over the graves 
of the founders ; 

Williamsburg, with William and Mary College and 
Bruton Parish Church. In the latter may be seen the 



OF Labor and Statistics 203 

communion vessels presented by Queen Anne. George 
Washington and several of the leading participants in 
the Revolutionary War worshipped in this church and 
their names are inscribed on their pews. 

All of this territory is intimately associated with the 
scenes of the intercourse between the first settlers and 
the Indian Chief Powhatan. 

Along both banks of the James River may still be seen 
several colonial mansions, some of which, such as Shirley 
and Brandon, are still in possession of the descendants of 
their original proprietors. One of these families, the 
Harrisons of Brandon, have given two President to the 
United States, one of whom signed the Declaration of 
Independence. 

At the entrance of the James River, near Newport 
News, occurred the world-renowned encounter between 
the Monitor and the Merrimac. 

South of the James River, the City of Norfolk possesses 
several reminders of its bombardment by the British dur- 
ing the Revolution. St. Paul's Church still has a cannon 
ball embedded visibly in its walls. 

Petersburg, Va., with its crater and numberless relics 
of the fortifications erected by the Federal and Confed- 
erate forces will well repay a visit. 

Richmond, Va., probably contains more points of his- 
toric interest, particularly in connection with the Civil 
War, than any other American City. Here are the Con- 
federate White House, occupied by Jefferson Davis as 
President while Richmond was the capital of the Con- 
federacy; also Hollywood Cemetery, where President 
Davis and three Presidents of the United States are 
buried. 

Somewhat further South is Roanoke Island, N. C, 
where may still be seen the outlines of the fort occupied 
by Sir Walter Raleighs' lost colony, whose advent to this 
continent ante-dated both Jamestown and Plymouth. 

Savannah, Ga., contains several interesting historical 
landmarks. Here ended Sherman's March to the sea. 

Within a few miles distance is Charleston, S. C, with 
its famous Fort Sumter and Fort Moultrie, where the 
first shot of the Civil War was fired. St. Michael's Church 
and the burial place of John C. Calhoun attract many 
visitors. Here also may be seen the first Huguenot 
Church erected in the United States. 



204 Report of Maryland State Board 

Within easy reach by rail from Savannah is Montgom- 
ery, Ala., on the portico of whose State Capital may be 
viewed the tablet which indicates the spot where Jeffer- 
son Davis was inaugurated as President of the Confed- 
eracy, Montgomery having been the first capital before 
the seat of the government was transferred to Richmond 
when the State of Virginia seceded. 

Connection may be made from Jacksonville, Fla., to St. 
Augustine, Fla., and New Orleans, La., both of which 
cities contain much historic interest. 

In Philadelphia, Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell 
are the mecca of attraction. 

Valley Forge can best be reached from this city. 
The battlefield of Gettysburg can be visited either from 
Philadelphia, Baltimore or Washington. 

The city of Frederick, Md., where Barbara Fritchie 
waved the Union flag, is close to Gettysburg. 

BALTIMORE'S RISE AS A GREAT OVERSEAS PORT 
DATES FROM FIRST DAYS OF WAR 

By G. H. POUDER 

Export and Import Board of Trade of Baltimore 
(Reprinted from The Nautical Gizette of New York) 

"Baltimore — the most Western of the Eastern ports, 
the most Northern of the Southern ports, the most South- 
em of the Northern ports." 

With this slogan and a realization of the possibilities in 
the development of its unsurpassed natural advantages, 
the port of Baltimore has risen from a relatively unim- 
portant position in the foreign commerce of the United 
States to become a significant factor in the country's 
overseas trade and an active competitor for a large pro- 
portion of the commerce moving in and out of the North- 
ern Atlantic ports. 

ACTIVITIES IN COLONIAL DAYS 

The maritime history of Baltimore should assure a 
shipping and trading future of great promise. In early 
Colonial Maryland the records show that in the seafaring 
activities of the time Baltimore played no inconsiderable 
part, more than 80 vessels owned by Marylanders being 
listed in the naval office as engaged in the carriage of 



OP Labor and Statistics 205 

tobacco alone. An early advantage came when the almost 
continuous European wars from 1792 to 1815 largely in- 
terrupted trade between Great Britain and her colonies 
m the Western Hemisphere, and the United States, the 
only neutral country of consequence, entered a period of 
trade expansion in the transportation of cargoes between 
Europe, South America, and the West Indies. 

Baltimore gained a considerable share of this trade be- 
cause of its proximity to the wheat regions of Maryland, 
Virginia and Pennsylvania, its extensive milling industry 
and its geographical location for the service of the West 
Indian and South American markets. These advantages 
M'ere promoted by the rise of the Baltimore clipper, the 
situation of the city and the speed of this type of craft 
making it possible to deliver cargoes to the West Indies 
and to South American ports at least 48 hours earlier 
than the shipment could be made from New York. 

When the British Government sought, by its Orders in 
Council, to prevent commerce between neutral and Euro- 
pean Continental ports without first touching at a British 
port, it was the Baltimore clipper, with its superb sailing 
qualities combined with the daring of its crews and the 
enterprise of the owners, that was able to outwit the 
British and French warships endeavoring to enforce these 
regulations. 

At the conclusion of the European troubles Baltimore's 
import and export trade rose steadily, being confined 
largely to an exchange of wheat for coffee to and from 
South America. Full cargoes were assured both ways 
during this period, from 1825 to 1860, and the population 
of Baltimore became distinctly one that looked seaward. 
During the Civil War the shipping activities of the port 
were disrupted by blockades, hostile raids and the com- 
mandeering of the railroads by the government. Much 
business was lost by the destruction of locally owned ves- 
sels and the ports of New York and Philadelphia assumed 
a precedence that has never been taken from them. 

In late years the first real opportunity for the port of 
Baltimore tp become an important factor in the shipping 
of the country has presented itself. The gradual drift- 
ing of th€ manufacturing center of the countiy to the 
Middle West and the shifting of the tide of production 
from New England has given prominence to the geo- 
graphical location of Baltimore as the logical inlet and 
outlet for this great Western territory. 



206 REroRT ov Maryland State Board 

Baltimore's labor conditions have proved superior to 
those of any other Atlantic port. Despite the efforts of 
the professional agitators from New York to induce the 
Baltimore stevedores and allied harbor workmen to strike 
in sympathy with the same class of labor elsewhere, the 
local men persistently refused to do so. As a result of 
labor difficulties other Atlantic ports have more or less 
constant expensive and vexatious congestion of traffic, 
and interior exporters and importers have sought, as a 
consequence, relief by forwarding their shipments 
through Baltimore. 

Statistics on the valuation of the ports business may 
be condensed in a short statement, and are as follows from 
1912 to 1920, inclusive. 

' ■ Imports Exports 

1912 $26,438,400 $ 92,210,877 

1913 32,895,238 116,474,439 

1914 34,489,544 109,440,593 

1915 ,.. 24,982,898 131,978,498 

1916 27,808,916 180,703,374 

1917 43,972,790 374,033,121 

1918 29,155,693 336,079,033 

1919 38,900,433 353,713,139 ' 

1920 69,824,171 381,560,802 

/ 

With the Export and Import Board of Trade as propon- 
ent, an Enably Act for $52,500,000 for port development 
was placed before the Legislature of the State of Mary- 
land early in 1920, passed by that body, and the first 
$10,000,000 portion ratified almost unanimously by the 
people at the November elections. The money assures 
additional piers, warehouses, and other equipment essen- 
tial to a port with such possibilities for expansion. 

Baltimore has begun to look seaward and to appreciate 
the commercial future assured by its unequaled natural 
harbor and its fortunate geographical location. Its citi- 
zens are exhibiting an altogether new interest in the sea 
and the ships that go down to it, the world that lies out- 
side of Baltimore and the possibilities of active, absorbing 
lucrative trade. The progress of the past two years has 
been notable, but Baltimore's enthusiasm and initiative 
are promising even greater things for the future. 



. OF Labor and Statistics 207 

BUSINESS OF PORT OF BALTIMORE 

The growing iriiportance of rhf port of Baltimore has been emphasized 
recently by the interest manifested in', it by traders in the Xear East or 
the Levant. The Merchants and Manufacturers' Association received a 
communication from the American Chamber of Commerce asking them to 
prepare an article for circulation through the Levant in the Levant Trade 
Review. A number of steamships go directly to the Near Bast countries 
from this port. 

The task of preparing the article on Baltimore and its port facilities, 
as well as a brief history of the city's accomplishments, fell to Georgie W. 
W'orsham, Jr. The article is entitled "The Great I'ort of Baltimore Today," 
a,iid is as follows : 

By GEORGE W. WORSHAM, JR., 
Merchants and Manufacturers' Asociation. 

Baltimore, Md., United States of America, is the eighth 
city in the United States, having- a population of 734,205 
(1920 census) and an area of approximately 90 square 
miles. 

As a port it ranks third in the country following New 
York and New Orleans. However, it ranks first in the 
shipment of corn, oats, rye and live cattle and second in 
the shipment of coal. 

In manufactures Baltimore ranks seventh in the coun- 
try. The volume of business in 1920 was $1,050,000,000. 

The city's jobbing trade in 1920 totaled $701,903,000. 

The volume of retail trade in 1920 was $400,000,000 
(estimated). 

The foreign trade of the port totaled $338,909,088 in 
exports and $55,884,508 in imports. 

Vessels engaged in foreign trade entering the port of 
Baltimore in 1920 numbered 1204. They had a combined 
tonnage of 3,510,193. Vessels clearing numbered 1,571 
with a total tonnage of 4,544,319. 

Baltimore's postoffice receipts in 1920 were $3,231,872. 

PHENOMENAL GROWTH HJ FOREIGN TRADE 

The phenomenal growth of the port can best be shown 
by comparative statistics of the United States Depart- 
ment of Commerce showing the extent and volume of 
overseas trade. 

In 1913 the exports totaled $116,474,439 and the im- 
ports $32,895,238. Exports fell off $7,000,000 in 1914, 
while imports increased $1,600,000. In 1915 exports in- 
creasedt$22,500,000, while imports fell off $9,600,000. By 



208 REroRT OF Maryland State Board 

1917 exports had climbed to $374,044,121 and imports to 
$43,962,790. This was the peak year for exports. Then 
there was a drop in 1918 of $38,000,000 in exports and 
$14,800,000 in imports. Exports increased $17,700,000 
in 1919, while imports increased $9,800,000. Exports fell 
off in 1921 to the amount of $14,800,000, while imports 
jumped to $55,884,508, an increase of $17,000,000. Of 
this total $48,159,804 was free and $7,724,704 dutiable. 
This was the peak year for imports. 

In 1921 a total of 556 vessels engaged in overseas trade, 
with a combined tonnage of 1,192,037, entered the port of 
Baltimore, while 646 with a tonnage of 1,489,406 cleared. 
The increase from that time, with the exception of 1918, 
when there was a decided drop as a result of the war, 
was regular and heavy. The following figures are given 
by the Department of Commerce: 

Vessels Vessels 

Date Entered Tons Cleared Tons 

1913 593 1,593,794 773 1,900,038 

1914 672 1,475,688 746 1,652,441 

1915 990 2,043,259 1082 2,162,697 

1916 1141 2,528,162 1147 2,417,517 

1917 1130 2,665,279 1102 2,406,769 

1918 698 1,797,571 626 1,575,730 

1919 789 1,984,099 1086 2,634.925 

1920 1204 3,510,193 1571 4,544^19 

Baltimore is closer to the Panama Canal than any other 
port of importance on the Atlantic seaboard, being 1901 
miles from Colon. It is 73 miles closer than New York, 
256 miles closer than Boston, 45 miles closer than Phila- 
delphia and 1,387 miles closer than San Francisco. Bal- 
timore is closer to the west coast of South America than 
San Francisco by from 600 to 700 miles. It is closer to 
Rio Janeiro, Brazil and Buenos Aires, Argentina, than 
San Francisco by 2,800 miles. 

Baltimore has transpoj^tation possibihties superior to 
New York, Philadelphia, Boston and other rivals because 
the curve on the Atlantic coast puts it on a meridian of 
longitude west of the other Atlantic seaports. It enjoys 
lower freight rates from the West and South because it 
IS closer to both sections. As a consequence it can enter 
a large area of the Eastern industrial field on exactly the 
same freight basis that New York can, while in the 
West and South it can beat not only New York and Bos- 
ton, but also Philadelphia. This naturally makes Balti- 



OF Labor and Statistics 209 

more the best distributing point on the Atlantic seaboard. 
The freight differential that Baltimore enjoys over her 
closest competitors is. one of the citys best assets. 

FIFTY-FIVE STEAMSHIP LINES 

Fifty-five steamship lines have regular sailings from 
Baltimore, reaching every part of the world. In addition 
there are eight coastwise lines and eight other lines oper- 
ating steamers to all points on the Chesapeake Bay and 
its tributaries. 

The ports of various parts of the world to which ships 
sail regularly from Baltimore include: Abo, Acagutla, 
Alexandria, Algiers, Amsterdam, Antweip, Bahia, Bal- 
boa, Baltic ports, Barcelona, Belfast, Bergen, Bombay, 
Bordeaux, Bremen, Brest, Bristol, Buenos Aires, Calcutta, 
Cardenas, Cherbourg, Christiana, Cienfuegos, Colombo, 
Constantinople, Copenhagen, Corinto, Cork, Cristobal, 
Cuban ports, Danzig, Dublin, Dundee, Dunkirk, Gefie, 
Genoa, Glasgow, Gothenburg, Guantanamo, Hamburg 
Havana, Havre, Hawaiian Islands, Helsingfors, Henion- 
sand, Helsingborg, Hongkong, Jamaican ports, Kalmar, 
Karachi, Kobe, Le Pallice, Libau, Leith, Liverpool, Lon- 
don, Londonderry, Los Angeles, Lubek, Madras, Malmo, 
Malta, Manchester, Manzanillo, Marseilles, Mayaguez, 
Montevideo, Naples, Norrkoping, Neuvitas, Oran, Patras, 
Piraeus, Ponce, Progreso, Reval, Reykjavik, Riga, Rio de 
Janeiro, Rotterdam, Sagua la Grande, St. Navairre, Sa- 
loniki, San Jose, San Juan, Santiago, Santos, Shanghai, 
Seattle, San Francisco, Smyrna, Stettin, Stockholm, Tala- 
chuano, Tampico, Tacoma, Trieste, Trolleborg, Upsla, 
Valencia, Valparaiso, Vancouver, Vera Cruz, West Af- 
rican ports, Yokohama. / 

The hai-bor of Baltimore has 127 miles of deep water 
frontage, 45 miles of which are developed with water- 
front warehouse space of 1,120,622 square feet, open pier 
space of 921,048 square feet and a terminal storage ca- 
pacity of 1,909,920 square feet, together with most mod- 
em accommodations for the handling of grain, coal, oil, 
sulphur, fertilizer and other specialized shipments. 

The ship channel is 35 feet deep and 600 feet wide. The 
mean tidal range is only 14 inches. The ice interference 
is negligible, and the anchorage grounds are ample. 



210 Report of Maryland State Board 

HANDLING OF GRAIN AND COAL CARGOES 

Baltimore stands unrivaled in the handling of grain 
and coal cargoes. The largest and best equipped pier in 
the world for the loading of coal is that of the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad Company in the Curtis Bay section of 
the harbor. It has established a record of 3,684 tons 
loaded into a vessel in one hour. The total coal-loading 
capacity of the port is 67,500 tons in 10 hours, and in 
1920 the aggregate dumping (including export), bunker 
and coastwise coal, amounted to 6,439,974 tons. 

Baltimores' facilities for the handling of bulk grain 
cargoes consists of seven modern elevators with a total 
capacity of 10,000,000 bushels. One of these elevators, 
that of the Pennsylvania Railroad" Company, with a ca- 
pacity of 4,500,000 bushels, the largest in existence. 
The Western Maryland Railway Company recently es- 
tablished a record when 200,000 bushels of rye, of which 
64,000 bushels were in bags, were loaded in 18 hours. 
During 1920, 55,466,453 bushels of grain of all kinds were 
exported from Baltimore. 

PROMPT AND EFFICIENT REPAIRS TO SHIPS 

No port on either coast of the United States is better 
equipped to give prompt and efficient attention to the re- 
pairing and overhauling of ships. The Bethlehem Ship- 
building Corporation, the Baltimore Dry Docks and Ship- 
building Company and the Union and Globe Shipbuilding 
Companies are located here, together with numerous 
smaller concerns. The fact that this great service is 
easily obtainable here is of the first importance to ship 
owners and operators. 

Exports and imports pass through the port without 
congestion or delay and with lower costs than is the case 
in New York. The turn-around of ships costs less in this 
port than in New York, recent comparison showing an 
average saving of more than $4,000 per vessel each time 
for similar ships and cargoes in favor of Baltimore, and 
even this does not take into consideration provisioning 
cost or ship repairs, both of which are conceded to be 
lower in this port, nor the more rapid turn-around of ves- 
sels with the financial saving this implies. 

The absence of dockage assessments and wharfage 
charges on freight brought to the port by rail, the free 



OF Labor and Statistics 211 

delivery of less-than-carload shipments paying a small 
minimum rail charge to any point in the harbor, are ad- 
vantages which should influence operators in assigning 
vessels and exports and importers in routing shipments. 
Baltimore has spent $21,000,000 on her harbor, which 
has an up-to-date dock system and water deep enough 
to accommodate the largest ships in the world. At the 
last session of the Legislature an enabling act was passed 
permitting the city to float a loan of $50,000,000 to make 
the harbor what it should be in order to handle Balti- 
more's fast-growing trade, and at the election in Novem- 
ber, 1920, the people practically unanimously approved 
an ordinance to float $10,000,000 of this loan at once, so 
that the work of building new piers and warehouses has 
already begun. 

SOME FACTS ABOUT BALTIMORE 

Baltimore is one of the limited number of seaport cities 
that has a 35-foot channel leading right up to its docks. 

It matters not what an industrial enteiprise may need, 
those needs can be found advantageously in Baltimol^e. 
Water facilities, railroad accommodations, reliable labor, 
financial institutions, fine shipping terminals, exception- 
ally fortunate geographical position, attractive sites for 
manufacturing plants, superabundance of cheap power, 
and a city delightfully chaiTning to live in. 

The Government Weather Bureau's records show that 
Baltimore's "average" climate more closely approaches 
the ideal climate of certain well known sections of Cali- 
fornia than does any other city east of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. 

Baltimore is called the "gastronomic center of the coun- 
try" and is recognized as the greatest food market in the 
world. It is situated that all kinds of food are procurable 
in season at prices ranging substantially below the aver- 
age figures in other cities. It is the home of the best 
oysters, the best terrapin and the best wild duck in Amer- 
ica, besides being surrounded by the finest trucking belt 
in the whole country. 

Baltimore exports more corn, oats and rye than any 
other port in the United States and ranks next to New 
York in the shipment of wheat and barley. It exports 
more wheat than Montreal, the great gi*ain shipping port 
of Canada. During 1915 Baltimore shipped more grain 



212 Rei'ORt of Maryland State Board 

of all kinds by 25,000,000 bushels than Philadelphia and 
Boston together. 

There is an abundance of labor in Baltimore which is 
happily distributed so far as residence location is con- 
ceited. Industrial entei-prises, as a consequence, can 
readily plant themselves right in the heart of labor cen- 
ters. All machinery and tools of manufacture are exempt 
from city and State taxation. 

Baltimore has the biggest and best bonding companies 
in the world. 

At a cost of many millions of dollars Baltimore has hun- 
dreds of miles of improved streets, a modem sewer sys- 
tem, filtered water and efficient school and fire-fighting 
services, which are being constantly improved. 

Fifty millions of people live within 500 miles of Balti- 
more and are readily accessible by quick transportation. 

Baltimore's metropolitan district contains the biggest 
steel plant in the United States on the tidewater, the 
Bethlehem Steel Corporation's plant at Sparrows Point. 

Baltimore is the greatest fertilizer manufacturing city 
in the United States, and contains the largest sulphuric 
acid plant in the world. 

Baltimore has one of the largest olive oil manufactur- 
ing plants and the largest olive oil warehouse in the world. 

Baltimore has the cheapest rates for electricity of any 
city on the Atlantic seaboard. 

Baltimore is noted for the fact that it has fewer tene- 
ments than any other large city in the country, and that 
the great majority of its people own their own homes. 

Baltimore is known as the "Monumental City" and the 
"Convention City." The first monument to George Wash- 
ington to be erected by any city stands in Baltimore. 
Many national conventions, political and otherwise, have 
been held in Baltimore. Several Presidents have been 
nominated in. this city. 

Baltimore is the home of Johns Hopkins Hospital and 
Medical School which are known the world over. It also 
contains the Walters Art Gallery, the Peabody Conser- 
vatory of Music, Goucher- College and the Polytechnic In- 
stitute, and is the birthplace of the Vocational School. 

The first submarine, known as "Winans' Cigar Boat," 
was launched in Baltimore. 

The first commercial submarine, the "Deutschland," 
carrying a full cargo across the Atlantic, discharged her 
cargo and took on another at Baltimore. 



OF Labor and Statistics 213 

It was in Baltimore that the — 

First armor plate was made ; 

First bonding security business started; 

First patent for locomotive secured ; 

First ribbon of American silk made; 

First steam engine for traction pui-poses operated ; 

First steam vessel entirely of iron constructed; 

First to construct the full-rigged ships known as the 
Baltimore "Clippers" ; 

First iron building was erected; 

First Peruvian guano imported ; 

First umbrella factory established, which is still op- 
erated ; 

First chain of dairy lunch rooms started ; 

First private bank in America established ; 

First electric railroad tunnel in United States con- 
structed ; 

First city in country to erect monuments to Columbus 
and Washington; 

First day and night national bank established; 

First trunk line system in country operated from Bal- 
timore to Wheling, W. Va.; 

First city to manufacture metallic pens ; 

First steam vessel to cross Atlantic sailed from Balti- 
more ; 

First city in .country to operate municipal band; 

First city to provide out of the public treasury music 
for municipally regulated street dancing; 

First city to inaugurate a municipal symphony or- 
chestra ; 

National anthem, 'The Star Spangled Banner," written 
in Baltimore by Francis Scott Key ; 

"The American's Creed," written by William Tyler 
Page, a Marylander, 

First city in which a national convention was held for 
the nomination of a President and Vice-President. This 
was in 1^31. The following successful candidates were 
nominated in Baltimore: Jackson, Van Buren, Polk, Tay- 
lor, Pierce, Lincoln and Wilson. 



214 Report of Maryland State Board 

SOME STATISTICS OF BALTIMORE 

Baltimore has about 145,000 homes, nearly two-thirds 
of which are owned by their occupants. More than 600 
building associations in the city make it easy for the 
people to purchase their homes. The city has 10 colleges 
and universities, 163 schools (high, elementary, trade and 
normal), 647 churches, 24 banks, 2,600 industrial plants, 
10 large first-class hotels and a large number of smaller 
ones, 10 regular theatres and 110 moving picture estab- 
lishments with a total seating capacity of 87,500; three 
armories, one of which has a seating capacity of 20,000 ; 
five railroads ; 13 trolley lines with 333,637 miles of track 
and per capita wealth of $1,352.81. 

The total number of dwellings in Baltimore is 131,806 

(1921), of which 80,226 are occupied by their owners, the 

remainder being rented. The assessed value of these 

homes is $294,342,811. There are 146,765 families in the 

city, averaging nearly five persons each. 

The percentage of foreign born in Baltimore's popula- 
tion is 13.9, the main nationalities being Russian, 4.44 per 
cent; German, 4.38 per cent; Irish, 1.22 per cent, and 
Australian, 1.17 per cent. The colored population is 17.9 
per cent. 

The industrial plants alone in Baltimore district employ 
175,000 persons, whose average yearly income is $1,462. 

FREIGHT RATES 

Baltimore is wonderfully situated in the matter of 
freight rates, whether it be to bring raw material in or 
to send finished products out. The city is midway of the 
Atlantic Coast — reaching effectually to the South and 
North. Being on the inward bend of the Atlantic Coast, 
the city stands inland on a meridian of longitude further 
west than Boston, New York or Philadelphia. This happy 
middle location on the coast and westward location (west 
of her chief Atlantic rivals) gives her lower freights to 
many of the best markets, by reason of shorter distance 
alone. Baltimore, in freight rates, can compete with 
New York City as far east as Syracuse. It can compete 
with Philadelphia as far east as Scranton. Wher^ it comes 
to the Middle West (beginning at Altoona, Pa.) or with 
the South in its entirety, Baltimore can beat New York 
and Phialdelphia by a very substantial freight difference. 



OF Labor and Statistics 



215 



In order that this can be readily understood, it will be 
well to note the comparative railroad distances. The 
table below will disclose why Baltimore enjoys such su- 
perior freight advantages over other Atlantic seaboard 
cities : 



City To Balto. To Phila. To N. Y. 

Miles Miles Miles 

Buffalo .'. 395 404 396 

So. Chicago _ 753 791 875 

Cincinnati 560 647 • 744 

Cleveland - 447 479 565 

Detroit 608 645 628 

Indianapolis 670 718 804 

Louisville 674 761 ^ 858 

Pittsburgh 311 346 433 

St. Louis 897 960 1046 

Toledo 550 588 678 

The whole of the Southern market is obviously nearest to Balti- 
more. 

SMOOTH STREET PAVEMENTS 

Baltimore, once the premier cobblestone city of the 
country, has shifted position since 1912 from the foot of 
the class of well-paved cities and now leads Washington, 
Philadelphia, Chicago and New York. 

It had been the plan of the Paving Commission to ban- 
ish the cobblestone by 1923. But its estimates for the re- 
cent loans were cut more than half and the cobblestone 
will remain in Baltimore for several more years. 

Since R. Keith Compton became chairman of the Pav- 
ing Commission in 1912 the cobblestones have been re- 
duced from 5,500,000 square yards to 1,500,000. An aver- 
age of about 712,500 square yards of cobblestones have 
been replaced yearly since 1912 with sheet asphalt or 
other modern paving. Last year the Paving Commission 
asked for $7,000,000 for paving the old city and old An- 
nex and got $3,000,000 ; it asked for $8,000,000 for paving 
the new Annex and got $3,500,000. 

At the beginning of this year Baltimore stood seventh 
among the 16 largest American cities in the amount of 
improved pavement per capita; it stood fifth in the 
amount of improved pavement per square yard. Wash- 
ington stood fourteenth in the per capita comparison and 
thirteenth in the per square yard comparison. New York 
was sixteenth in per capita. 



216 Kki'okt of Makyland State Board 

In 1912 there were 5,500,000 square yards of streets 
paved with cobblestones and 1,750,000 square yards with 
modern paving. On December 31, 1920, there were 
1,700,00 square yards of cobblestones left and 8,900,000 
of improved paving in the entire city. Since that time 
about 200,000 of improved paving has been laid, bringing 
the improved paving to 9,100,000 square yards. 

Before the New Annex was added to the city, 70 per 
cent of Baltimore's streets had improved paving. But with 
the New Annex was added 3,300,000 yards of unpaved 
roads and streets, which brought the percentage down to 
62.6 per cent. 

BALTIMORE HARBOR DEVELOPMENTS 

By W. M. BRITTAIN 
in the New York Journal of Commerce. 

During 1921 considerable progress was made in the de- 
velopment of facilities of the Port of Baltimore. 

A comprehensive development plan calculated to treble 
the berthing capacity of Baltimore harbor and to provide 
for the normal growth of the port during the next twenty 
years has been undertaken by the Port Development 
Coniimission. 

This plan includes the improvement of existing mu- 
nicipal piers to make them serviceable for coastwise car- 
riers; improvement of privately owned piers to make 
them serviceable for ocean vessels; the construction of a 
large cold storage warehouse adjacent to the waterfront; 
construction of an ocean terminal with piers, warehouses, 
grain elevator, and free port facilities at McComas street 
on the south side of Locust Point; the development of 
what is now waste land at the mouth of the Patapsco 
River into a modern ocean terminal with piers and ware- 
houses; the development of the Canton side of the har- 
bor; improvement and extension of the Harbor Belt Line 
R. R. ; construction of an outer belt line railway and uni- 
fication of the control and operation of the port. 

It is believed that this plan, when finally completed, 
will allow for every possible development necessary to the 
growth of the Port of Baltimore for a long period, and 
will, when constructed, give Baltimore facilities surpassed 
by no other port in the United States. 



* OF Labor and Statistics 217 

GREAT PLAN ABOUT TO START 

The first unit of this plan will be the construction of a 
number of piers with railroad yards and warehouses ad- 
jacent thereto on the city property at McComas street 
on the south side of Locust Point. The Western Mary- 
land Railway, whose Port Covington teiTninal is imme- 
diately adjacent to the McComas street property, has al- 
ready made formal application to the Port Development 
Commission for two piers and it is understood that con- 
struction of these will be started very shortly. It is also 
possible that construction may start soon on a new 
4,000,000 bushel grain elevator to be erected by the Port 
Development Commission to be leased to private parties. 

Among other developments in the facilities of the port 
of Baltimore during 1921 may be mentioned the erection 
by the Western Maryland Railway of a modern export 
coal pier. This pier was completed in the early summer 
and has proved of marked success. The loading capacity 
of the pier is estimated at about 20,000 tons in 10 hours. 

A further item of interest in regard to new construc- 
tion during 1921 in Baltimore was the completion by the 
"Western Maryland Railway at its Port Covington terminal 
of an additional 1,000,000 bushel unit to its export grain 
elevators at the port of Baltimore nearly 10,000,000 
bushels. It is understood the Western Maryland Rail- 
way contemplates further additions from time to time as 
its business "warrants. 

A GREAT LUMBER TERMINAL 

The 75-acre plant of the Weyerhauser Timber Com- 
pany of Seattle, located on the Fairfield section of the har- 
bor near Curtis Bay, is rapidly approaching completion. 
This property, one of the outstanding features of the 
port, is the most modern and best equipped lumber 
terminal in the country. During the past year, with the 
yard still incomplete, the company handled about 15,000,- 
000 feet of Western timber for distribution throughout 
the East and Middle West. 

The Weyerhauser Timber Company, realizing the fact 
that the East will be dependent on the West for its supply 
of lumber in the future, decided to develop in Baltimore 
its wholesale distributing yard, taking advantage of the 
citys' strategic position in regard to the chief markets 



% 



218 liKroRT OF Maryland State Board 

of the Middle West, and of the cheaper water transpor- 
tation via the Panama Canal as compared with all-rail 
shipments from Seattle. It is the intention to carry at 
this plant a large stock of lumber, the volume aggregating 
from 45,000,000 to 75,000,000 feet of well assorted stock, 
suitable for all purposes. 

NEW SUGAR REFINERY 

With the completion in the near future of the new 
$8,000,000 sugar refinery of the American Sugar Refining 
Company on Locust Point, the building of which has pro- 
gressed steadily during 1921, Baltimore will not only have 
a notable increase in her port facilities, but will be in a 
stronger position than ever before in the trade with 
the West Indies. After a painstaking survey of the vari- 
ous cities on the Atlantic Coast, it was decided that Bal- 
timore offered the best advantages for the establishment 
of a modern refinery that will be the equal, if not the 
superior, of any in the world, in its location and equip- 
ment. 

BALTIMORE SEVENTH IN CONSTRUCTION -^ 

ACTIVITY 

General construction activities in Baltimore have given 
this city seventh place among the larger cities of the 
country in the last year. Building has received a notable 
impetus along with a slow but steady improvement in- 
dustrially. 

A national survey and analysis reveals that among 51 
leading cities Baltimore is moving ahead at a greater 
pace. The analysis is made by the American Contractor 
at the request of George C. Smith, director of the In- 
dustrial Bureau of the Board of Trade. 

During the first six months of this year, it is shovm, 
as classified by various kinds of buildings, Baltimore 
ranked as follows: 

Social and recreational building, first. 

Religious and memorial, first. 

Industrial, fifth. 

Naval and military, sixth. 

Public, eighth. 

Business, ninth. 

Hospital and institutional, fifteenth. 



OF Labor and Statistics 219 

Educational nineteenth. 
Residential, twenty-eighth. 
Public works and utilities, forty-ninth. 
Relative to industrial building contracts Baltimore's 
high rank at this period is notable. 

During the first six months of 1920 this city ranked 
third, being exceeded only by Buffalo and Chicago. Dur- 
ing the latter half of that year Baltimore moved back to 
fifth place, trailing Kansas City, New York, Chicago and 
Philadelphia, This year Baltimore is led only by New 
York, Philadelphia, Chicago and Detroit. 

It is explained that the comparatively small showing 
made by Baltimore in residential contracts is due to the 
fact that so many property developers have maintained 
their own organizations and have awarded no contracts. 
The large number of churches under construction here 
was solely responsible for the leadership in the religious 
and memorial class. 

In total awards during the first six months of 1921 
Baltimore ranked seventh among the cities of the nation, 
being exceeded by the following cities in the order 
named: New York, $143,636,400; Chicago, $49,812,200; 
Cleveland, $42,159,400; Detroit, $37,271,100; Philadel- 
phia, $24,466,400; Washington, $17,499,900; Baltimore, 
$16,220,400. 

MANUFACTURING SPEEDS UP 

Industrial progress locally -has been rather slow, but 
none the less steady. Unofficially, improvements have 
been reported in small numbers, but representing large 
interests. These total about $2,500,000. It was an- 
nounced that a subordinate body of the American Sugar 
Refinery, representing an investment of more than a quar- 
ter of a million dollars, would establish a cooperage plant 
here. About $25,000 or $300,000 was represented in the 
plans of the Becker Baking Company, which will use sev- 
eral new manufacturing buildings. 

A laundry project was reported during the first part 
of August for the Woodberry section. The plant will in- 
volve a large investment. 

Other new establishments projected at the time were 
a chair factory, for Guilford avenue; an ice plant on 
Preston street and a clothing establishment. 



220 Report op Maryland State Board 

Many developments of established firms are under way 
or being contemplated. These include a number of com- 
paratively small enterprises, and also the project to ex- 
tend the Western Maryland Elevator capacity. 

WORK TO COST $51,320,000 IS PLANNED IN THE 

EASTERN STATES 

August building contracts awarded in the Middle At- 
lantic States, of which Maryland is part, amounted to 
$37,913,000, an increase of 44 per cent over July. 

The August total in this section of the country was 
divided as follows: $11,693,000, or 31 per cent, for public 
works and utilities; $11,044,000, or 29 per cent for resi- 
dential buildings; $5,602,000, or 15 per cent for educa- 
tional buildings; $5,522,000, or 14 per cent for business 
buildings. 

From the first of this year to September 1, 1921, the 
total value of contracts awarded in this district has 
amounted to $224,269,000, which is 5 per cent greater 
than the average for the first eight months of the pre- 
ceding five years. 

During one month contemplated new work was re- 
ported in Southern New Jersey, Maryland, North and 
South Carolina, District of Columbia, Virginia and Dela- 
ware to the amount of $51,320,000, bringing the total 
amount of contemplated work reported for the year up 
to $490,042,000, which is more than double the amount 
of contracts awarded during the same period. 

BALTIMORE'S FACILITIES FOR RECREATION 

The following information was prepared by the Bal- 
timore Municipal Journal at the request of the Carnegie 
Institute of Technology, of Pittsburgh, which is engaged 
in economic research on the subject: 

PARKS 

In all there are 68 parks, containing 2,527 acres of 
land. These parks may be grouped as follows : 

12 parks over 20 acres 2365 acres 

12 parks from 5 to 19 acres _.. 114 acres 

44 parks under 5 acres '. 48 acres 

Total • 2527 acres 



OF Labor and Statistics 221 

The largest parks are: 

Druid Hill 671 acres 

Gywnn's Falls 454 acres 

Clifton - 279 acres 

Total 1404 acres 

Clifton Park is the old country residence of the late 
Johns Hopkins, who founded the University and Hospital. 
In the larger parks there are 600 acres undeveloped. 

PLAYGROUNDS 

In these parks are: 90 lawn tennis courts, 50 chil- 
dren's playgrounds, 10 children's gardens, 12 picnic 
grounds, 16 baseball diamonds, 1 municipal golf course, 
2 boating lakes, 6 band stands, 1 swimming pool (for col- 
ored people), 3 swimming pools (for white people). 

Of these last the pool in Clifton Park is the largest 
artificial swimming pool in the country, if ^ot in the 
world, containing over three acres of water. 

Besides these playgrounds and athletic fields in the 
parks, there are at the various Public Schools 14 school 
yards, 10 for white and 4 for colored pupils. Two very 
active associations, partly supported by the municipality, 
have been consolidated, the Public Athletic League and 
the Children's Playground Association, and their com- 
bined work includes not only taking charge of the amuse- 
ments at the children's playgrounds in the parks, but at 
20 recreational stations at the public schools, 19 at the 
branch libraries of the Enoch Pratt Free Library, 11 at 
churches and other institutions, and, in short, at about 
140 different places. 

The Johns Hopkins University has a field with a con- 
crete grandstand which, with some portable benches, will 
accommodate 8,000 spectators. The baseball ground at 
Oriole Park will seat about 15,000. 

COUNTRY CLUBS 

The Baltimore Country Club is the largest and has over 
3,000 members, an 18-hole golf course, many lawn tennis 
courts, a swimming pool, 3 squash racquet courts, a bowl- 
ing alley and skating pond. 

The Elkridge Foxhunting Club has a pack of hounds, 
a 9-hole golf course and lawn tennis courts. 



222 Report of Maryland State Board 

The Green Spring Valley Hunt Club has a pack of 
hounds, a 9-hole golf course and lawn tennis courts. 

The Rolling Road Country Club has an 18-hole golf 
course and lawn tennis courts. 

The New Maryland Country Club has an 18-hole golf 
course and lawn tennis courts. 

The Suburban Club of Baltimore County has an 18-hole 
golf course and lawn tennis courts. 

All of these clubs are either within the city limits or a 
short distance out and easily accessible by electric trolley 
or automobile. 

There are also smaller country clubs or neighborhood 
clubs at Lauraville, Overlea, Pimlico, Stoney Run, West 
Arlington and West Forest Park. 

ATHLETIC CLUBS 

The Baltimore Athletic Club is the largest, with a fine 
clubhouse near Union Station, squash courts and Swim- 
ming pool. There are also the Maryland Athletic Club, 
Mt. Washington Athletic Club, Ruxton Athletic Club and 
St. Andrew's Athletic Association. 

BOATING AND YACHTING CLUBS 

The Ariel Boat Club, the Arundel Boat Club, the Bal- 
timore Corinthian Yacht Club, the Baltimore Motor Yacht 
Club, the Baltimore Yacht Club, the Maryland Motorboat 
Club, all at the foot of Hanover street, and the Maryland 
Canoe Club, at Cromwell's Point, Brooklyn. 

THEATRES 

» 

There are 10 theatres in Baltimore, the Lyric Theatre 
being used chiefly for symphony concerts, opera, public 
meetings and entertainments. The others are strictly 
playhouses. 

MOTION PICTURES 

There are 108 motion picture houses. 

AMUSEMENT RESORTS 

Inland there ?re three prominent resorts. Gwynn Oak 
Park, Carlin's Park and Frederick Road Park; on the 



OP Labor and Statistics 223 

water there are also three, River View, within the city 
limits, Bay Shore and Sandy Beach a few miles from the 
city. 

MUSIC 

There is a Municipal Orchestra, giving symphony con- 
certs on certain Sunday afternoons at the Lyric, with a 
very small admission fee; a Municipal Band, a Park Band 
and periodical concerts at the Peabody Institute, either 
free or at a very small price. 

ART 

The Peabody Institute, the Maryland Institute of Art 
and Design and the Charcoal Club give frequent exhi- 
bitions during the year. The Walters Gallery is thrown 
open at a small charge (for the benefit of certain char- 
ities) on Wednesdays and Saturdays during the first four 
months of the year. This collection is one of the best in 
the United States and many of the pictures are world- 
famous. 

A COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF TAX COLLEC- 
TIONS IN 1921 AND 1911 

By A. T. BENZIXGER. 
Deputy City Collector. 

The City Collector's financial responsibility is growing 
by leaps alid bounds, as is shown by the subjoined table 
from his most recent annual report. A comparison of the 
receipts for the year 1921 with those of an even ten years 
«,go brings out very pointedly this enormous increase. In 
1911 the gross, including city and State collections, was 
a little over ninety-eight hundred thousand dollars, while 
the total for 1921 was well beyond the twenty-four mil- 
lion mark, an increase of approximately two hundred and 
fifty per cent. 

The Annexation Act of 1918 enlarged the city area 
nearly threefold, bringing into the departments thousands 
of new accounts; miles and miles of alley paving have 
been laid; streets have ben opened, closed, or their lines 
changed to meet present conditions; sewer connection 
charges have ben advanced by the city, and sidewalks 
replaced ; the collections on all of which have been added 



224 Report of Maryland State Board 

9 

to the already handicapped departmental force. In many 
instances the ordinances for the improvements provide 
that these payments extend over a period of time, thus 
increasing the vast detail work. Where possible these de- 
layed payments have been permitted by succeeding ad- 
ministrations, without sanction by law, in the interest of 
the needy taxpayers. 

Realizing that our backs were to the wall and that we 
had long since outgrown our allotted floor space, with no 
room for expansion, a new system, modern, interlocking 
and safe, was installed. This has made for greater effi- 
ciency and expediency in handling, under most adverse 
working conditions, the ever increasing volume of busi- 
ness, but the much desired relief from congestion is yet 
to be attained. 

The accompanying table shows by months the money 
passing through the department, and a comparison in the 
yearly total with the figures for a decade ago. 



OF Labor and Statistics 



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OF Labor and Statistics 227 

BALTIMORE'S GOVERNMENT COST 

Per capita is only $15,96, the lowest of the 10 largest 
cities of the country, according to a survey of the Na- 
tional Security League of New York. 

Boston -....- - $35.06 

Pittsburgh 29.81 

New York - 28.34 

Los Angeles .„ ^.. 26.62 

Philadelphia 24.55 

St. Louis 23.37 

Chicago 22.52 

Detroit 21.13 

Cleveland '.. 20.96 

Baltimore 1 5.96 

BUILDING 

Building opeiations in Baltimore during 1921 break all 
records, according to the valuation of building permits as 
given in applications at the Appeal Tax Court and the 
Building Inspector's Office of the City Hall. 

Permits aggregating in value $36,833,910 were applied 
for during 1921. This is an increase of more than $600,- 
000 over the figures of 1920, which totaled $36,027,020. 
It tops the figures of 1919, which were $26,768,884, by 
close to $10,000,000, and is more than five times as great 
as the total building operations of 1918, which amounted 
to $6,464,225. 

During this year 17,933 building permits of all kinds 
were applied for at the Building Inspector's office. In 
the home building line two-story dwellings figured to the 
greatest extent. There were 1,064 permits applied for 
for two-story dwellings to be erected at a cost of $4,- 
639,600. Application was made for 844 permits for frame 
dwellings to cost $4,420,800. 

There were applications for 2,051 garages to cost $1,- 
884,190; additions, 1,968, to cost $3,298,344; alterations, 
11,817, to cost $4,364,070, and miscellaneous permits 
numbering 76, to cost $6,955,506. There were applica- 
tions for factories and warehouses, apartment houses and 
schools which have been included in the total figures for 
the year. 



228 Rkport of Maryland State Board 

Building operations for which permits were asked is as 
follows : 

1920. 1921. . 

January $2,915,160 $1,737,240 ' 

February 3,233,880 4,068,660 

March 3,772,386 2,673,720 

April 5,121,729 9,966,240 

May 4,976,040 3,000,336 

June .:. 3,011,200 3,328,680 

July 3,135,340 1,957,200 

Aug-ust 2,595,240 2,301,240 

September 1,743,960 2,574,600 

October 2,108,400 1,775,760 

November 1,968,840 1,790,280 

December 1,444,860 1,641,954 

FREE PUBLIC BATH COMMISSION REPORT 

FOR 1921 

By ROBERT F. G. KELLBY, Superintendent. 

We are glad to report, that, as has been the case for a 
number of years past, the attendance at the Public Baths 
shows a substantial increase over the preceding year. 

The attendance was as follows : 

Indoor Shower Baths 835,537 

Public Laundries 34,926 

Total - - 870,463 

In addition to the attendance at the Public Baths, the 
patrons at the Greenmount Avenue comfort station num- 
bered approximately 425,000, so that the total patronage 
at the bath houses under the Commission's supervision 
was 1,295,463. 

The increases over last year were : Shower baths 45,888, 
public laundries 3,981. - 

The receipts for the year were $31,170.84, the largest 
in our history, and an increase of $5,170.84 over the 
amount estimated for the year. 



OF Labor and Statistics 229 

The attendance and receipts for the year at the stations 
were as follows: 

stations. Patrons. Receipts. 

Walters Baths, No. 1 _ 267,435 $10,571.40 

Walters Baths, Nc, 2 104,177 5,482.54 

Walters Baths, No. 3 45.71fi 2,749.35 

Walters Baths, No. 4 100,373 4,021.25 

Greenmount Avenue Baths 106.887 5,375.72 

Roosevelt Park Baths 28,942 1,006.62 

Poi table Baths, No. 1 ....._ 36,773 1,130.97 

Portable Baths, No. 2 (School No. 70) _ 58.982 . 218.91 

School No. 6 _ _.... 46,903 363.40 

School No. 47 27,894 163.52 

School No. 83 _ 46,381 87.16 

870,463 $31,170.84 

The expenditures were as follows : 

Salaries .^$57, 596.68 

Expenses ..- - 28,410.25 

Total... _ - „ $86,366.93 

Deducting the receipts - 31,170.84 

Net cost -._ $55,196.09 



.• 



Looking- backward over the year's work, the outstand- 
ing features were as follows: 

1. — The large use made by men of the laundry facilities 
at Walters Baths No. 1, located at 131 S. High Street. 

Beginning with the year 1920, the laundry at this house 
was set aside for the exclusive use of men, as an experi- 
ment. 

During that year the attendance was 6,799, a slight 
increase over the preceding year. 

For the past year an attendance of 12,689 was recorded, 
an increase of 5,890, proving to the Commission the wis- 
dom of the change. 

In some respects this is the most needy class who visit 
our houses. At a nominal cost, in many cases free, these 
men, the floating population of city life, get a bath, spend 
an hour in the laundry washing and drying their clothing, 
and walk out again, refreshed and clean. 

2. — The development of bathing among school children 
and adults, in school buildings. 



230 Kkport of Maryland State Board 

For the year, in the schools in which baths were located, 
a total of 180,160 patrons was recorded. Of this number, 
many were adults, who used the baths on Saturdays, and 
during the summer months, when the schools were not 
in session. 

In addition, many thousands of school children used the 
baths in the portable building at Bond Street and Eastern 
Avenue, and through tickets distributed to the school 
near them, the baths in our larger houses. 

During the present year it is expected that baths in 
three new schools, now completed, will be ready for op- 
eration. 

BALTIMORE'S SAVINGS BANKS' DEPOSITS 

In an endeavor to determine the financial outlook of the 
"average man," as distinct from that of business and in- 
dustrial concerns, one naturally turns to the reports of 
the savings banks, whose transactions bear a real rela- 
tion to the condition of the average man's purse. An 
increase in savings on deposit means that depositors have 
spare cash to lay aside, while a decrease means simply 
that depositors are drawing upon their reserves. Neither 
operation is affected by the inflation or deflation of credit, 
from which the resources of commercial banks sa directly 
benefit or suff'er, . 

It is decidedly instructive, therefore, to learn from the 
annual reports of Baltimore's nine mutual savings banks 
that withdrawals exceeded deposits during 1921 by $2,- 
865,644, whereas in 1920 deposits exceeded withdrawals 
by $145,928. This would indicate that the portion of Bal- 
timore's population which exercises thrift with the aid of 
the savings banks fell short by some $3,000,000 of de- 
positing in 1921 the amount which in more favorable 
times would be laid aside as protection against the future. 

One important fact in this connection is that the with- 
drawals of savings during 1921 were decidedly less than 
in 1920— the actual figures being $62,509,819 for 1920 
and $55,555,996 in 1921. The decrease in withdrawals 
would by itself seem to indicate that depositors wer6 not 
so hard pushed during the past year as during the year 
1920. But, on the other hand, the total funds passed in 
over the counters decreased even more than did the with- 
drawals — the receipts of the banks being $62,655,747 in 
1920 and $52,690,352 in 1921. 



OF Labor and Statistics 231 

These last figures give an inkling as to what has hap- 
pened to the average man in the past year. He has not 
rushed to the banks to withdraw any large portion of his 
savings, but he has decidedly failed to lay aside his cus- 
tomary amounts against a rainy day. 

The amount due depositors by the mutual savings 
banks of Baltimore on December 31, 1921, was $121,251,- 
375, on which the interest would be something more than 
$4,000,000, so that the actual net withdrawals, the amount 
by which actual withdrawals exceeded actual deposits — 
were less than the interest credited to depositors. That 
IS to say, gross funds on deposit increased during the 
year — astonishing though this fact may sedm. 

Such an outcome is encouraging to those who believe 
that Baltimore will weather the present economic storm 
without difficulty. • It does not mean that many hundred 
individual depositors have not ben hard hit, nor that those 
in Baltimore who never have aspired to savings accounts 
— most common laborers and the like — are having an 
easy time. Quite the contrary is true; but it does mean 
that most of those who have the 257,046 accounts in the 
savings banks of Baltimore are plugging along fairly- 
well, and, given a fair chance, will keep their feet until 
better times appear. 

SEVEN OF EVERY TEN PERSONS HAVE SAVINGS 

Six or seven persons out of every 10 in Baltimore, men, 
women and children included, carry savings bank ac- 
counts. In the city's national. State and mutual savings 
banks and trust companies alone there are 441,073 sav- 
ings accounts — an average of $395 for each depositor, 
according to George C. Smith, director of the industrial 
bureau of the Board of Trade. 

The most significant item df the study, however, is not 
the fact that over 60 per cent of the city's population 
have more than $174,000,000 stored away for a "rainy 
day," Mr'. Smith points out. The utmost interest at- 
taches to the fact that during the first half year, when 
business stagnation was at its worst and unemployment 
most distressing, the local financial institutions opened 
18,595 additional savings accounts for those who had no 
such savings on January 1, while the total of money in 
the banks for safe keping was just $4,514,465 more than 
there was at the beginning of the year. 



232 RflroRT of Maryland State Board 

Statistics are not available regarding the savings de- 
partments of private banks and the 600 and more build- 
mg and loan associations. 

State Bank Commissioner Page states that on June 30 
there were 270,813 mutual savings bank accounts with 
deposits of $124,086,446.73 — an average of $459 for each 
depositor; also that there were 152,737 accounts with 
State banks and trust companies, with deposits of $40,- 
331,060— an average of $264. 

National banks are not included in the figures showing 
the increase in savings accounts and deposits since the 
first of the year. On June 30, in reply to a questionnaire 
from Mr. Smith, it was found that of the 13 national 
banks, seven maintained savings departments. These 
reported a total of 17,523 accounts, representing deposits 
of $9,757,822.21, with an average for each depositor of 
$558. 

With 60 per cent of the city's* population carrying sav- 
ings accounts in these four classes of institutions, and 
with private banks and loan associations omitted, it is 
evident that approximately 70 per- cent have provided 
against the future with savings accounts. This, together 
with the very high percentage of home owners, Mr. Smith 
declares, are two of the strongest inducements to outside 
capital to invest in Baltimore industrial enterprise. 

BALTIMORE CLEARINGS DECLINE 

Bank clearings in Baltimore during 1921 declined $1,- 
150,709,123, as compared with the previous year. The 
total for the 12 months was $3,745,337,258, whereas in 
1920 the figures were $4,896,046,381. 

Although the Clearing House no longer issues its daily, 
weekly and monthly clearings statements, the total for 
the entire year was available. In November the mem- 
bers voted to substitute the statements of debits to in- 
dividual accounts for the clearings report, the belief 
being that such statements more correctly reflect the 
actual drift of business. 

Clearings do not always represent actual condition of 
trade. Oftimes the figures are increased by interbank 
transactions. For this reason the Baltimore Clearing 
House, as well as several other clearing houses through- 
out the country, now regards the debits statements as a 
time index to the actual state of trade. 



OP Labor and Statistics 233 

NATIONAL BANKS INCREASE 

National banks in operation on June 30 numbered 
8,178, representing a net gain of 82 for the fiscal year, 
saj^s a statement issued by Comptroller of the Currency 
Crissinger. The authorized capital stock of these banks 
was $1,277,000,000 and the total circulation outstanding 
was $743,000,000. 

During the year 212 banks were chartered, 90 with an 
aggregate capital of $16,000,000. In the same period 120 
national banks were closed, of which 28, with liabilities 
aggregating $17,000,000 failed, 84 with an aggregate cap- 
italization of $34,000,000 were closed by voluntary liqui- 
dation and 18 were consolidated with other national 
banks. Three of those closed were restored to solvency. 

DEATHS BY WARDS DURING THE YEAR 

A table showing deaths in Baltimore last year by wards 
was made by Health Commissioner C. Hampson Jones. 

The lowest moitality was in the Twenty-eighth ward, 
where the deaths totaled 111. The highest was in the 
Seventh ward, the deaths there totaling 678. 

With a population of 14,987, the smallest of any ward 
in the city, with the single exception of the Twenty- 
eighth, the Fourth was up among the leaders in deaths, 
due to Mercy and the University Hospital, both of which 
are in that ward. Figures for these hospitals follow: . 

Mercy — Resident, 23; nonresidents, 44; total, 67. 

University of Maryland — Residents, 21; nonresidents, 
85; total, 106. 

Dr. Jones' table follows: 



234 



Report of Maryland State Board 






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1 33,257 437 13.14 434 13.05 72 • 71. 1 

2 20,823 308 14.79 304 14.60 65 

3 19,270 299 15.52 290 15.05 97 94 3 

*4 14,987 438 20.23 297 19.82 244 110 134 

5 17,604 337 19.14 320 18.18 105 96 9 

6 31.077 435 14.00 411 13.23 134 115 19 

7 33,038 678 20.52 500 15.13 314 144 170 

8 37,292 463 12.42 450 12.07 106 104 2 

9 31,087 442 14.22 409 13.16 133 106 27 

10 20,225 365 18.05 346 17.11 161 149 12 

11 21,376 429 20.07 362 16.93 153 108 45 

12 36,103 529 14.65 489 13.54 127 104 23 

13 33,660 384 11.41 370 10.99 63 59 4 

14....'. 25,201 470 18.65 407 16.15 164 110 54 

15 48,134 607 12.61 591 12.28 121 117 4 

16 35,436 500 14.11 476 13.43 102 94 8 

17 20,636 428 20.74 410 19.87 94 89 5 

18 20,183 356 17.64 340 16.85 101 91 10 

19 23,678 408 17.23 394 16.64 93 86 7 

20 36,851 447 12.13 429 11.64 109 102 7 

21 19,423 332 17.09 329 16.94 67 66 1 

22 15,008 264 17.59 254 16,92 88 84 4 

23 16,599 250 15.06 241 14.52 31 30 1 

24... . 24,584 372 15.13 325 13.22 107 67 40 

25 17,360 276 15.90 238 13.71 89 60 * 29 

26 36,873 576 15.62 557 15.11 230 220 10 

27 36,153 415 11.48 396 10.95 73 68 5 

28 7,908 111 14.04 98 12.39 60 48 12 

* In 1910 the population was 16,834, showing a decrease of 1,847 
for 1920. 



10311 DEATHS IN 1921 

There were 10,311 deaths in Baltimore in 1921. Deaths 
in 1920 totaled 11,356. The total for 1919 was 11,434. 

Births for* the year totaled 19,032, compared with 18,- 
787 in 1920 and 17,631 in 1919. As usual, males out- 
numbered the females by a good margin. 

Notwithstanding the increased population, the annual 
death rate per 1,000 in Baltimore last year was 13.8, as 
against 15.34 in 1920. 



OF Labor and Statistics 235 

MARRIAGE LICENSES AND DIVORCES DECLINE 

in 1921 

The marriage figures show that 7,823 licenses were 
issued during this year, and the divorce court figures 
show 1,828. Of this number, 1,230 actually received 
divorce decrees. In 1920 nearly 2,000 more marriage 
licenses were issued than in 1921, and the divorces were 
more numerous, too. 

r 

79 SUICIDES IN CITY DURING YEAR 

Financial troubles and ill health were the causes of 75 
per cent of the suicides in this city this year, records of 
the Police Department show. Seventy-nine men and 
women took their lives, while 150 more made unsuccess- 
ful attempts. 

During the year of 1920 there were 73 suicides and 105 
attempted suicides. Of the 79 persons who ended their 
lives, 60 per cent were more than 50 years old. Two of 
the victims were only 18 years old. 

"Love affairs" and domestic differences also claimed 
their share of lives, while at least a half-dozen middle- 
aged men and women who committed suicide left notes 
saying they could give no particular reason for killing 
themselves other than that they were tired of this world 
and wanted to seek new ventures. 

Several years ago, statistics show, bichloride of mer- 
cury poison was the most frequently used instrument of 
self-destruction, but for the last two years this poison 
has gradually lost favor. Firearms and gas, the records 
show, are now most used. 

More suicides were committed during the month of 
September than any other month . Eight men and two 
women ended their lives in this month. The month of 
April ran a close second, with a total of 10. 

Statistics tabulated monthly of the number of suicides 
are: 

January, 6; February, 7; March, 5; April, 10; May 8; 
June, 3; July, 5; August, 5; September 11; October, 9; 
November, 6, and December, 4. 



236 Rei'okt ok Maryland State Board 

4,247 PERSONS MISSING 

Where are the missing men, women and children who 
disappear from Baltimore, often never to return? Thou- 
sands upon thousands of residents of this city — fathers, 
mothers, wives, sweethearts, children and friends — who 
are sorrowing for lost ones — 4,247 of them in the last 
eight years — would welcome the answer. 

According to statistics compiled at police headquarters, 
about 527 persons disappear every year and are lost to 
their families and friends. Some years the number is 
greater and again it will be far below the average. This 
year, for instance, the number of persons listed "among 
the missing'" will be far below the record for the last six 
years, probably about 400. 



accounted for" follow: 

Year. Missing. 

1914 966 

1915^ - 925 

1916 972 

1917 1303 

1918 - 1275 

1919 - 1268 

1920 1209 

1912 to Dec. 10....„... 702 



persons 


are still "un- 




Being 


eturned. 


Sought. 


691 


275 


601 


324 


389 


583 


447 


856 


502 


773 


731 


537 


696 


513 


316 


386 



8620 4373 4247 

There may be, the police officials admit, some slight dis- 
crepancies, due to some returning home without any re- 
port being made to police headquarters. But, to the best 
knowledge of those who have charge of the records they 
are very nearly correct. 

Men and boys are the most frequent runaways. Twice 
as many of them disappear each year as do women and 
girls. A compilation of the ''missing" for the present 
year bears this out. 



OF Labor and Statistics 237 

Disappeared and 
Still Missing. 

Men _ 106 

Women _ 49 

Bovs (under 18) 99 

Girls (under 18) :........ 45 

Negroes _ ....'. 60 

359 

Disappeared and later found 316 

Negroes 27 

343 * 

Total reported missing 702 

PUBLIC AMUSEMENT PERMITS 

Places of amusement in the city increased in number 
during the year in the face of a business depression. 

In 1920 licenses were issued for 683 theatres, movie 
houses and other places of amusement, as compared with 
828 licenses this year. The increase of 245 is made up in 
part by additional movie houses and other amusement 
places. The number of regular theatres has remained 
about the same. 

In 1920 licenses were issued for 2,352 entertainments, 
the total to date for this year is 1,814. The decrease is 
attributed to general business depression. 

One rather expected increase during the year was in 
the number of licensed horse-drawn hacks. During 1920 
only one such vehicle has been licensed, while this year 
there were 17. It was explained that the jump in licensed 
cabs was due to the fact that this style of conversance was 
beginning to supplant taxis, but that owners who had 
failed in past years to obtain licenses had answered to 
pressure this year. 

Other horse-drawn vehicles have ben decreasing for 
years as automobiles supplanted them, and this decline 
continued in 1921, but with a smaller drop than in pre- 
vious years. 

During 1920 some 6,576 one-horse, 2,679 two horse, 66 
three-horse, 12 four-horse and one six-horse vehicles were 
licensed. During this year the totals were 6,459 one- 
horse, 2,293 two-horse, 51 three-horse, 16 four-horse and 
one six-horse vehicles. 

There was a slight increase over last year in the num- 
ber of licensed street cars, the totals being 1,171 for 1920, 
and 1,196 for this year. 



238 Report of Maryland 'State Board 

Twenty-five pawnbrokers were licensed this year, as 
against 23 last year. 

In accord with the increase in amusement places there 
was a jump in the number of pool, billiard and bagatelle 
tables, those in public places being included in the sum- 
mary indicating an increase in the number of pool rooms. 
Last year there were 1,384 licensed and this year a total 
of 1,619. 

Bowling alleys, on the other hand, showed a decrease, 
20 having been licensed as against 23 in 1920. There was 
also a decrease in the number of employment agencies, 
the totals being 55 last year and 50 for 1921. 

Licensed package carts from 947 in 1920 to 1,024 this 
year. The number of Door woman's licenses, costing $5 
and issued for a limited vending business in markets, in- 
creased from 11 last year to 20 this year. 

Licenses to sell coal oil showed a drop. The total was 
1,895, as against 2,243 in 1920. , 

There was a big increase in the number of licenses is- 
sued to street vendors. A total of 1,705 licenses were 
issued to sell from wagons and 852 to sell from baskets, 
as against 819 wagon licenses and 307 basket licenses last 
year.. 

Desmte the efforts of the Electrical Commission to re- 
duce the number of telegraph and telephone poles in the 
city by forcing public sei'vice corporations to put the 
wires in the subways there was an increase over last year 
in the number of licenses issued for poles of this sort. 
The total licensed this year was 9,495, as against 9,159 
in 1920. 

There is relg,tively little difference in the number of 
tags for dog licenses issued this year and last year. A 
total of 10,208 new licenses were issued in 1921 and 23,642 
were renewed. Last year the totals were 10289 new li- 
censes and 22,792 renewals. The licensed dog population 
is now about 33,850, and in 1920 was about 33,081. 

The total revenue this year from dog licenses was $42,- 
213 and from miscellaneous licenses $95,396.75.. 

STREET RAILWAY RECEIPTS 

A loss in gross revenue of more than $1,000,000 was 
suffered by the United Railways and Electric Company 
during 1921, as a result in a decline of 18.000,000 in the 
number of passengers carried, as compared with 1920. 



OF Labor and Statistics 239 

In 1920 the number of revenue passengers was 253,- 
934,179. Totals for 1921 will not exceed 238,000,000, 
United officials said. 

Officials of the railways company are optimistic regard- 
ing the outlook for 1922. The wage 7"eductions, affecting 
all officers and employes, will result in a saving of JpSOO,- 
00 in the annual pay roll. This, with other economies,, 
is expected to be reflected in the net revenues, and -vhen 
added to the receipts of heavier traffic with the passage 
of general business depression, will enable the company 
to earn $1,000,000 during 1922.. This figure is the mini- 
mum set by the Public Sei-vice Commission to cover fixed 
charges and to insure the financial safety of the company. 

PARK TAX 

The amount paid the city by the United Railways by 
quarters during the year 1921 was as follows: 

January 10 $ 205,130.01 

April 10 _ 284,686.64 

July 10 _.-...- 293,149.64 

October 10 - 272,239.60 

$1,155,20.5.89 

DEEDS AND MORTGAGES 

Deeds, mortgages and other land papers filed at the 
Record Office in the Courthouse during the year ended 
November 30, numbered 70,830, as compared with 87,211 
recorded during the same time a year ago. Certified 
copies made total 575, as compared with 443 in 1920. The 
annual statement as issued by Stephen C. Little, Clerk of 
the Superior Court, follows: 

1920. 1921. 

Leases 2,052 1,078 

. Mortgages - - 25,216 20,955 

Deeds -....- 18,645 13,121 

Assignments 14,618 9,662 

Releases of mortgages 15,252 12,499 

Short releases of mortgages _ - 4,224 4,362 

Short assignments of mortgages 790 975 

Agreements 628 427 

Bonds of conveyances -.. 11 8 

Power of attorney * .- 105 77 

Miscellaneous 72 104 

Magistrate's judgments 2,930 5,112 .. 

Satisfaction of magistrates' judgments 2,667 2,440 

87,211 70,830 

t 



240 Rki'ort of Maryland State Board 

NEW INDUSTRIAL PLANTS 

A total of 163 new industrial plants and expansions 
with plant investment requirements of $21,675,500 has 
been added to Baltimore's industrial life during the year 
ending May 31, 1921. 

This addition to industries is composed of 64 out-and- 
out new industries, involving a plant investment of $4,- 
633,000, and 99 expansions, representing plant investment 
of $17,012,500. A summary of the new industries and 
expansions, together with a similar summary for the two 
years' activity, is given as follows: 

Employes Plant 

Second Year. Required. Investment. 

64 new industries 2,581 $ 4,663,000 

99 expansions 9,461 17,012.500 



Totals, second year... 12,042 $21,675,500 

Employes Plant 

Two Years. Required. Investment. 

164 new industries 25,067 $39,354,700 

236 expansions 27,775 56,568,000 



Totals, two years 52.842 $95,922,700 

Commenting on these figures as indicative of the local 
industrial growth, Mr. George C. Smith said : 

"While the past 12 months have marked a period of 
world-wide deflation and depression, the industrial expan- 
sion of Baltimore has moved forward at a rapid rate. 
The 12,000 additional employes required is nearly 70 per 
cent more than the total increase in industrial employes 
in Baltimore during the 15-year period between 1899 and 
1914. The high character and diversity of the industries 
acquired in regard to financial resources, stability and 
diversification has been even more important than the 
mere figures indicate. Branch plants of a number of 
Americas' leading industries are included among those 
acquired. Many lines of products not previously pro- 
duced in Baltimore are also represented. The record of 
Baltimore's progress in the past 12 months is, therefore, 
very satisfactory." 

Mr. Smith furnishes a table showing that more capital 
has been added to Baltimore's enterprises within the last 



•* ov Labor and Statistics 241 

two fiscal years of the Board of Trade bureau's activities 
than the total for the 15 years from 1899 to 1914. This 
table is taken from the United States Census of Manu- 
factures and, compared with the bureau's two-year re- 
sult, is given as follows: 

Census Average Number 

Year. Wage Earners. Capital. 

1899 66,571 $107,217,000 

1904 _ 65,050 146,961,000 

1909 71,444 164,437,000 

. 1914 73,769 177 301,000 

Employes. Capital. 

Total 15-year increase 7,198 $70,084,000 

Average increase per year, 1899- 

1914 479 4,672,267 

Total increases announced by In- 
dustrial Bureau, two years 52,842 75,922,700 

HALF OF POPULATION OF BALTIMORE WORKS* 

FOR PROFIT 

Approximately 50 per cent of the 733,826 inhabitants 
of Baltimore, as recorded in the 1920 census, are engaged 
in some form of "gainful occupation." This is shown 
by occupational statistics for the city of Baltimore com- 
piled by the Bureau of Census and covering all employed 
persons 10 years of age and over. 

During the last 10 years, the bureau also reports, there 
has been a marked increase in the number of women who 
are at work for pecuniary gain. It is shown that in Bal- 
timore women are engaged in almost everything from act- 
ing as chauffeurs to the practice of law and medicine. 

It is believed probable that the total number of work- 
ers given — 337,098 — excludes a few newsboys and other 
juvenile workers. 

That Baltimore has one woman carpenter is also shown. 
The city also has two delivery women, female ministers, 
two stevedores, one painter and vamisher and one elec- 
trician. There are more clerks than any other class of 
workers, the word clerk not including salesmen and sales- 
women in stores, these being listed separately. 

By "those engaged in gamful occupation," the bureau 
says, it refers to "working for salaries, wages, profits or 
other form of pecuniary compensation or its equivalent." 



242 Report op Maryland State Board 

Detailed information, which pays tribute to Baltimore 
as a city of business and employment, follows: 

The occupational classes for each of which at least 
5,000 persons of both sexes were reported in 1920, stated 
m the order of their numerical importance, are as follows : 

Clerks, except in stores, 14797 males and 5,920 females; 
servants and waiters, 4,407 males and 15,699 females; 
retail dealers, 12391 males and 1,637 females; salesmen 
and saleswomen, 8,747 males and 4,814 females; carpen- 
ters, 9,005 males and 1 female; machinists, millwrights 
and tool makers, 8,313 males ; laun^Jerers and laundresses, 
excluding those employed in laundries, 152 males and 
8,070 females; bookkeepers, cashiers and accountants, 
4,312 males and 3,086 females; stenographers and type- 
writers, 814 males and 6,531 females; general laborers, 
laborers employed on buildings and laborers for whom the 
line of work was not specified, 6,845 males and 116 fe- 
males; tailors and tailoresses, 5,087 males and 1,158 fe- 
males; chauffeurs, 5,210 males and 9 females. 

The numbers engaged in certain important occupations 
for each of which fewer than 5,000 persons were reported 
in 1920 are as follows: Physicians and surgeons, 1,145 
men and 76 women; lawyers, judges and justices, 1,316 
men and 11 women; clergymen, 901 men and 13 women; 
school teachers, 604 men and 3,452 women; trained 
nurses, 33 men and 1,953 women. 

Pronounced increases for females are shown for the 
following occupations : 

Clerks, except in stores, from 1,282 in 1910 to 5,920 in 
1920 ; stenographers and typewriters, from 2,333 to 6,531 ; 
bookkeepers, cashiers and accountants, from 1,661 to 
3,086; trained nurses, from 1,037 to 1,953; clerks in 
stores, from 1,014 to 1,619. On the other hand, the num- 
ber of dressmakers and seamstresses, excluding those in 
factories, decreased from 7,027 in 1910 to 3,254 in 1920. 

Nothing more than the occupational statistics of the 
Federal census is needed to show how far Baltimore has 
departed from the old standards of normal family life. 
It may be that those standards never existed ; but at any 
rate there is a popular theory to the effect that the normal 
unit in society is the family with at least two children 
and that this unit is supported by the efforts of its head, 
the husband and father. Thus one might suppose that 
in society as it should be not more than one out of every 



OF Labor and Statistics 243 

four people would be engaged in which the census author- 
ities term "gainful occupation," whereas actually almost 
half of Baltimore population was working in 1920. No 
explanation of this discrepancy is needed if the present 
customs of Baltimore are really proper, but one thinks 
of the tendency toward late marriage and the increase of 
child labor as factors whose significance must be consid- 
ered. Women in industry are a new manifestation which 
does not fit in any too well with the hypothetical stand- 
ards quoted above. Are these some of the reasons why 
337,000 Baltimoreans instead of 183,000 are working? 

Statistics show that there were 41,609,192 persons 10 
years of age and over in the United States engaged in 
gamful occupations in 1920. Of them 33,059,793 were 
males and 8,549,399 females. 

HOUSING CONDITIONS IN BALTIMORE 
MARCH 1, 1921 

The special committee created at the request of the 
Real Estate Board of Baltimore to study the housing 
situation in this city made, through the co-operation of 
the Police Department, a canvass of all the houses in 
Baltimore. The puiposes of the survey were to ascertain : 

(1) The number and nature of all vacant houses; 

(2) The extent of home ownership, including equities ; 

(3) The degree of congestion existing, including both 
(a) the number of rooms available per person, and (b) 
the number of families accommodated per house; 

(4) The size, by rooms and stories, of all occupied and 
vacant houses; 

(5) The need for and extent of present house building 
in Baltimore. 

In order to gather the necessary information to serve 
several of these purposes, the Housing Committee pre- 
pared a form to be used by the city police, one form to be 
filled out by them for each house in the city. These forms 
were returned, by police districts, to the Real Estate 
Board, and were there classified to show whether (1) 
occupied by owner, (2) occupied by renter, (3) vacant. 



244 Rei'ort of Maryland State Board 

The police returned forms covering 131,711 houses, 
classified as follows: 

Occupied ' Total 

District. by Owner. Rented. Vacant. Dwellings. 

Northern 12,097 4,048 517 16,662 

Northwestern 14,895 12,031 416 27,324 

Northeastern 21,023 9,398 486 30,907 

Eastern 13,106 4,361 237 17,704 

Western 1,921 4,530 76 6,527 

Central 1,929 2,103 113 4,145 

Southern 5,486 5,975 141 11,602 

Southwestern .: : 9,969 6,587 - 284 16,840 

Total 80,426 49,015 2,270 131,711 

October 1st, 1917, a previous police survey of houses 
was made. At that time the following total were ob- 
tained: Occupied by owner, 52,499; rented, 59,230; va- 
cant, 3,428; total dwellings, 115,157. 

Between the time of the two surveys the city of Balti- 
more annexed approximately 60 square miles of territory, 
containing an estimated population of 93,876 persons. 
At that time the average number of persons per house 
was approximately 5.4. There were annexed to the old 
city, therefore about 17,000 houses. 

From October 1st, 1917, to December 31st, 1920, per- 
mits were issued for 6,095 dwellings, of which a large por- 
tion were built. Making due allowance for obsolescence, 
destruction by fire, conversion, demolition, etc., occurring 
during the 39 months, it is evident that the surveys of 
October 1st, 1917, and March 1st, 1921, agree within less 
than three per cent. It may be assumed, therefore, that 
the latter survey is correct and that any analysis of the 
detailed figures compiled will likewise be correct. The 
similarity of the two surveys attests to the splendid work 
done by the Police Department. 

Without investigation, a total of 2,270 vacant houses 
may appear to be a large number and may seem to indi- 
cate an actual glut in the real estate market. As a matter 
of fact, in pre-war days Baltimore customarily had from 
four to six per cent of all dwellings vacant. Records have 
been compiled 'showing an actual excess of six per cent' 
vacancies. 



<. 



OF Labor and Statistics 245 

Recent surveys show the following results : 

Total Per Cent 

S-urv'ev. Dwellings. Vacant. Vacant. 

October 1st, 1917 _ 115,157 3,428 3. 

August 30th, 1918 115,500 1,580 1.4 

March 1st, 1921 131,711 2,270 1.7 

Of the 2,270 vacant dwellings, approximately 1,300 
were new houses, recently completed, and held for sale. 
Less than 1,000 represented old houses vacant, and many 
of them were in bad repair and virtually abandoned. Of 
the normal and usual class of vacant houses not more 
than 500 existed on March 1st, representing less than 
four-tenths of one per cent, against a usual vacancy of 
four to six per cent, in pre-war days. Available vacant 
houses, therefore, except new houses for purchase, are 
virtually off the market. 

From the standpoint of public interest there should be, 
at all times, some houses available for occupancy. What- 
ever this number might be, whether three per cent or 
six per cent, it is needed to make homes available for 
newly married couples, to afford an opportunity for those 
meeting with success to advance in the social scale, to 
provide accommodations for those attracted to the city 
from the outside, and to prevent undue profits in the sale 
and leasing of residential property. 

Without regard to the question of congestion in Balti- 
more homes, and only from the standpoint of necessary 
vacant houses, there would seem to be a shortage of not 
less than 2,000 to 3,000 houses, merely to provide that 
elbow room necessary to maintain a normal social con- 
dition. 

The following table shows the distribution of vacant 
houses by police districts. An attempt has also been 
made to separate the old froA the new houses recently 
completed and held for sale : 

Vacant Hcuses 

District. Total. Old. New. 

Northern 517 101 416 

Northwestern 416 162 254 

Northeastern :..... 486 234 252 

Eastern 237 170 67 

Western 76 6 70 

Central 113 113 

Southern 141 85 56 

Southwestern ^ 284 117* 167 

Total .' 2,270 988 1,282 



246 Rei'ort of Maryland State Board 

HOME OWNERSHIP IN BALTIMORE 

Of the dwellings occupied, it was found that 80,426, or 
62.2 per cent., were occupied by their owners, while 
49,015, or 37.8 per cent, were rented. It is probable that 
no other large city in America can show so large a per- 
centage. Baltimore's excellent industrial conditions are 
no doubt due largely to the fact that so many of her 
workmen are hpme-owners or are making weekly pay- 
ments on a home. 

The percentage of homes owned, by districts, is as fol- 
lows: 

Percentage of Homes 

District. Owned. Rented. 

Northern 74.9 25.1 

N'^rthwestem 55.3 . 44.7 

Northeastern 69.1 30.9 

Eastern 75.0 25.0 

Western 29.8 70.2 

Central 47.8 52.2 

Southern : 47.9 52.1 

Southwestern 60.2 39.8 

City _.. 62.2 37.8 

It is a splendid commentary on the city that a district 
(Eastern) given up largely to the small homes of skilled 
arid common workmen and small storekeepers should pos- 
sess the highest percentage of homes owned. 

For the principal industrial cities included in the sur- 
vey, following densities were shown for rented houses: 

No. of Rooms 
City. Per Person. 

Cle vel and 1.2 

Detroit ^ ._ 1.1 

Buffalo 1.3 

Chicaero 1,2 

New York J _.. 1.0 

Baltimore 1.3 

Newark _ : 1.1 

Pittsburgh 8 

Philadelphia 1.3 

Boston - 1.1 

St. Louis 9 

Cincinnati 9 

Indianapolis 1.3 

Birmingham _ 1.1 

New Orleans ...._ „ 9 

Atlanta _ „ 9 

Baltimore, with Buffalo, Indianapolis and Philadelphia, 
makes the best showing. If owned and rented houses had 



OF Labor and Statistics 247 

been included, Baltimore, undoubtedly, would have been 
in a class by itself. 

BALTIMORE IS SECOND IN HOME OWNERS' LIST 

Baltimore is the second city of the country in the mat- 
ter of home-owners as related to the entire population of 
the city, according to figures made public by the Census 
Bureau in Washington. 

In Baltimore 46 per cent of the population own their 
own homes. In Des Moines 51 per cent are home-owners. 
St. Paul sho\\'s the same figures that Baltimore shows. 
In Buffalo the home-owners form 39 per cent of the total 
population ; in Detroit, 38 per cent ; Cleveland, 35 per cent ; 
Washington, 30 per cent ; Chicago, 27 per cent ; St. Louis, 
24 per cent, and Boston 18 per cent. 

Approximately $60,000,000,000, a sum sufficient to pay 
the national debt three times over, stands to the credit 
of families in the United States owning the homes in 
which they live, according to reports to the Census Bu- 
reau. 

The United States has more property holders than any 
other country in the world, it is indicated. Forty-five 
per cent of all families own the homes in which they live, 
more than 60 per cent without encumbrances. The total 
number of home owners is listed by the Census Bureau 
as 10,866.960. Five thousand dollars is regarded as a 
conservative estimate of the average value. 

Home ownership stamps the United States as naturally 
anti-Bolshevistic. Radicalism, now interfering with busi- 
ness and industry in Italy, England and France, can gain 
little support in this country. It is one reason why the 
political strike never has been resorted to by organized 
labor in the United States, officials say.. 

Own-your-own-home campaign now being carried on in 
many sections of the country are receiving support, not 
only from government officials, but also from business 
men generally. An interest in land and its imnrovement 
makes of the average citizen a species of small business 
man who constitutes what is described as a "good risk." 

Residents of the cities are beginning to gain as home 
owners. Formerly the rural sections boasted of the 
largest percentage of home owners. 

Cities of the Middle West show a larger proportion of 
home owners than those of the East. 



248 



REroRT OF Maryland State Board 



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249 



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26 weekly clinics and 101,000 vis- 
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104 cases at an average cost of 
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1980 in different clubs and classes; 
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4,190 boys taught principles of 
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33,700 young people aided by su- 
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250 Report of Maryland State Board 

LIST OF CONSULS IN BALTIMORE 

ARGENTINA— Hon. Richard J. Leupold, Vice-Consul, 27 S. Gay 
Street. Plaza 2374. 

BELGIUM— Hon. James G. Whiteley, Consul; Hon. Jphn A. Mc- 
Isaac, Chancellor, 223 W. Lanvale Street. Madison 3005. 

BOLIVIA— Hon. Raymond M. Glacken, Consul, Fidelity Building. 
Plaza 0818. 

BRAZIL — Hon. Luis de Magalhaes Tavares, Consul, 11 E. Lexing- 
ton Street. Plaza 7529. 

CHILE — Hon. Augusto Errazuriz 0., Consul; Hon. J. F. Sandrock, 
Acting Consul, 617-A Equitable Building. Plaza 4572. 

COLOMBIA— Hon. Robert Forero, Consul, 2 E. Lexington Street. 
Plaza 1160. 

COSTA RICA— Hon. Wm. A. Riordan, Consul, 305 N. HoUiday 
Street. Plaza 2254. 

CUBA — Hon. Eduardo L. Desvernine, Consul; 1525 Munsey Build- 
ing. Plaza 1943. 

DENMARK— Hon. Holger A. Koppel, Vice-Consul, Carroll Build- 
ing. Plaza 7050. 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC— Hon. Wm. A. Riordan, Vice-Consul, 305 
N. Holliday Street. Plaza 2254. 

GREAT BRITAIN— Hon. Hugh Alex Ford, Consul; Hon. James 
Guthrie, Vice-Consul, HE. Fayette Street. Plaza 6096. 

GUATEMALA— Hon. C. Morton Stewart, Consul General, care 
Strother, Brogden & Co., Calvert and Redwood Streets. Plaza 3881. 

ITALY — Hon. Giovanni SchiafRno, Royal Consular Agent, 417 E. 
Baltimore Street. Plaza 6175. 

MEXICO— Hon. Roberto Garcia, Consul, 1207 Munsey Building. 
Calvert 091 5- J. 

NETHERLANDS— Hon. Rodolphe H. Mottu, Consul, U. S. F. & G. 

Building. Plaza 0380. 
NICARAGUA— Hon. H. T. MaxV^ell, Prov. Consul, 400 Exchange 

Place. Plaza 6661. 

NORWAY— Hon. Arthur F. Sidebctham, Vice-Consul, 19 South 
Street. Plaza 4390. 

PANAMA— Hon. H. T. Maxwell, Vice-Consul, 400 Exchange Place. 
Plaza 6661. 

PERU— Hon. Charles A. Oyague, P. Consul, 1628 Eutaw Place. 
Madison 7582. 

PORTUGAL— Hon. Adelbert W. Mears, Vice-Consul, 117 Commerce 
Street. Plaza 5443. 

SPAIN — Hon. Giovanni Schiaffino, Vice-Consul, 417 E. Baltimore 
Street. Plaza 6175. 

SWEDEN— Hon. Emory H. Niles, Royal Vice-Consul, 925 Equitable 
Building. Plaza 3240. 

URUGUAY— Hon. A. F. DuPcnt, Consul, 2701 W. Baltimore Street. 
Gilmor 2351. 

VENEZUELA— Hon. A. F. DuPont, Consul, 2701 W. Baltimore 
Street. Gilmor 2351. 

CONSULAR ASSOCIATION— Hon. A. F. DuPont, Chancellor, 2701 
W. Baltimore Street. Gilmor 2351. 



OF Labor and Statistics 251 

REPORT OF POLICE COMMISSIONER 

The following extracts were taken from the report of 
the Police Commissioner for the City of Baltimore for the 
year 1921: 

The total complement of the Police Department is 1,359, 
which includes 164 sergeants and 942 patrolmen. 

Under the General Fund the amount appropriated by 
the Mayor and City Council was as follows: 

Account of salaries .._ $2,056,948.63 

Account of expenses _ 220,164.88 

• Totul _ „ $2,277,113.51 

DISBURSEMENTS 

For salaries $2,056,948.63 

For expenses 220,164.88 

Total $2,277,113.51 

SPECIAL FUND 

Balance January 1, 1921 $212,032.32 

Receipts 180,896.55 

Total $392,928.87 

DISBURSEMENTS 
Payroll, retired officers, patrolmen, clerks, 

etc - $182,738.72 

Allowance to widows of members killed in service 4,790.88 
Balance January 1, 1922 205,399.27 

Total _ - ;.. $392,928.87 

There were 9,818 complaints made during the year of 
lost and stolen property, of which recoveries were made in 
7,390 cases. Included in the above were 712 automobiles 
with an estimated value of $879,671.00, of which 640 were 
recovered with an estimated value of $800,023.00. 

The number of arrests made during the year was 54,- 
602, compared with 41,988 in 1920, 50,027 in 1919, 62,076 
in 1918 and 49,147 in 1917. 

There was an increase in the number of arrests in 1921 
over 1920 in the following offenses, viz.: 

Assault, 1,308; disorderly conduct, 3,869; disturbing 
the peace, 1,711; drunkenness, 1,473, and vagrants, 1,337. 
The increase in violations of the automobile laws in 1921, 
as compared with 1920, was 1,063. The total number of 
cases disposed of in the Traffic Court during the year was 
15,103, of which 3,781 were dismissed, 1,352 were re- 
leased on pajTuent of costs, 9,723 were fined and released, 
175 were fined and committed and 72 were committed. 



252 



Kei'ort of Maryland Statk Board 



The number of persons reported injured during the 
year was 4,885, of which 317 were fatal and 4,568 non- 
fatal. 

ARRESTS AND OTHER SERVICE PERFORMED BY THE 
POLICE PATROL BOATS 

Number of arrests 5 

Number of persons saved from drowning 1 

Number of dead bodies recovered 15 

Number of dead bodies removed 25 

Number of sick or injured persons removed 2 

Number of fires responded to 5 

Number of fires responded to and went into active service 1 

Number of horses saved from drowning 1 

Number of vessels assisted ^ „ 4 

Value of property recovered $5,898.76 

POPULATION OF VOTING AGE, BALTIMORE CITY. CENSUS 
TAKEN BY THE POLICE, SEPTEMBER, 1921 



Male 



Ward I White Colored 



Total 


Female 


Total 


White 


Colored 



Grand 
Total 



1 

2 

3 „ 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 _ 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 _ 

Total 



7,762 
4,727 
4,209 
2,878 
2,577 
6,939 
7,570 

10,743 
9,601 
4,681 
4,052 
9,833 

10,440 
2,864 

12,895 
8,718 
1,096 
4,078 
5,433 

10,350 
4,643 
1.940 
3,950 
5,583 
4,043 
9,838 

11,121 
2,144 



174,709 



52 

90 

677 

1,450 

2,015 

1,084 

1,551 

414 

298 

836 

2,451 

1,444 

194 

3,543 

1,694 

1,949 

4,233 

1,572 

1,377 

199 

794 

1,109 

586 



541 
60 

401 
12 



30,626 



7,814 
4,817 
4,886 
4,328 
4,592 
8,023 
9,121 

11,157 
9,899 
5,517 
6,504 

11,277 

10,634 
6,407 

14,589 

10,667 
5,329 
5,650 
6,810 

10,549 
5,437 
3,049 
4,536 
5,583 
4,584 
9,898 

11,522 
2,156 



205,335 



6,488 
4,199 
3,219 
1,794 
1,499 
6,203 
6,921 
9,637 
8,639 
4,039 
3,992 
9,674 
9,874 
2,752 

10,747 
7,166 
978 
3,531 
5,523 
9.768 
3,004 
1,500 
2.392 
4,148 
3.235 
8,561 

11,510 
2,179 



37 

104 

477 

1,135 

1,413 

832 

1,343 

312 

226 

724 

2,441 

1,075 

229 

3,127 

1,078 

1,668 

4,233 

1,293 

1,357 

179 

660 

750 

261 

1 

455 

37 

413 

14 



153,1721 25,874 



6,525 
4,303 
3,696 
2,929 
2,912 
7,035 
8,264 
9,949 
8,865 
4,763 
6,433 

10,749 

10,103 
5,879 

11,825 
8,834 
5,211 
4.824 
6,880 
9,947 
3.664 
2,250 
2,653 
4,149 
3,690 
8,598 

11,923 
2.193 



179,046 



14^39 

9,120 

8,582 

7,257 

7,504 

15,058 

17,385 

21,106 

18,764 

10,280 

12,937 

22,026 

20,737 

12,286 

26,414 

19,501 

10,540 

10,474 

13,690 

20,496 

9,101 

5,299 

7,189 

9.732 

8,274 

18,496 

23,445 

4,349 



384,381 



OF Labor and Statistics 



253 





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OF Labor and Statistics 255 

Persons in the care of Station-house Matrons. 



Abandoned infants ;. 9 

Boys escaping from Reformatory Institutions 29 

Boys under 14 years, arrested _ _ 572 

Female lodgers 17 

Girls escaping from Reformatory Institutions _ 4 

Girls 16 years and over, arrested 84 

Girls under 16 years, arrested - 70 

Insane females _ - 42 

Lost children „ _ - 582 

Minors destitute - 39 

Runaway boys _ _ _.. 61 

Runaway girls 63 

Women arrested 4007 

Total :., 5579 

White - ^627 

Colored 2952 

5579 



BOTH EXPORTS AND IMPORTS SHOW SHARP DE- 
CLINE IN VALUE 

American business houses exported $4,189,343,000 in 
merchandise in the first 11 months of this year, accord- 
ing to figures made public by the Department of Com- 
merce, which also gave imports for the period as valued 
at $2,271,797,000. In the corresponding 11 months in 
1920 exports totaled $7,507,729,000 and imports $5,012,- 
424,000. 

The declining trade was shown further in statistics for 
November, when exports aggregated $294,437,000, as 
compared with $343,597,000 for October and $676,528,000 
for November of last year. The imports for November 
aggregated $211,027,000, while for October they were 
$294,437,000, and for November, 1920, were $321,209,000. 

This, however does not mean that American trade has 
fallen off. The decrease in the value of shipments is due 
primarily to falling value of commodities. The tonnage 
of goods shipped has increased in many cases. On the 
basis of weight and volume of orders American manufac- 
turers and exporters this year sold goods at a faster rate 
than in 1920. This, officials say, makes very bright the 
prospects for 1922. 

Farmers shared in the 1921 export trade in greater 
proportions than any other group of business men. Ex- 



256 KEroRT of Maryi,and State Board 

ports of farm products totaled more than $2,000,000,000, 
representing more than one-third of the total volume of 
sales abroad. 

Europe, as in 1920, drew the bulk of American foreign 
shipments, the figures showing that for November mer- 
chandise valued at $153,349,000 went there, making the 
total for the 11 months $2,209,358,000. Neighboring 
North American countries received $71,646,000 in No- 
vember shipments and $1,067,446,000 for the 11 months. 

Exports to South American countries for the 11 months 
aggregated $257,120,000, or about 40 per cent of the 
value of commodities sent them in the corresponding 
period last year. 

To Asia, the figures show, was shipped merchandise of 
an aggregate value of $439,476,000 in the 11 months, but 
for the same period in 1920 shipments were valued at 
$716,737,000. 

In 11 months this year Americans shipped $147,104,000 
and $68,837,000 to Oceania and Africa, respectively. For 
the 11 months of last year the exports amounted to $239,- 
938,000 for Oceania and $149,069,000 for Africa. 

Imports from Europe for the first 11 months of the 
year were $692,263,000, against $1,160,410,000 for the 
corresponding period of 1920, while from Canada, Mex- 
ico and Central American countries the imports totaled 
in 11 months $702,980,000, as compared with $1,573,- 
440,000 in the 11 months of the preceding year. 

From South America the business houses in the United 
States imported in the 11 months of this year $268,607,- 
000, while in the first 11 months last year the injports 
were $725,114,000. 

The imports from Asia totaled $494,501,000 and $1,- 
222,874,000 for the first 11 months of this year and last 
year, respectively. 

Imports from Oceania to December 1 this year were 
$79,890,000, while for the corresponding period of 1920 
they were $183,755,000. 

From Africa there came imports of $33,553,000 in the 
first 11 months of this year ,as compared with $146,827,- 
000 in the same period of 1920. 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS AT THE PORT OF BALTIMORE 

The following tables furnished by the Collector of the 
Port of Baltimore are comparative statements of the 



OF Labor and Statistics 257 

articles imported into the district of Maryland during the 
calendar years 1920 and 1921, also the principal articles 
exported during' the same period. 

The total valuc3 of merchandise entering the port in 
1921, free of duty, was $33,428,044, compared with $59,- 
374,187 in 1920, being a decrease of $25,946,143, or about 
77 per cent. 

' The value of dutiable merchandise entering the port 
in 1921 was $7,696,284, compared with $10,509,978 in 
1920, being a decrease of $2,813,694, or about 36 2-3 per 
cent. 

The total value of both free and dutiable imports for 
1921 was $41,124,328, compared with $69,884,165 for 
1920, being a decrease of $28,759,837, or nearly 70 per 
cent. 

The greatest value of articles imiiorted on the free list 
amounting to more than a million dollars are as follows: 
Copper, $6,398,360 ; mineral oil, $5,526,939 ; woodpulp, $4,- 
723,024; fertilizer, $2,336,260; chemicals, $2,315,877; ni- 
trate of soda, $2,253,425; manganes ore, $1,636,282. and 
bananas, $1,210,194. 

The value of the dutiable articles amounting to more 
than one hundred thousand dollars were as follows : China 
and earthenware, $1,417,975; licorice root, $750,698; toys 
and dolls, $651,768; zinc and manufactures of, $534,675; 
molasses, $397,000; glass and glassw^are, $300,020; 
bristles, $205,119; olive oil, $184,157; egg yolk, $181,078; 
aluminum manufactures, $174,450, and straw braid, 
$132,318. 

The total value of exports for the year 1921, as shown 
by table No. 2, was $142,463,744, compared with $381, 
532,145 in 1920, being a decrease of $239,068,401. or 
nearly 168 per cent. 

The articles exported during the year 1921 and amount- 
ing to more than one million dollars, as named as follows : 
Wheat, $23,787,508; copper, $18,305,158; rye, $17,824,- 
293 ; corn, $15,362.722 : iron and steel manufactures, $12,- 
627,461 ; coal, $10,286,736 ; tobacco leaf, $8,999,287 ; wheat 
flour, $4,431,024; lard, $2,134,608; oil, lubricating, $2,- 
075,887; machinery, $1,919,977; milk, prepared, etc., $1,- 
604,649; lumber and manufactures, $1,603,366; starch, 
$1,526,815; cars, carriages, autos, etc., $1,416,918, and 
barlev, $1,246,068. 



258 



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262 REroRT of Maryland State Board 

CURRENT PRICES OF GRAIN 

The following table, furnished by James B. Hessong, 
secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, gives the current 
prices of grain at Baltimore by months during the year 
1921. 

The prices of No. 2 Red Winter wheat ranged from 
$1,051/4 to $2,101/2 per bushel in 1921, compared with 
$1,741/2 to $3.28 in 1920. 

The prices of No. 2 Red Winter wheat, garlicky, ranged 
from $1.00% to $1.97 in 1921, compared with $1.65 to 
$3.23 in 1920. 

The prices of No. 3 com ranged from .50% to .89 1/5 in 
1921, compared with $1.33 to $2.06 in 1920. The prices 
of No. 2 White oats ranged from .41 to 59i/? in 1921, com- 
pared with .59 to $1.36 in 1920. The price of No. 3 White 
oats ranged from .37 to .58 in 1921, compared with .57 
and $1.35 in 1920. 

Rye was quoted at .76I/7 to $1.88% in 1921, compared 
with $1,561/2 to $2.48 in 1920. 

The lowest price for wheat was reached during the 
month of November and the highest in January. The 
lowest price for com was reached in October and the 
highest in January. The lowest price for oats was 
reached in August and the highest in January. The low^- 
est price of rye was reached in November and the high- 
est in January. 



OF Laboe and Statistics 



263 






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264 



Keport of Maryland State Board 



RECEIPTS AND SHIPMENT OF LIVE STOCK 

The following tables, compiled by R. L. Showacre, sec- 
retary of the Union Stock Yards, show the receipts and 
shipment of live stock for the year 1921, by month, also 
number of cars. 

The total number of cattle received during the year, as 
shown by Table No. 1, was 179,806; sheep, 466,212; hogs, 
1,238,585; calves, 99,778; horses, 845; mules, 287, and 
cars 23,247. 

These figures show an increase over 1920 of 1,108 cars; 
99,231 sheep, 85,007 hogs and 7,252 calves, and a decrease 
of 14,578 cattle, 986 horses and 298 mules. 

The shipments for the year as shown by Table No. 2 
were: Cattle, 67,499; sheep, 280,582; hogs, 225,403; 
calves, 56,191; horses, 1,859; mules, 331, and number of 
cars, 8,535. 

As compared with 1920, there was an increase of 33,597 
sheep and 14,848 calves, and a decrease of 11,799 cattle, 
73,589 hogs, 1,498 horses, 708 mules and 1,222 cars. 

The receipts for the year exceeded the shipments as 
follows: Cars, 14,712; cattle, 112,307; sheep, 185,630; 
hogs, 1,013,182, and calves, 43,587; while the shipment 
of horses was 1,014 greater than the receipts, and 
mules 44. 

RECEIPTS OF LIVESTOCK AT BALTIMORE, MD., FOR THE 

YEAR OF 1921. 





Cattle S'heep | 


Hogs 1 


Calves 


Horses 


Mules 


Cars 


January 

February 

March . ... 


18,190 
11,928 
13,355 
17,816 
11,567 
10.786 
13,627 
16,587 
19,291 
19,628 
12,658 
14,373 


23.191 
12,817 
14,606 
18,365 
53,082 
68,224 
16,551 
65,029 
34,501 
52,670 
27,374 
19,802 


125,216 

93,764 

94,758 

105,852 

106,300 

96,010 

82,220 

80,071 

97,734 

132,852 

103,596 

120,212 


6,754 

4,703 

8,787 

9,085 

12,116 

11,031 

11,566 

8,192 

9,558 

7,766 

5,123 

5,097 


73 
45 
58 

220 
56 
44 

101 
37 
81 
24 
79 
27 


43 
17 
29 
20 

14 

2 

1 
5 

112 
44 


2,312 
1,543 
1,588 


April 

May 

June 


2,045 
2,026 
2,040 


July 

August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 


1,982 
1,920 
2,030 
2,377 
1,630 
1,752 


Totals 


|179,806|466,212 


1,238,585 


99,778 


845 


287 


23,247 



OF Labor and Statistics 



265 



SHIPMENTS OF LIVESTOCK FROM BALTIMORE, MD., FOR 

THE YEAR 1921. 



Cattle I Sheep I Hogs | Calves | Horses| Mules | Cars 



January ... 
February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October ... 
November 
December 



6,675 
4,348 
3,981 
8,268 
2,129| 
2,356 
3,246 
7,865 
8,868 
10,245 
5,617 
3,901 



8,441 

3,077 

2,016 

6,324 

37,726 

54,413 

51,107 

50,690 

16,985 

31,665 

13,043 

5,095 



28,656 
21,035 
17,905 
20,641 
18,209 
10,725 
7,731 
13,218 
16,654 
24,407 
20,477 
25,745 



3,087 
2,598 
5,205 
5,823 
6,784 
7,038 
6,355 
5,415 
5,644 
3,789 
2,063 
2,390 



88 
138 
167 
300 
155 
161 
231 
159 
215 
108 
93 
44 



39 

25 

36 

18 

6 

25 

5 

6 

1 

13 

113 

44 



812 
534 
478 
757 
640 
713 
671 
961 
800 
1,042 
621 
506 



Totals I 67,499|280,582| 225,403] 56,191| 1,859| 



331 



8,535 



IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION 

The following extracts were taken from the report of 
the Commissioner General of Immigration, in which he 
states : 

"The fiscal year 1921 has added a particularly inter- 
esting chapter to the history of immigration to the 
United States and its insular territories and possessions. 
With the cessation in 1918 of general hostilities in war- 
spent Europe, speculation became rife among those inter- 
ested in the immigration question as to the quantity and 
character of immigration this country would draw from 
that continent after it became apparent that peace was 
really established and something like normal conditions 
of ocean travel were restored. Some predicted that the 
stupendous task of reclaiming Europe from the devas- 
tation and waste of years of war would appeal to the pa- 
triotic motives and claim the time and attention of the 
vast majority of those who, at a time other than extraor- 
dinary, might be expected to find their way here. Others 
were of the view that an irresistible spirit of unrest in 
the post-war period, disturbed political and economic con- 
ditions, and the reopening of the lanes of travel after a 
closed period of some five years would, if unchecked by 



266 Keport op Maryland State Board 

restrictive legislation, bring upon us an unprecedented 
flood of immigration. 

"The total number of alien arrivals in the fiscal year 
1921 was 991,942. After examination 13,779 of these 
were found to be unacceptable for various reasons and 
deported. The number of alien admissions for the year 
was, therefore, 978,163, as against 621,576 in the previous 
year and 237,021 in the fiscal year 1919. Of the total 
number of aliens admitted during the past year 172,935 
were nonimmigrant (i. e., not coming for permanent resi- 
dence). Our true immigration for the year was, there- 
fore, 805,228, as compared with 430,001 for the previous 
year — an increase of 375,227. The emigrant departures 
were 247,718, a decrease of 40,597 from the previous year. 
The permanent addition to our alien population was, 
therefore, 557,510. 

"There was admitted during the year 4,017 Chinese 
immigrant aliens. The total number of immigrant aliens 
of this race admitted in the fiscal year 1920 was 2,148 — 
an increase for the year of 1,869. In addition to those 
admitted, 404 Chinese arrived at our ports of entry for 
aliens of that race and were reported after examination 
had established their ineligibility for admission. Addi- 
tionally, 5,815 Chinese were examined for return privi- 
lege, on applications made by them, and 5,754 return 
certificates were issued. 

"The number of Chinese emigrants departing from the 
United States was 5,253. A majority of these left only 
after securing certificates which, prima facie, entitled 
them to readmission upon return. 

"Section 2 of the act of February 5, 1917, provides that 
a head tax of $8 shall be collected on every alien, includ- 
ing alien seamen regularly admitted for the purpose of 
residence, entering the United States. Children under 
16 years of age, traveling with a parent, are not subject 
to the payment of the head tax, and certain other classes 
are exempted. 

"Under this provision of law there was levied and col- 
lected during the year the sum of $5,697,528, which was 
paid into the general funds of the Treasury. 

"Administrative fines have been assessed against trans- 
portation companies or the masters, owners, or agents of 
vessels entering United States seaports, in the sum of 
$324,340. This is by far the largest sum ever collected 



OF Labor and Statistics 267 

in any one year as administrative fines for infractions of 
the immigration laws by transportation companies, ex- 
ceeding the amount collected in the fiscal year 1920 (the 
second largest amount thus collected in the history of 
the Immigration Sen^ice) by $170,130. Other collections 
in the fiscal year totaled $46,528. 

"The entire cost of operating the Immigration Sei'vice 
for the fiscal year 1921, including the payment of salaries, 
maintenance and repair of immigration stations, etc., was 
Jfi4,011,2o3. The net revenue to the government for the 
year, on account of the enforcement of the immigration 
laws was, therefore, $2,057,163. The sum of $3,000,000 
has been appropriated by Congress for the conduct of the 
Immigration Sei-vice and the administration of the vari- 
ous laws pertaining to immigration for the fiscal year 
1922. As the act approved May 19, 1921, which limits the 
admission of aliens of any nationality to 3 per cent of the 
number of foreign-bora persons of such nationality resi- 
dent in the United States when the 1910 census was 
taken, will be in operation throughout the entire fiscal 
year 1922, there is every reason to believe that the ex- 
penditures for the year will exceed the collections by a 
considerable sum. The official computation shows that 
the peiTnissible immigration for the year from the coun- 
tries affected by the act will not exceed 360,000." 

Another interesting feature of the commissioner's re- 
port is the number of aliens who filed petitions for citi- 
zenship or made their "declaration of intention." The 
number of the first was 198,530 and of the second 304,481, 
which represented an increase of 4,375 over the previous 
year. Apparently the discussion of the immigration ques- 
tion has had its effect upon the minds of resident aliens. 
There was always something unjust and indefensible in 
the position of the alien who spent many j-ears in this 
country and used it merely to avoid military service in 
time of peace and as a base from which to go in quest of 
money without assuming the obligations of full citizen- 
ship or even taking the trouble to leam its language or 
try to understand its institutions. That kind of residence 
in the United States was bad for all parties and particu- 
larly for the individual concerned. In mentioning the 
fact of the present restrictive legislation it is only fair 
to add that those who do enter the country- with the in- 
tention of becoming citizens are not allov/ed to founder 
about at random. The Department of Labor tries to keep 



268 Report of Maryland State Board 

in touch with all who have made the declaration of inten- 
tion and to see that they are informed about classes in 
English and citizenship which are being held in their im- 
mediate vicinity. The department, therefore, is not com- 
mitted merely to a selfish or protective policy of exclu- 
sion, but recognizes its responsibility to the immigrant 
to whom it has permitted entrance. 

There were 3,917 immigrant aliens and 294 nonimmi- 
grant aliens admitted during the year who gave Maryland 
as their intended future permanent residence. There were 
also 1,143 emigrant aliens and 183 non-emigrant aliens 
that departed who gave Maryland as their last permanent 
residence. 

There were 265 immigrant and 29 nonimmigrant aliens 
admitted during the year at the Port of Baltimore and 
one immigrant alien and 9 nonemigrant aliens departed 
from the same port. There were also 81 citizens arriving 
and 59 departing. 



OF Labor and Statistics 269 

MARYLAND 



THE GOVERNOR'S MESSAGE 

Governor Ritchie's message to the Legislature is a mes- 
sage of good tidings to the Maryland taxpayer in its an- 
nouncement of a reduction of five cents in the State tax 
rate for the fiscal years of 1923 and 1924. When the 
present Democratic administration began in 1920 the Gov- 
ernor recalls that the State tax rate was a fraction over 
36 cents. This was reduced to 35 1-3 cents for 1921, and 
to 35 for 1922. The 30-cent rate now recommended rep- 
resents a total reduction of more than 6 cents. This re- 
duction on the basis of the present yield of $150,000 for 
each cent, represents an annual saving of $964,573, which 
"means," says the Governor, that "this Democratic ad- 
ministration, under the present budget, will save the peo- 
ple of Maryland" nearly one million dollars every year on 
their tax bills. 

This will be the sweet kernel of the message to all sorts 
and conditions of taxpayers. There may be disagreement 
as to whether the kernel is big enough, but even those 
who may consider it too small will at least unite in 
saying "For this relief much thanks." There would 
seem little, if any, ground for cavil as to the size of the 
financial achievement accomplished by the tax-rate re- 
duction. After a careful study of the Governor's mes- 
sage and the figures he presents, the most partisan critic 
will probably have to admit that the State's financial 
problem has been worked out as satisfactorily as was pos- 
sible under the conditions which this administration in- 
herited, and which were bound to be considered in all cal- 
culations. 

The two biggest items in the budget are, of course, the 
maintenance and development of the public schools and 
the maintenance and the development of the public roads. 
As to the former, the Governor shows that he has met 
the existing situation as liberally as possible in the face 
of a general demand for a reduction in taxation. In 1920 
there was an increase of $703,000 in the public school 
appropriations for 1921 and 1922, and in the present 
budget he recommends a still further increase of $750,000 
for 1923 and $780,000 for 1924, which will make an aggre- 
gate increase of nearly $1,500,000 each year. The total 



270 Report of Maryland Statk Board 

appropriation recommended is $3,500,000 for 1923 and 
$3,530,000 for 1924. This, the Governor adds, "will put 
the State Board of Education in a position where it can 
carry into effect the program which, through its most 
capable Superintendent of Public Schools, it has worked 
out during the past year." 

Our good roads system, which more than anything else 
in the last decade has made Maryland famous, necessarily 
holds a big place in every budget. It is a revenue pro- 
ducer, as well as a revenue consumer, but it has not yet 
become self-supporting. Indeed, most readers will be sur- 
prised to learn from the message that the maintenance 
fund, derived from receipts from the Motor Vehicle De- 
partment, shows a deficit of $1,179,555.07. The funds de- 
voted to maintenance were, it seems, "never sufficient for 
the purpose." 

This deficit explains the proposition for a gasoline tax, 
which it is hoped will pay off the indebtedness to the con- 
struction account and will eventually take the place, in 
whole or in part, of present motor-vehicle taxes. The 
Governor urges this as apparently more satisfactory to 
the owners of motor vehicles than any other method of 
raising the money and as supported by the experience of 
other states. 

The Governor's recommendations with regard to the 
State police force, looking to the placing of it upon a 
definite basis, but not increasing the size of it, for the 
present, will meet with general commendation. This 
force has demonstrated its great usefulness. 

For the rest the Governor deals, for the most part, with 
familiar but important subjects of State interest and ac- 
tivity relating to the public care of the insane, the dis- 
eased or delinquent. He dwells at length on a new topic 
in explaining his reasons for not recommending the 
"enormous appropriation" requested by the University 
of Maryland, which included "$1,215,999 for maintenance 
in 1923, and $1,169,999 for maintenance in 1924, and $1,- 
421,500 for land and construction during these two years, 
making an aggregate for this period of not much less than 
$4,000,000," which would have been in addition to $1,- 
875,931 which the institution will receive in the same time 
from the Federal Government, students' fees, hospital 
receipts and other sources. The Governor, while taking 
no position as to the policy of building up a great State 



OF Labor and Statistics 271 

university, suggests a good many questions which he 
thinks should be considered before the State embarks on 
such a project. He feels it is his "duty to see that the 
people of the State do not become committed to the am- 
bitious plans for extending the State university's fields 
of activity without at least the opportunity and the in- 
formation required to enable them to decide as to the 
need of such a university in this State, and without a clear 
understanding as to what its cost to the taxpayers will 
be." 

MARYLAND ROADS 

STATE COMMISSION CALLS ATTENTION TO INCREASE IN 
MAINTENANCE COSTS THROUGH INCREASED USE 

The thirteenth and fourteenth annual reports of the 
State Roads Commission for the years of 1920 and 1921 
make an innovation by presenting in detailed, tabulated 
form the apportionment of appropriations to each county 
and the expenditures and obligations charged against 
such appropriations. 

The members of the Roads Commission are John N. 
Mackall, chairman and chief engineer; Omar D. Crothers 
and D. C. Winebrenner, minority member. L. H. Steuart 
is secretary to the Commission. 

The report shows that the total for the post and lateral 
road funds for the two years in question was $4,984,626, 
made up as follows : State 1920 appropriation, $2,350,000 ; 
counties, lateral road appropriation, $1,500,000; Federal 
appropriation $850,000; county additional road fund, 
$281,127; and one item, $3,499, from Carroll county for 
additional width of roads through towns. 

Of the $4,984,626 total, expenditures and obligations ac- 
count for $4,736,501, leaving an available balance of 
$248,125. 

The post road fund. State and Federal, not available 
September 30, 1921, is given as $1,390,000, while this 
amount, plus the $248,125 balance, makes the total avail- 
able January 1, 1922, $1,638,125. 

The report points out that the increasing service being 
rendered by the roads has correspondingly increased the 
duties of maintenance. On this head the report says : 



272 Report op Maryland State Board 

"The service which the roads are rendering to the 
people of Maryland and to tourists who came into Mary- 
land is much greater than was ever anticipated, so that 
details of maintenance not thought of a few years ago 
have become essential to the proper and efficient use of 
the highways. Under subsequent headings the work ac- 
complished along these lines is enumerated. 

"The removal of snow from the highways is certainly 
a service absolutely needed today, but undreamed of a 
few years ago. The proper marking of the highways for 
direction and distances is obviously essential to the full 
use of the highways, but certainly even five years ago this 
could not be considered as a function of road maintenance. 
Likewise, the widening and banking of curves; the sur- 
face markings to indicate the position automobiles should 
take on curves and at the top of grades; and the w^hite- 
washing of telephone poles and obstructions as an aid to 
travel at night are a few of the things which the users of 
the roads demand. 

"That they should have them is not disputed by anyone, 
but that the motorist is willing to pay for what he de- 
mands is perhaps refreshing from any class of people. 
Usually demands are made far in excess of the ability and 
willingness of those making demands to pay. This is 
brought about largely by the fact that motorists /^'ealize 
that if they do not pay for refinements no one will, and 
also by the fact that all the money which they have paid 
for automobile registration has been used for road main- 
tenance and for other purposes." 

Under the head of "Maintenance and Reconstruction," 
the report goes into the complications and the deficit re- 
sulting from the changes in the fiscal years of the Roads 
Commission and of the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles. 
This section of the report says, in part: 

"The Legislature of 1920 changed the State Roads 
Commission's fiscal year to conform to the fiscal year of 
the State, at the same time making the fiscal year of the 
Commissioner of M'otor Vehicles conform to the fiscal 
year of the State. This was a most necessary change be- 
cause prior to that the maintenance account had always 
been financed by temporarily borrowing from the con- 
struction fund, and the amount available for mainte- 
nance and reconstruction was not definitely determined, 
whereas now the amount allowed for maintenance and 



OF Labor and Statistics 273 

reconstruction is definitely stated, and the Commission 
should, and for two years actually has kept this expendi- 
ture within the appropriation. That this should be done 
needs no comment. In changing the fiscal year, however, 
no provision was made for paying back the amount which 
had previously been borrowed from construction. 

"The State Roads Commission's fiscal year of 1920 was, 
therefore, nine months long, and as the budget provided 
for the expenditure of $1,350,000 for maintenance and re- 
construction, the Governor approved of the Commission 
expending nine-twelfths of this amount, or $1,012,500. 
The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles during the five 
months remaining of his fiscal year did not earn a suffi- 
cient amount to pay the State Roads Commission's allot- 
ment by $533,776.88, which, when added to the deficit of 
$645,778.19 of the previous year, made a total mainte- 
nance deficit of $1,179,555.07. The Commission has rec- 
ommended and the Governor has approved of asking the 
Legislature to provide a tax on motor fuel to produce this 
deficit, so that in the future the State Roads Commis- 
sion's maintenance fund will be on a cash basis. 

"With the maintenance funds on a budget basis, the 
amount necessary for current maintenance was ascer- 
tained and immediate contracts were awarded for the 
excess to be used in very necessary resurfacing and re- 
construction. Except where very urgently needed, the 
excess is used to widen the roads in the interest of safety. 
Maryland's road system is undoubtedly the best in the 
Union, but widening has improved it in many places. 
Not only will the widening materially reduce the cost of 
the maintenance on these particular sections, but will ac- 
tually save many lives and many dollars which would go 
in wrecked automobiles.. 

"The necessity for widening existing roads is, the Com- 
mission feels, a tribute to rather than a reflection upon 
the system under which Maryland's roads have been built. 
By building the roads wide enough to care for the traffic 
expected to come in the immediate future, instead of the 
traffic expected to come within, say 15 to 20 years, the 
interest on the additional expenditure is saved, and the 
roads can be widened, as widening becomes necessary, at 
no greater expense per mile than to have originally con- 
structed to the greater width, and the interest on the 
additional capital charge is saved for this time. 



274 Report of Maryland State Board 

"The Bureau of Public Roads has approved of the build- 
ing of roads of less width in Maryland than in many- 
other States, because Maryland has demonstrated that it 
can and will widen its roads as the needs of traffic de- 
mand. 

Prior to 1918 there were no restrictions as to loads. 
Since then the maximum gross load permitted has been 
20,000 pounds. Since the enforcement of this law, which 
has been vigorously done during the last year and a half, 
the road failures because of overloads have absolutely dis- 
appeared in this State and perhaps never to reoccur un- 
less the overloaded truck is permitted to return. 

That the overloaded truck is a menace is denied by no 
one. That the overloaded truck, contributing as it does 
less than .01 per cent of the total traffic on the roads, re- 
lieves anyone of the necessity of arguing that this traffic 
should or should not be eliminated. No one will argue 
that 99.99 per cent of the users of the road should be de- 
nied their use because .01 per cent desires to carry loads 
larger than the roads will carry. 



OF Labor and Statistics 



275 



\ 



TABLE SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF ROADS FUNDS 
AMONG COUNTIES 

The following table carries the State Roads Commis- 
sions' figures on how the lateral and post-road funds were 
distributed among the counties during the past two years : 



County. 



3 

Pi 

-4- tH O 
0<M OQ 



— 2 



^ > 

as a 

P3 



^2 S? 

1-1 
«! — >• n 

o5«M 



2 - « 

0.0 - 
■t- eS"-! 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel.... 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Prince George's 
Queen Anne's ... 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



176,720.00 
181.420.00 
447,150.(X) 
71,440.00 
176,074.63 
335,649.40 
254,402.00 
172,960.00 
193,170.00 
401,980.00 
248,630.00 
252,390.00 
135,360.00 
134,890.00 
399,310.00 
299.360.00 
166.380.00 
145.230.00 
123,610.00 
107,6.30.00 
2.57,560.00 
189,410.00 
183,300.00 



154.292.831$ 
175.993.471 
436.012.161 
40,764.591 
176.674.631 
335.414.36 
254.042.00 
135.210.21 
192.062.57 
401,272.53 
257,258.45 
189,394.30 
134,941.70 
134,253.75 
380.065.42 
207.590.28 
162,670.56 
131,711.08 
123.610.00 
102.175.44 
235,724.50 
182.705.81 
183,300.00 



22,427.17|.$ 

5,426.531 
11.137.841 
21.675.411 

I 

235.i4| 



37,749.79 

1,107.43 

707.47 

8,628.45 

62,995.61 

418.30 

636.25 

19,244.58 

21,769.72 

3.709.44 

13,518.92 



5,454.56 

21.8.35.50 

6,704.19 



52,265.00 
53.655.00 

117,455.00 
21,130.00 
49.900.00 
90,490.00 
60,605.00 
51,155.00 
57,130.00 

115,925.00 
73,530.00 
74,640.00 
40,030.00 
39.895.00 
77.420.00 
67.830.00 
49,205.00 
42,9.50.00 
36,560.00 
31,835.00 
76,170.00 
56,015.00 
54,210.00 



74,692.17 
59,081.53 

128,592.84 
42,805.41 
49.900.00 
90.725.04 
60.605.00 
88,904.79 
58.237.43 

116,632.47 
64,901.55 

137,635.61 
40,448.30 
40.531.25 
96,664.58 
89,599.72 
52,914.44 
56,468.92 
36.560.00 
37,289.56 
98,005.50 
62,719.19 
54,210.00 



$4,984,626.03 



$4,736,500.73 



$ 248.125.30 



$1,390,000.00 



$1,638,125.30 



276 



Report op Maryland State Board 



/ 



Table showing road mileage by counties, percentage of 
roads in each county and the annual county apportion- 
ment of Lateral Road Funds. 



County 


Per Cent of 
TotalCoupty 


Road Mileage 
Coiinty 

Road Mileage 
in State 


Annual Lateral 

Road Fund 
Apportionment 


• 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 


557 
572 

1251 
225 
532 
964 
645 
545 
608 

1235 
783 
796 
427 
425 
823 
723 
525 
457 
389 
339 
812 
598 
579 


3.76 
3.86 
8.45 
1.52 
3.59 
6.51 
4.36 
3.68 
4.11 
8.34 
5.29 
5.37 
2.88 
2.87 
5.57 
4.88 
3.54 
3.09 
2.63 
2.29 
5.48 
4.03 
3.90 


$28,200.00 
28,950.00 
63,375.00 


Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 


11,400.00 
26,925.00 
48,825.00 
32,700.00 
27,600.00 
30,825.00 
62,550.00 
39,675.00 
40,275.00 


Howard 


21,600.00 


Kent - 

Montgomery „ 

Fringe George's 


21,525.00 
41,775.00 
36,600.00 


Queen Anne's 


26,550.00 


St. Mary's 


23,175.00 


Somerset 


19,725.00 


Talbot 

Washington 

Wicomico 

Worcester 


17,175.00 
41,100.00 
30,225.00 
29,250.00 


Total 


14810 


100.00 


$750,000.00 







OF Labor and Statistics 277 

REPORT OF AUTOMOBILE COMMISSIONER 

AUTOMOBILE RE<^EIPTS TOTAL NET REVENUES FROM 
LICENSES $2,408,399.18 

A compilation of the receipts from the various sources 
is as follows: 

Motor Vehicle Licenses: 

Pneumatic _ $1,405,142.29 

Solid - 371,061.30 

Hiring _ 110,790.05 

Dealers 39,756.25 

"In transit" :..-. 547.00 

Trailers 4,342.25 

Traction :..... „ - .._ 225.00 

Motorcycles - _ - 19,836.75 

Motorcycle dealers _ 485.99 

Side cars - 5,470.00 

Motor wheels _ _ _ - 721.50 

Bus lines -.. — - 44,734.18 

Duplicates :Duplicate cards $4,411.00 

Transfers - 20,341.65 

24,752.65 

Operating Licenses: 

Chauffeurs $88,642.00 

Motor vehicle operators - 54,472.00 

Motorcycle operators — 1,444.75 

Instruction 49,839.00 

194,397.75 

Miscellaneous: 

Subscription to monthly lists $3,268.25 

Notary fees in office - 19,039.00 

Fines „ - 143,386.95 

Interest on deposits -.. 3,202.42 

168,896.62 

Tctal - $2,451,166.08 

Less license money refunded - 42,766.90 

$2,408,399.18 

TOTAL OF DISBURSEMENTS 

At the same time the disbursements were as follows : 

Office Expenses: 

Tags $31,860.42 

Salaries (office) -- - 40,944.25 

Salaries (motorcycle officers) — 20,186.8o 

Publishing monthly lists - — 4,332.80 

General printing - - i'^^l'^a 

Stationery -■- n'-fAn 

Postage - /,ob4.b/ 

Telephone and telegraph - - 1,028.34 



278 REroRT of Maryland State Board 



Light - - 663.75 

Maintenance, Washington office 4 232.26 

New equipment - 3,268.41 

Alterations to office - 2,586.90 

Miscellaneous 799.87 



Patroling- Expenses: 

Investigations _ $1,957.17 

Motorcycle officers' expenses _ 9,869.79 

Purchase and exchange of motors 6,255.20 

Motor maintenance 13,602.95 



$127,890.31 



31,685.11 
Remitted to State Treasurer.,... 2,248,823.76 



Total accounted for - ....$2,408,399.18 

Likewise was the title department a revenue producer, 
which provided for the maintenance of the newly created 
State police. All title receipts are retained under the law 
in a separate fund, and may be expended only under the 
terms of the law for "employment of additional assist- 
ants, deputies and measures to prevent, as far as possible, 
the theft of automobiles and the disposition of stolen au- 
tomobiles within the State." 

After all these expenses were taken care of the title 
department had a balance in bank of $56,417.16. The re- 
ceipts were as follows: 

Balance in Bank on October 1, 1920 $73,116.72 

Cash on hand on October 1, 1920 146.71 

Titles 

October $6,388.00 

November 3,824.00 

December 4,516.00 

January 5,268.00 

February 5,393.00 

March .._ 5,715.00 

April .: 8,818.00 

May 7,050.00 

June 8,059.00 

July 7,201.00 

August - 7,485.00 

September 5,906.00 



i 


Duplicate 




Affidavits 


Titles 


Total 


$399.25 


$7.00 


$6,794.25 


258.25 


3.00 


4,083.25 


303.50 


5.50 


4,825.00 


342.25 


11.00 


5,621.25 


266.75 


8.50 


5,668.25 


371.75 


16.50 


6,103.25 


543.25 


26.00 


9,387.25 


406.25 


29.00 


7,485.25 


373.50 


27.50 


8,460.00 


407.25 


35.00 


7,843.25 


348.00 


30.00 


7,863.00 


290.25 


33.50 


6,229.75 



Totals ...$75,623.00 $4,308.25 $232.50 $80,163.75 



Interest _ $1,981.19 



Total receipts for fiscal year $82,184.94 



Total to be accounted for $155,408.37 



OF Labor and Statistics 279 

Disbursements of the Title Department were : 

Office salaries _ $25,199.62 

Road salaries _ _._ _. 13,762.95 

Investigation 2,093.90 

Officers' expense 21,731.50 

Wearing apparel 2,355.19 

Motors _ 17,329.44 

Printing and stationery _ 4,586.66 

Telephone _ 1,909.14 

Light and power 322.50 

Postage _ 1,134.11 

Miscellaneous _ ._ 504.14 

Office equipment 6,033.71 

Total disbursements $98,991.21 

Balance in bank 56,308.92 

Cash on hand 108.24 

Total accounted for $155,408.37 

The following figures represent the number of licenses 
of all kinds issued during the past five fiscal years : 

1916-17 _ ...111,208 

1917-18 .- ...161,691 

1918-19 231,541 

1919-20 318,315 

1920-21 ...418,495 

Gross receipts of the department for the last 11 years 
are given as follows: 

1910-11 _ $56,204.00 

? 1911-12 85,016.49 

1912-13 - 170,626.02 

1913-14 222,854.67 

1914-15 - 337,754.26 

1915-16 493,993.80 

1916-17 773,091.10 

1917-18 1,080,878.08 

1918-19 1,690,693.43 

1919-20 - 2,051,135.07 

1920-21 2,451,166.08 

During the year 3,950 cases were tried for alleged vio- 
lations of the motor vehicle law, an increase of 22.7 per 
cent over the preceding fiscal year. "I believe," says the 
Commissioner, "that the policy of making the motor 
vehicle laws respected by suspending or revoking the 
licenses of this class of (careless and reckless) operators 
is the correct one. A comparison of action taken upon 
the various cases of the past three years follows : 



741 


1392 


138 


277 


186 


273 


1560 


1876 



280 REroRT OF Maryland State Board 

1918-19 1919-20 1920-21 

Licenses suspended 1528 

Licenses revoked 389 

Licenses refused 1043 

Reprimand 1240 

Total 4200 2623 3950 

602 CARS STOLEN 

"The following figures show the number of the cars 
stolen, recovered and missing during the past five years: 

Year Autos Stolen Recovered Missing 

1917 555 347 208 

1918 635 526 109 

1919 922 709 213 

1920 ^0 417 179 

1921 602 525 77 

"In 1920 you will note that the number of cars stolen 
is almost one-half of that in 1919. I feel that the title 
law, coupled with the Federal law, forbidding the inter-, 
state transportation of stolen cars, has struck a vital 
blow to the stolen car traffic, inasmuch as it has prac- 
tically closed the market for stolen cars in this State, 
and made it perilous to transport them to another State. 

Commissioner Baughman states that probably the big- 
gest adjunct to the State's forces for the proper control 
of all motor propelled vehicles, as well as the detection 
and prevention of general crime, created during the year 
is the new State police force. 

The annual report of the Commissioner devotes con- 
siderable space to the accomplishments of the State police 
during the seven months of 1921 they were in existence. 
It shows a large number of benefits and instances of as- 
sistance given to motorists on the roads in all parts of the 
State. In addition, it shows how many stolen automo- 
biles and motorcycles have been recovered; how accident 
victims have been aided; how those causing fatal and 
less serious accidents have been brought to justice, and 
how many other aids have been rendered the motorist. 

In the concluding pages of the report, a strong appeal 
to the Governor and Legislature to make the State police 
a permanent organization, with increased powers, per- 
sonnel and remuneration. Of the force the Commissioner 
states : 

"I am convinced that, due entirely to the efficient serv- 
ice we have been able to render under adverse circum- 



OF Labor and Statistics 281 

stances, there is a steadily growing demand in rural 
Maryland for a legalized State police force, with State- 
wide criminal jurisdiction." 

After devoting much space to reciting how the mobile 
organization has benefited rural Maryland in the detec- 
tion and suppression of crime, fires, etc., he calls atten- 
tion to the fact that the "fines collected for motor vehicle 
law violations met the daily running expenses and salary 
of the force." 

In the section of the report covering actual services 
rendered he records that in less than seven months the 
members of the force have patrolled 423,956 miles of 
highway, covering approximately 100,000 hours of active 
duty. During that time close to 6,000 arrests were made 
for motor vehicle law violations, 67 stolen automobiles 
and two motorcycles were recovered. The value of the 
cars is placed at $67,200. 

WOMEN DRIVERS AIDED ON ROADS 

Cases of assistance to inexperienced motorists, in many 
cases women, who came to grief through a punctured 
tire, a failure of the gasoline supply or engine trouble, 
are cited. How traffic has been kept clear of congestion 
at race meets, county fairs and similar gatherings in the 
suburban and urban sections are mentioned. 

To the running down of those who caused accidents 
there is some space given, in which it is reported that 
those responsible for 329 accidents, in 141 of which one 
or more persons were injured, were apprehended. There 
were 94 fatalities resulting from these accidents. The 
report adds that these cases are those in which only the 
State police operated, and do not include cases handled by 
Baltimore city police nor local peace officers. Close to 200 
fraudulent or suspicious title cases also were cleared up 
through the efforts of the force. 

Other activities benefiting the motorists, include such 
instances as assisting in extinguishing fires in automo- 
biles on the highways and three cases of rendering as- 
sistance to persons taken sick on the highways in which 
the first-aid training of the men proved valuable. 

The concluding section of the report shows the total 
cost of maintaining and operating the force during the 
seven months it existed in 921. Total outlay, including 



282 Rei'ORT of Maryland State Board 

the cost of the initial training camp, is given as $77,- 
490.80. Of this amount, $69,585.72 was expended for 
equipment and expenses of patrol and maintenance of 
the uniformed force, and $7,905.08 for equipment and 
maintenance of the investigating or plain-clothes force. 
Of the grand total, $55,130.21 was disbursed from the 
receipts of the title department, and the balance of $22,- 
360.59 from the legislative appropriation. 

BOARD OF PRISON CONTROL 

The following extracts were taken from the report of 
the State Board of Prison Control for the fiscal year end- 
mg September 30th, 1921 : 

The earnings at the Penitentiarj^ for the year were 
$215,158.66 and the earnings at the House of Correction 
were $120,000.00. The earnings were underestimated by 
$28,341.34 at the Penitentiary and by $23,000 at the 
House of Correction or a total loss of $51,341.34 at both 
institutions. The appropriation from the State Treasury 
for the current year was $50,000. The report shows that 
there was a considerable increase in the population at the 
House of Correction over that estimated and also over 
previous years. The population on September 30th, 1919, 
was 399, on September 30th, 1920, 350, and on Septem- 
ber 30th, 1921, 498. During the year ending September 
30th, 1921, the daily average was 526, and at one time 
they had as many as 678. 

During the year the board was obliged to expend about 
$75,000 more than their receipts from contracts and ap- 
propriations, the greater portion of which was borrov.ed 
with the approval of the Board of Public Works. It is 
expected that the board will be able to paj^ it back out 
of future earnings of the institutions. 

The earnings of the Penitentiary for the fiscal year 
ending September 30th, 1921, exclusive of appropriations 
and the amount earned bv prisoners for themselves v.ere 
$215,158.66, as compared with $285,197.10 for the pre- 
vious year. The expenses were $282,633.77, as com- 
pared with $269,657.50 for the previous year, leaving a 
net loss of $67,505,11. The amount earned by the pris- 
oners themselves by overtask and bonuses was $91,775.16, 
as compared with $119,685.69 for the previous year. 



OF Labor and Statistics 283 

The board had difficulty with one of their contracts at 
the Penitentiary during the year, resulting in a suit for 
the collection of $12,985.31 due them. 

The earnings of the House of Correction for the fiscal 
year ending September 30th, 1921, exclusive of the ap- 
propriation and the amount earned by the prisoners for 
themselves, were $119,685.74, as compared with $139,- 
230.27 for the previous year. Of these earnings $13,- 
289.22 were profits of farm operations, as compared with 
$12,907.25 for the previous year. The total expenses 
were $179,413.53, as compared with $138,191.86 for the 
previous year, leaving a deficit of $59,727.79. The earn- 
ings for the prisoners for themselves at the House of 
Correction were $29,850.33, as compared with $27,212.44 
for the previous year. 

The Board recommended that the next session of the 
Legislature appropriate sufficient funds for the establish- 
ment of plants for the manufacture of clothing, shoes, 
automobile tags and road signs and printing, where pris- 
oners of both institutions can be employed in producing 
articles which are consumed in the necessary work of the 
State without competing with outside free labor to any 
great extent. During the year ending September 30th, 
1920, the prisoners under the control of the Board earned 
for themselves $146,898.13. 

INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS 

Growth of the work of the State Industrial Accident 
Commission is shown by a comparative summary of busi- 
ness handled in the years ending October 1, 1916, and 
October 1, 1920, and made public by Chairman Robert E. 
Lee. Some of the figures are as follows : 

Accidents reported to the Commission 31.324 53,678 

Claims made and passed upon 3,443 6,770 

Hearins-s held 336 528 

Amounts paid beneficiaries _ $704,939.38 $1,353,487.62 

Employees of the Commission 35 " 36 



Commenting on these figures Chairman Lee said : . 
"With an increase of only 3 per cent in personnel, the 
commission has been obliged to increase salaries 22.1 per 
cent and expenditures 14.5 per cent, while the awards un- 
der the industrial accident law have increased expendi- 
ture, however, means no additional burden on the tax- 



284 KEroRT of Maryland State Board 

payers, for the actual cost of operation is paid by the in- 
dustries themselves." 

603,373 WORKERS IN STATE IN 1920 

According to the returns of the fourteenth census, there 
were 603,37o persons 10 years old and over in Maryland 
engaged in gainful occupations in 1920, constituting 41.6 
per cent of the total population of the State (1,449,661) 
and 52.1 per cent of the population 10 years old and over. 

In 1910 the 541,164 gainful workers were 41.9 per cent 
of the total population of the State, and 52.9 per cent of 
the population 10 years old and over. 

Of the gainful workers of Maryland in 1920, 466,208, 
or 77.3 per cent, were males and 137,165, or 222.7 per 
cent were females. The male gainful workers constituted 
80 per cent of all males 10 years old and over in 1920, as 
against 81 per cent in 1910, while the female ^gainful 
workers constituted 23.8 per cent of all females 10 years 
old and over in 1920, as against 25.2 per cent in 1910. 

Of the gainful workers of Maryland in 1920, 95,930, or 
15.9 per cent, were engaged in agriculture, forestry and 
animal husbandry; 6,670, or 1.1 per cent, in extraction 
of minerals; 207,264, or 34.3 per cent in manufacturing 
and mechanical industries; 55,970, or 9.3 per cent, in 
transportation; 66,161, or 11 per cent, in trade; 21,744, or 
3.6 per cent, in public service; 30,464, or 5 per cent, in 
professional service; 66,524, or 11 per cent, in domestic 
and personal service, and 52,646, or 8.7 per cent, in cler- 
ical occupations. 

There are 9,249 more males in Maryland than there 
■are females. The figures are: Males, 729,455; females, 
720,206. 

In the census of 10 years ago the women were in the 
majority. In the last 10 years the total population of 
Maryland increased by 11.9 per cent, the male population 
by 13.2 per cent, and the female by 10.6 per cent. The 
ratio of males to females in 1920 was 101.3 to 100, as 
against 98.9 to 100 in 1910. 

The distribution of the population in 1920. according 
to color or race, was as follows: White, 1204,737; negro, 
244,479; Chinese, 371; Japanese, 20; all others, 45. 

The foreign-born white population numbered 102,177 in 
1920, as against 104,174 in 1910. This element of the 



OF Labor and Statistics 285 

population constituted 7 per cent of the total in 1920, as 
against 8 per cent in 1910. 

5,323 MALE MAJORITY IN STATE ELECTORATE 

The males of voting age in Maryland exceed by 5,323 
the females entitled to vote, according to figures made 
public by the Biireau of the Census. In Maryland, the 
1920 census reveals, there are 433,857 males of voting 
age and 428,534 women who have the right to cast the 
ballot. 

Of the voting males in Maryland, 251,197 are of native 
parentage, 39,196 of foreign parentage and 18,936 of 
mixed parentage. There are 50.363 foreign-born white 
voters and 73086 negroes of voting age. Thirteen In- 
dians, 315 Chinese, 20 Japanese and 11 of all other na- 
tionalities have reached the age of 21. The number of 
foreign bom naturalized is 26,216. 

Of the women in the State who are 21 years of age and 
over, 252,535 are of native parentage; 42,993 of foreign 
parentage and 20,811 of mixed parentage. There are 
43.261 foreign-bom white women, 68,905 negro women, 
8 Indians, 15 Chinese and 5 Japanese of voting age. The 
number of foreign-born naturalized citizens is 23,724. 

FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION 

According to a bulletin issued bv the Census Bureau, 
the 1,449,661 population of Maryland includes 102.177 
foreign-bom whites, of whom 93,624 are 21 years of age 
or older. 

Of this number 21.604 were born in Germany, 21.514 
in Russia, 11,045 in Poland, 8,341 in Italy, 6,499 in Ire- 
land. Of the natives of Germany 76.4 per cent were 
naturalized, of Russia 46.2 per cent, of Poland 31.7 per 
cent, of Italy 26.7 per cent, of Ireland 69.2 per cent. 

The figures for foreign-born residents from other coun- 
tries than those named were as follows : 

Eneland 5.09o France 818 

Austria 3,620 Sweden 630 

Czeohvi- Slovakia 3..5.=^3 Rumania 537 

Lithuania 2.206 Norwav _ 536 

Hungary 1,947 Switzerland _ 509 

Canada 1,864 Wales 499 

Scotland 1,692 All other countries 2,700 

Greece _ 964 



286 Rei'drt ok Maryland State Board 

NATURALIZATION 

Of the foreign-born persons in Maryland, 52.016 have 
been naturalized, and 9,700 foreign-bom have taken out 
their first papers in the State. 

In the State there are 37,249 aliens and 4,214 persons 
whose citizenship has not been reported, 

In the whole country there are 13,920,692 foreign-born 
persons, 6,493,088 of whom have been naturalized, and 
1,223,490 have taken out first papers. Throughout the 
country there are 5,398,605 aliens. 

IMMIGRANT BIRTHS 

Women born in the United States of white parents 
stand at the foot of the list in child-bearing, according 
to the report of the Bureau of Census. According to the 
figures gathered in 23 Eastern States and the District of 
Columbia 42 children were bom last year to every 1,000 
women of this class. Women born in Italy head the list, 
with 160 births to every 1,000 women. 

In Maryland the native-born women average about the 
same as in the other States canvassed. The total birth 
rate was 49.2 per 1,000 for all the population. Other 
figures follow: Native-born, 47.1; Canada, 44.8; Denmark, 
Norway and Sweden, 52.7; England, Scotland and Wales, 
43.3; Ireland, 28.2; Italy, 160; other countries, 72.9. 

All told there were 1,395,523 white babies born in the 
United States in 1920 and 103,796 colored. Of these 
29, 452 whites and 6,753 colored were born in Maryland. 

The abnormally high birth rate of Italians in Mary- 
land and Italian and Japanese in other States is explained 
in part by the large percentage of females between the 
ages of 15 and 40 of those nationalities in this country. 
There was no Japanese birth in Maryland during the year, 
but there were 576 Italians born and 2,564 babies of 
countries other than listed above, including the countries 
of Central Europe. 

The negro birth rate was highest in North Carolina 
and lowest in Maine, where only six births were recorded 
during the year. The Indian birth rate varied widely, 
being 16.7 in Maine and 114.7 in Virginia. 



OF Labor and Statistics 



287 



STATE ILLITERACY SHOWS DECREASE y 

There are 64, 434 illiterate persons 10 years old and 
over in Maryland, "illiterate" meaning unable to write, 
according to the 1920 census. Of this number 13,884 are 
native whites of native parentage and 13,575 are of for- 
eign or mixed parentage and 13,575 are of foreign birth. 
Tne number of illiterate negroes is 35,404. 

In the total population 10 years of age and over the 
percentage of illiteracy is 5.6, which shows a diminution 
since 1910, when it was 7.03. In the case of the negroes 
the percentage declined from 23.4 to 18.2 and in the case 
of the native white of native parentage from 3 to 2. 
There is more illiteracy in the rural districts of the State 
than in the cities, the percentage being 7.4 for the rural 
population and 4 for urban. 

By counties the percentage of illiteracy ranges from 
18.2 in St. Mary's county to 3.3 in Allegany county. 

Infants or children under 15 years old make up one- 
third of the population of Maryland, while 182,147 chil- 
dren between 7 and 13 years old are recorded by the cen- 
sus as attending school. The population of IMaryland is 
83.1 per cent white and 16.9 per cent negro. In 1910 the 
negro percentage was 17.9, about one-fourth of the white 
population of the State of foreign birth or foreign paren- 
tage, there being 102,177 foreign born whites and 143,203 
natiev whites who had foreign-born parents. There are 
893,088 persons born of American parents. 



POPULATION OF MARYLAND 
(Census cf 1920) 



Baltimore Citv 733.82G 

Alle£?anv County 69.938 

Anne Arundel * 43 ,408 

Baltimore 74,817 

Calvert 9,744 

Caroline 18.652 

Carroll 34,245 

Cecil 23,612 

Charle-s _ 17,705 

Dorchester 27,895 

Frederick .,.. 52,541 

Garrett 19,678 

Harford 29,291 

*Includes 4,313 at Camp Meade. 



Hovard 15,826 

Kent 15,026 

Montgomery .; 34,921 

Prince Geor,!?e's 43,347 

Queen Anne's 16,001 

St. Mary's _ 16,112 

Somerset 24.602 

Talbot _.. 18,306 

Washington 59.694 

Wicomico „...._ 28.114 

Worcester _.... _ 22,309 



Total in State 1,449,610 



288 



Rei'ort of Maryland State Board 



COMPARATIVE POPULATION OF STATE 

Population of the State of Maryland at given periods. 
Figures of the United States Census show how the* State 
has numerically developed since 1790 to 1920 : 



1790 319,728 

1800 341,548 

1810 380,546 

1820 407,350 

1830 447,040 

1840 470,019 

1850 583,034 



18G0 687,049 

1870 780,894 

1880 934,943 

1890 _ 1 ,042,390 

1900 1,188,044 

1910 1,294,450 

1920 1,449,610 



COMPARATIVE POPULATION OF BALTIMORE CITY 

Population of Baltimore at stated periods. Figures of 
the United States Census from 1790 to 1920 that shov/ 
how the city has grown. 



1790 13,503 

1800 26,514 

1810 46,555 

1820 62,738 

1830 80,620 

1840 102,313 

1850 169,054 



1860 212.418 

1870 267,354 

1880 332,313 

1890 434,439 

1900 508,957 

1910 558,485 

1920 _ 733,826 



TAXABLE BASIS OF COUNTIES WITH TAX RATES 

FOR 1921-22 



Basis Rate 

Counties Taxable Tax 

Allegany _ $56,093,544 $1.37 

Anne Arundel 24,000.000 2.65 

Baltimore 93,000,000 1,91 

Calvert 3,631,266 2,265 

Caroline 13,497.875 1.35 

Carroll 28,446,3.50 1.40 

Cecil 18,655,000 1.50 

Charles 6.905,090 1.50 

I>orches(er 16,775,956 1.60 

Frederick 40,424,909 1.41 

Garrett 14,526,545 1.66 

Harford 26,086,149 1.60 



Bas 
Counties Taxa 

Howard $14,741 

Kent 13,078 

Montgomery 34,450, 

Prince George's 28,664 

Queen Anne's 12.960 

St. Mary's 6.089 

Somerset 10,662 

Talbot 14,066 

Washington 50,000 

Wicomico ..._ 17,885, 

Worcester 14,446 



■As 


Rate 


ible 


Tax 


.827 


$1.25 


1,447 


1.48 


1.610 


1.40 


,627 


1.28 


1,000 


1.41 


1,339 


1.46 


!,719 


1.47 


1,000 


1.39 


1.000 


1.105 


1,211 


l.«5 


1,464 


1.40 



INTERNAL REVENUE RECEIPTS 

Details showing the amounts collected from various 
sources which make up the $90,876,652 taken in by the 
Collector of Internal Revenue of the Maryland district 
for the year ended June 30, 1921, were announced at the 
Custom House as follows: 

Aside from the income tax receipts and the tax on 
freight transportation, excise taxes on distilled spirits 



OF Labor and Statistics 289 

withdrawn from bond for "nonbeverage" purposes show 
the largest item on the books. For the entire Maryland 
district, which inckides the District of Columbia, the 
total receipts from this source were $7,711,628. For 
Maryland alone the receipts amounted to $6,894,701. 
Since the tax rate is $2.20 for every gallon withdrawn 
the figures indicate that 3,133,955 gallons of spirits for 
nonbeverage purposes were withdrawn from bond in 
Maryland alone. 

Only $22,874 was collected from the entire district, and 
$15,655 from Maryland for spirits for beverage purposes, 
the tax being $6.40 a gallon. The taxes collected in wines 
and cordials was $2,379 for Maryland, none on wines be- 
ing collected in the District of Columbia. 

Non-alcoholic beverages brought far greater revenue 
than alcoholic beverages last year. The manufacture and 
sale of them netted in taxes $1,181,546 for the entire dis- 
trict and $946,547 for Maryland. The difference between 
the two figures is due chiefly to the tax on soft drinks and 
ice cream served at soda fountains, which amounted to 
$386,145 in Maryland and $155,008 in Washington. 

The 5 per cent tax on the manufacture of candy 
brought $366,141 in Maryland alone, indicating that $7,- 
323,024 worth of candy, wholesale, was manufactured in 
the State. 

The 15 per cent tax on the manufacture of near-beer 
brought in Maryland $333,783, showing that $2,225,225 
worth, wholesale, was manufactured. The manufacture 
of unfermented grape juice, gingerale, root beer, mineral 
waters and other soft drinks sold in bottles brought an 
income to the Government of $224,227 in Maryland, in- 
dicating that the v holesale value was ten times as great. 

Next to income tax collections the revenue derived from 
a 3 per cent tax on freight transported by rail or water 
was the most important source. For the entire district 
this tax yielded $8,674,151, and for Maryland alone, $5,- 
884,325. Passengers who were forced to pay an 8 per 
cent tax on 'railway tickets furnished $5,538,555 in the 
district and $2,876,539 in Maryland alone, meaning that 
$57,530,797 was paid for passenger fares in Maryland 
during the fiscal year. 

Telegraph, telephone and radio messages yielded $708,- 
372 for the district and $702,617 for Maryland. Trans- 
portation facilities taken all together yielded revenue of 
$14,970,033 for the district and $9,504,812 for the State. 



290 Report of Maryland State Board 

The sale and manufacture of tobacco was an important 
item, netting $2,868,465 for the district and $2,840;031 
for the State alone. Cigars furnished the largest pro- 
portion of the tax, $1,189,333 being collected in Maryland 
through their sale. The sale of cigarettes in the State 
furnished taxes amounting to $659,280, and the sale of 
tobacco in other forms $973,131 in Maryland. 

Some of the other items shown in the report of the 
Collector are : 

State of Entire 

Maryland District 

Total manufacturers' excise tax $602,411 $725,317 

Tires, inner tubes and auto accessories 95,924 100.700 

Articles made of fur 47,398 76,696 

Toilet soap 15,185 15,241 

Stamp taxes on bonds and capital stock 

issues _ 373,066 577,100 

Narcotic tax 46,811 55,436 

Sales of jewelry 343,541 592,712 

Transfer of net estates of decedents 1,668,594 3,933,500 

Insurance taxes .:::. 579,580 602,975 

Admissions to places of amusement 1,418,219 2,196,071 

Corporations were taxed $1 for each $1,000 of fair value 
of their capital stock exceeding $5,000.. This tax netted 
$1,233,715 for the entire collection district and $914,288 
for the State alone. 

RACE BETS IN MARYLAND 

The amount of money bet in the pari-mutuel machines 
at the four one-mile race tracks in Maryland in 1921 was 
$54,121,702, according to the report of the State Racing 
Commission. 

The report does not give the total amount bet in the 
figures stated, but the result is obtained by an examina- 
tion of the "take" or "cut" of the tracks, which is 5 per 
cent and breakage (amounting to nearly 6 per cent in all. 
On the amount bet, the tracks took as their toll the ag- 
gregate sum of $3,200,676. This takes no account of the 
revenue of the tracks from admissions or from other 
sources. 

The number of admissions was 634,405. The amount 
paid over to the State in the shape of special taxes was 
$805,185. 



OF Labor and Statistics 291 

A most interesting feature of the report is the amounts 
paid by the track owners for "legal and other professional 
services." These items are as follows : 

Havre de Grace, $14,753.52 ; Laurel, $9,346.09 ; Pimlico, 
$28,686.67 ; Bowie, $15,667.33. Total for legal and other 
professional services, $68,453.61. 

The amount taken as betting toll by the various tracks 
inn 93 days of racing was as follows, Pimlico having 24 
days and each of the other three tracks 23 days: 

Havre de Grace — Commissions, $628,835.80; breakage, 
$112,021.35. 

Laurel — Commissions, $625,626.40; breakage, $116,- 
435.20. 

Pimlico — Commissions, $819,493.55; breakage, $152,- 
730.15. 

Bowie — Commissions, $632,405.05; breakage, $113,- 
129.35. 

BALTIMORE COUNTY COURT CLERK PAYS STATE 

$32,255 

The Clerk of the Court of Baltimore County turned 
over to the State for the year ending December 1st, $32,- 
255.85, according to his annual report. The receipts of 
the office were $75,808.94, including $21,032.04 from 
traders' licenses, $9,469.20 from hunting licenses and 
$45,307.70 from other sources. The expenses, including 
recording, amounted to $43,553.09. 

During the year 10,039 instruments were received for 
record as follows : Deeds, 4,812 ; mortgages, 4,296 ; bills of 
sale, 715; bonds, 141; mechanics' hens, 41; incorporations, 
34 ; civil commissions, 21 ; plats, 79. Licenses were is- 
sued as follows: Marriage, 546; hunting, 6,434; traders, 
1,451. There were docketed 611 law cases, 291 equity 
cases, 288 criminal cases. Declaration of intention of be- 
coming citizens of the State were filed by 261 persons. 

BALTIMORE COUNTY TAX RATE 

Residents of Baltimore county are complaining about 
the high tax rate, which has jumped since the first year 
after annexation from 92 cents on the $100 to $1.91 on 
the $100, levied for 1922, or more than a 100 per cent in- 
crease. 



292 Report of Maryland State Boaru 

Those called on to pay taxes assert that, with the re- 
duction in the territory to be administered, which ought 
to mean fewer schools, fewer teachers, fewer policemen, 
fewer firemen and fewer officials generally, there should 
be a corresponding reduction in expenses. 

They say the territory cut off from the county was the 
thickly populated section, which demanded the best 
schools, good pavements, more fire and police protection 
than the purely rural sections, and that, therefore, there 
should have been a curtailment of these employes, and a 
consequent reduction in the tax rate. 

In explaining the present tax rate, the president of the 
Board of County Commissioners said : 

"Before annexation 1 cent of the tax rate produced 
$16,500, while now it produces only $9,350. Our taxable 
basis is $74,000,000 less than before annexation. Before 
annexation we had 45 policemen on the payroll, receiving 
$80 a month. Now there are 31 men receiving $100 a 
month, with the pay of the marshal and sergeans $150 
and $110, respectively. 

"There were 55 firemen, receiving $75 a month before 
annexation, and now 42 men receive $110, with one man 
getting $125 and the chief $175. In 1919 the appropria- 
tion for the Fire and Police Departments was about one- 
half what it is now. We had not at that time built the 
new houses. 

'That the appropriation is more than before annexation 
is due to increased salaries and incidental expenses. In 
1917 we appropriated $838,000 for schools for running 
expenses; now the item is $682,000. For roads in 1917 
the appropriation was $358,000; now it is $560,000. The 
roads also get $125,000 from miscellaneous receipts. 

"Election expenses in 1917 amounted to $28,000. Last 
year it was $60,000. The court expenses are about the 
same as before annexation. There is not much noticeable 
decrease in any department. One item in the miscellan- 
eous receipts before annexation was $210,000 from liquor 
licenses and other sources. Now it is $125,000. Care of 
the insane and upkeep of the Home for Indigent and In- 
firm is about the same as before annexation. We pay $45 
for water for fire plugs now and they cost $25 before an- 
nexation. To produce the amount of money to run the 
county in 1922 on the same .basis as before annexation 
the tax rate would not be over $1. 



OF Labor and Statistics 293 

A set of figures gathered from the county records is 
regarded as significant by those who are complaining. 
These figures are as follows: 

Taxable basis prior to annexation, $165,418,772. 

Taxable basis now, $93,495,800. 

Tax rate for three years prior to annexation, 1915, 
$1.04; 1916, 01.06; 1917, $1.06. 

Tax rate since annexation, 1918, $.92; 1919, $1; 1920, 
$1.13 (eight months); 1921, $1.78; 1922, $1.91. 

Total annual revenue before annexation, $1,823,626. 

Total revenue since annexation, 1919, $1,101,045; 1920, 
$1,108,215; 1921, $1,769,190; 1922, $1,914,637. . 

Budget before annexation, $1,823,626. 

Budget since annexation, same as revenue since annex- 
ation. 

Employes before annexation, 100, not including roads 
and schools. 

Employes since annexation, 100, not including roads 
and schools. 

Salaries before annexation, $120,000 a year. 

Salaries since annexation, $144,000 a year. 

Number policemen before annexation, 45. 

Number of police since annexation, 31. 

Number teachers before annexation, 575. 

Number teachers since annexation, 400. 

Number firemen before annexation, 55. 

Number firemen since annexation, 42. 

Population before annexation, 130,000. 

Population since annexation, 75,000. 

Salaries of teachers before annexation, $720,000 a year. 

Salaries of teachers since annexation, $720,000 a year. 

Salaries of police before annexation, $43,200 a year. 

Salaries of police since annexation, $37,200 a year. 

Salaries of firemen before annexation, $49,500 a year. 

Salaries of firemen since annexation, $55,400 a year. 

INCREASE OF INDUSTRIES IN BALTIMORE 

The census of manufacturers for Baltimore city by the 
Bureau of Census in Washington shows remarkable in- 
creases in manufactures in Baltimore during the five-year 
period, 1914-1919, particularly in respect to capital in- 
vested, the value of the articles manufactured and the 
number of persons engaged in industiy. 



294 KEroRT of Maryland State Board 

Capital invested in local industries during this period, 
the census figures reveal, increased from $177,301,000 
to $434,244,000, or 144.9 per cent. 

The value of products increased from $215,172,000 to 
$677,878,000, or a 215 per cent increase. 

The number of persons engaged in industry increased 
from 87,453 to 117,140, an increase of 33.0 per cent. The 
percentage of increase in the number of workers compares 
with an increase of 31.4 per cent in the population of Bal- 
timore during the 10-year period 1910-1920, shows a very 
substantial growth in the relative importance of manu- 
factures in the community. 

The increase in capital invested was made while the 
number of establishments increased 11.8 per cent, show- 
ing a much greater amount of capital per establishment 
than in 1914, 

While it is true that some of the increases result from 
higher price levels than prevailed in 1914, the increases 
in persons engaged represents a flat increase, unaffected 
by changes in price levels. 

The increase in manufactures for the 1914-1919 period 
contrasts favorably with the increases from 1909 to 1914, 
during which period there was no increase whatever in 
the number of establishments and almost negligible in- 
creases in the number of persons employed, capital in- 
vested and value of products. For example, during the 
past five years there has been an increase of 215 per cent 
in the value of products as against 15.1 per cent for the 
earlier five-year period. Capital invested increased 144.9 
per cent, as against 7.8 per cent during the earlier period. 
Wage earners increased 32.6 per cent, as against 3.2 per 
cent. 

The statistics for 1919 do not include the activities of 
any of the large new industries which have been brought 
to Baltimore through the efforts of the Industrial Bureau 
of the Board of Trade, among which may be included the 
American Sugar Refining Company, Columbia Grapho- 
phone Manufacturing Company, Locke Insulator Com- 
pany, Republic Boiler and Radiator Company and the 
Steinmetz Electric Motor Car Corporation. These indus- 
tries will not affect the totals until the census of 1924. 



OF Labor and Statistics 295 

MANUFACTURES IN MARYLAND 

A preliminaiy statement of the general results of the 
1920 census of manufactures, covering the year 1919 for 
the State of Maryland was issued by the Bureau of Cen- 
sus, Department of Commerce. > 

,'The census of manufactures, 1919, like that of 1914, 
excluded the hand trades, the building trades and the 
neighborhood industries and took account only of estab- 
lishments conducted under the factory system. 

The word "establishment" as used in the census reports 
may mean more than one mill or plant, provided they are 
owned or controlled and operated by a single individual, 
partnership, coi-poration or other owner or operator and 
are located in the same town or city. 

The reports were taken for the calendar year ending 
December 31, 1919, or the business year of the estab- 
lishment most nearly conforming to that calendar year. 

The census inquiry calls for the total amount of cap- 
ital, both owned and borrowed, invested in the business, 
but excludes the value of rented property. 

In addition to the component materials which enter into 
the value of products, the cost of materials in this sum- 
mary includes the cost of fuel, mill supplies and rent of 
power and heat. 

The value of products represents their selling value or 
price at the plants as actually turned out by the factories 
during the census year and may have little relation to the 
amount of the sales for that year. The value added by 
manufacture represents the difference between the cost 
of materials used and the value of the products manufac- 
tured from them. 

A comparative summary for the State for 1914 and 
1919 follows : 



296 



Report of Maryland State Board 



Pet. of 

Census Census Increase 

1919 1914 1914-19 

Number of establishments 4,937 4,797 2.9 

Persons engaged in manufac- 
tures 165,757 131,391 26.2 

Proprietors and firm members... 4,993 5,005 "0.2 

Salaried employes 20,394 14,801 37.8 

Wage earners (ave. number) 140,360 111,585 ^.8 

Primary horsepower 406,768 263,753 54.2 

Capital $619 607,000 $293,211,000 111.3 

Services 189.871,000 71,801,000 164.4 

Salaries. 42,012,000 18,009,000 133.3 

Wages 147,859,000 53,792,000 174.9 

Materials 549,347,000 238,972,000 129.9 

Value of products 873,945,000 377,749,000 131.4 

Value added by manufacture 
(value of products less cost 

of materials) 324,597,000 138,777,000 133.9 

*Decrease. 

MANUFACTURES IN CITIES OF MARYLAND— CENSUS 
BUREAU'S SUMMARY FOR 1919 

A preliminary statement of the general results of the 
1920 census of manufactures, covering the year 1919, for 
cities of Maryland having a population of 10,000 or more, 
issued by the Bureau of the Census. The figures are pre- 
liminary and subject to such change and correction as 
may be found necessary from a further examination of 
the reports. 

COMPARATIVE SUMMARY FOR THE CITIES OF MARY- 
LAND— 1919 AND 1914 

ANNAPOLIS Pet. of 

Increase 
1919 1914 1914-19 

Number of establishments 15 

Persons engaged in manufac- 
tures 143 

Proprietors and firm members... 14 

Salaried employes 34 

Wage earners (ave. number)... 95 Annapolis had less 

Primarv Horsepower 151 than 10,000 popu- 

Capitaf $504,000 lation in 1914 and 

Services 112,000 datawerenot seg- 

Salaries 22,000 regated. 

Wages 90,000 

Materials 183,000 

Value of products 369,000 

Value added by manufacture 
(value of products less cost 
of materials) 186,000 . . 



OF Labor and Statistics 297 

BALTIMORE 

Number of establishments 2,787 2,502 118 

Persons engaged in manufac- 

„ t"^e.s - 117,140 87,453 33.9 

-Proprietors and firm members 2,706 2 548 6 2 

Salaried employes 16,620 11^136 492 

Wage earners (ave. number) 97,814 73,769 32 6 

Primary horsepower „ 184,865 99,869 85 1 

Capital $434,244,000 $177,301,000 144.9 

Services 137,144,000 48,978,000 180.0 

Salaries 34,015,000 13,469,000 152.5 

Wages 103,129,000 35,509,000 190.4 

Materials 427,756,000 120,533,000 254.9 

Value Qf products _ 677,878,000 215,172,000 215.0 

Value added by manufacture 

(value of products less cost 

of materials) _ 250,122,000 94,639,000 164.0 

CUMBERLAND 

Number of establishments 82 74 

Persons engaged in manufac- 
tures 4,128 

Proprietors and firm members... 70 

Salaried employes 305 

Wage earners (ave. number) 3 753 

Primary horsepower 10,317 

Capital $10,282,000 

Services 5,436,000 

Salaries 712,000 

Wages _ 4,724 ,000 

Materials 8,292,000 

Value of products 15,842,000 

Value added by manufacture 
(value of products less cost 

of materials) 7,550,000 3,120,000 142.0 

FREDERICK 

Number of establishments 77 57 

Persons engaged in manufac- 
tures 1,599 

Proprietors and firm members... 82 

Salaried employes 209 

Wage earners (ave. number) 1,308 

Primary horsepower _ _ 3,204 

Capital - $4,498,000 

Services - 1,275,000 

Salaries 324,300 

Wages - ~ -.- 950,700 

Materials - -.. 4,883,000 

Value of products 7,141,000 

Value added by manufacture 
(value of products less cost 

of materials) 2,258,000 1,053,000 114.4 



3,169 


30.3 


64 




288 


5.9 


2,817 


33.2 


8,098 


27.4 


5,135,000 


100.2 


1,809,000 


200.5 


290,000 


145.5 


1,519,000 


211.0 


3,993,000 


107.7 


7,113,000 


122.7 



1,357 


17.8 


63 




148 


41.2 


1,146 


14.1 


2,681 


19.5 


$2,788,008 


61.3 


675,000 


88.9 


155,000 


114.2 


520,000 


81.3 


2,114,000 


131.0 


3,167,000 


125.5 



298 Report op Maryland State Board 

HAGERSTOWN 

Number of establishments 122 113 8.0 

Persons engaged in manufac- 
tures 4,598 4,030 14.1 

Proprietors and firm members... 107 101 5.9 

Salaried employes 462 355 30.1 

Wage earners (ave. number) 4,029 3,574 12.7 

Primary horsepower 9,532 6,425 48.4 

Capital $13,968,000 $6,713,000 108.1 

Services 4,926,000 2,150,000 129.1 

Salaries 817,000 417,000 95.9 

Wages 4,109,000 1,733,000 137.1 

Materials 10,401,000 4,318,000 140.9 

Value ot products 17,663,000 7,412,000 138.3 

Value added by manufacture 
(value of products less cost 

of materials) 7,262,000 3,094,000 134.7 

Percentages omitted where base is less than 100. 

• WILD FOWL SEASON 

Under the Migratory Bird Treaty act, migratory game, 
which includes wild fowl, may be taken from November 
1 to January 31, inclusive, with a gun only — not larger 
than a No. 10 gauge — fired from the shoulder. From the 
land and water, with the aid of a dog, decoys and from a 
blind or floating device. However, it is unlawful to shoot 
from an aeroplane, a powerboat, sailboat, any boat under 
sail or any floating device towed by a powerboat or sail 
boat. The State law prohibits shooting from boat, except 
when same is anchored in blinds. 

It is unlawful to kill wood duck, eider duck and swan at 
any time or in any manner. 

The bag limit on ducks is 25 in the aggregate of all 
kinds; geese, 8 in the aggregate of all kinds; brant, 8; 
jacksnipe, 25; woodcock, 6. 

Persons desiring to take ducks out of the State may 
take the daily bag limit; however, it is unlawful to take 
more than 50 migratory birds out of the State during any 
one calendar week. Every person who hunts game of any 
species is required to first procure a hunter's license and 
have the license in possession while hunting. The cost of 
a resident county license is $1.10; State-wide license, 
which is good in all counties of the State, $5.10; a non- 
resident license, $10.25. These licenses can be secured 
from the Clerk of the Circuit Court of any county of the 



OF Labor and Statistics 299 

State or from the Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas, 
Baltimore city. 

The State Game Department has 24 salaried deputy 
game wardens, one in each county of the State, and about 
700 fee deputy wardens. Therefore, State Game Warden 
E, Lee LeCompte advises every person who intends to 
hunt game, either on land or water, to first secure his 
license, thereby saving embarrassment both to himself 
and the State Game Department. 

AGRICULTURE 

The following editorial appeared in the Baltimore Sun 
of January, 1922 : 

THE PRESIDENT AND THE FARMER 

The President's address to the National Agricultural 
Conference, which opened in Washington yesterday, can 
scarcely be said to outline any new solutions for old prob- 
lems. Organization of farming as a business, with credit 
instrumentalities designed to put the agriculturist on an 
even basis with the business man; co-operative market- 
ing; control of production with a view to price stabiliza- 
tion — these are high lights in the President's program. 
The President admits the soundness of the criticisms of 
the so-called anti-railroad bloc in Congress when he says : 
"To this time railroad construction, financing and opera- 
tion have been unscientific and devoid of proper consid- 
eration for the wider concerns of the community." He 
advances no constructive proposal for the carriers as to 
the future, however, with the exception of his suggestion 
of electrifying the lines, which is not new. Nor is there 
novelty in his suggestion as to the importance of internal 
waterways, extending "the sea many miles inland," put- 
'ting "the heart of the continent in communication Mith 
all ocean routes, by such projects as the proposed St. 
Lawrence Canal. 

The significance of his address is to be found in his 
frank recognition of the "grim reality" of the agricultural 
situation and the necessity of meeting it by legislative 
policies that will give the farmer an equality of business 
opportunity with other interests. There seems to be a 
sort of warning, however, in his remark that "in the last 
analysis legislation can do little more than give the farmer 



300 Report op Maryland Statk Board 

a chance to organize and help himself," and that the work 
of the conference "will be of value precisely as you ad- 
dress yourselves to the realities, the matters of fact, the 
understanding of conditions as they are and the proposal 
of feasible and practicable methods for dealing with these 
conditions." 

The farmer's plea for a square deal, for a deal that will 
relieve him of present handicaps, so far as these handi- 
caps are due to lack of proper legislation, or to inequal- 
ities in legislation, is on a solid econoniic basis. It is true 
that all forms of business have suffered severely in this 
country in the past eighteen months. The farmer lost 
his foreign market, and the prices of his products fell be- 
low prewar levels. What happened to corporate busi- 
ness? It also lost much of its market, but through or- 
ganization it was able to control production and to con- 
trol prices. There have been price recessions in all com- 
modities, but none to compare with the farmer's, simply 
because he was defenseless, "individualistic," unorgan- 
ized, unprepared. If the law of supply and demand had 
full and unrestricted operation in all corporate forms of 
business — as it has in farming — Americans might now 
be buying necessities and luxuries for a song. But it is 
a commonplace to say that despite business depression 
prices have been fairly well maintained. 

A graphic illustration of the farmer's position is seen 
in an excerpt from the report of the Joint Commission on 
Agricultural Inquiry: In 1913, a given group of farm im- 
plements could be bought for 716 bushels of corn ; in 1920, 
farm prices were so high that the same implements could 
be bought for 583 bushels of corn. But in 1922 it takes 
2,027 bushels to buy them. Price fluctuations of this kind 
do not reflect credit on the organization of credit or busi- 
ness in the country. They show that the poor farmer has 
been left to shift for himself, and that in a crisis he and 
city consumers are outstanding examples of business un- 
preparedness. It is high time, as the President advises, 
that something should be done about it. 

THE FARM CONFERENCE 

The following article, written by Clyde L. King, ap- 
peared in the February (1922) number of "The Survey." 

The farmer's dollar is worth what his products will pur- 
chase in terms of the products of other industries. Judg- 



OF Labor and Statistics 301 

ing by this test, the farmer's dollar for over a year now 
has been worth from sixty-three to seventy-five cents, 
depending upon whether or not one includes in the com- 
modities to be purchased food and farm products. If 
food and farm products be excluded from the index of 
all commodities, the farmer has been able to purchase for 
each dollar of the product he sells about sixty-five cents 
in the dollars of other commodities, with as low as sixty- 
three cents last April, If we include food and farm 
products, the farmer's dollar has been about three-fourths 
the size of the dollar of all other industries, and this for 
many months. The significance of the present agricul- 
tural crisis is shown by the fact that this is the lowest 
purchasing povv-er the farmer has had in any year since 
1890 and probably in any year since the Civil War period. 
But taking the last thirty years, the purchasing power of 
the farmer's dollar was lowest in 1896, when it stood at 
eighty-one, as compared with around seventy cents in the 
past year. 

The very economic situation that brought forth popu- 
lism and Bryanism has caused the agricultural West and 
the cotton South to take on a political pinkness quite in 
contrast with the dull grays and blacks that character- 
izes the present political complexion of the East. Cer- 
tain representatives in Congress have been hearing the 
call from back home, and this appeal for economic redress 
has been the creative factor in the farm bloc. The symp- 
toms were becoming so widespread that the President felt 
it imperative to call a national conference for a discussion 
of the matter. 

The long-term factors in our agricultural situation add 
to the distress at the present time. The output of our 
farms for the last twenty years particularly has not in- 
creased as rapidly as has our population. The quantity 
output of other major industries has increased much more 
rapidly than the population. In other words, we are rap- 
idly becoming a nation dependent on other nations for 
our food. The situation in the agricultural industry as 
compared with transportation and urban industries gen- 
erally was tending to improve during the first years of 
the present century and up until the break in prices in 
the spring of 1920. 

Of the people gainfully employed in the United States 
30 per cent are engaged in agriculture. This 30 per cent 



302 Kki'ort of Maryland State Board 

for the past several years have received but 18 per cent 
of the national income. And in the last year they have 
received prices that did not represent production costs, no 
matter how those production costs may be figured. 

Few people in the East can begin to appreciate the suf- 
fering the farming population in the West and South have 
undergone in the past year. It is difficult for the average 
urban resident to realize that the farming peoples have 
been under greater stress than they were in the hard 
times of the nineties. The result is a political situation 
very disturbing to those in control of the Republican 
party at this time. 

The problems tackled by the Farm Conference can be 
grouped under four heads — those having to do with (1) 
prices, (2) credit, (3) markets and (4) co-operation. 

PRICES 

There was a strong demand, fathered by the cotton 
farmers and wheat growers and the cattle raisers, for the 
return of price stabilization. The chief arguments were — 
first, that much of the present disturbance came from 
price stabilization in the war period, to the disadvantage 
of the farmer ; and second, that the war was not over and 
that the need for agricultural products may prove to be 
as urgent in the next few years as it was during the war 
period. In no committee did prize stabilization secure a 
majority report. At least two committees considered the 
matter, and the result of the deliberation was a resolu- 
tion strongly urging the President and the Congress to 
adopt those public policies that would tend to put the 
purchasing power of the farmer's dollar on a basis com- 
parable to the purchasing power of other groups. Many 
delegates believed that price stabilization would have 
been endorsed had the vote in the conference been limited 
solely to representatives of the farm. The conference had 
before it a plan for price stabilization championed by the 
former secretary of agriculture, E. T. Meredith. 

CREDIT 

Every student of the problem knows that the plans 
adopted by the government for manufacturing the credit 
with which we purchased the goods necessary to win the 
war had something to do with the price debacle which 
engulfed the farmers. The farmer is well aware that the 



OF Labor and Statistics 303 

govemment somehow or other through this control of 
credit caused the downward trend in prices at just the 
period that cost the farmers most heavily; that is, after 
one crop was out of the farmer's hands mainly and in the 
hands of the middleman, and before the next crop could 
be moved (the farm prices broke from April to August of 
1920). The result was a demand, felt through the con- 
ference and finding expression in .many resolutions, to the 
effect that national credit and monetary policies should 
be directed with agricultural interests in mind as well as 
the interests of other groups of the population. 

Some of this demand was straight inflation doctrine. 
Other discussions had to do more with representation of 
farmers on the Federal Resei've Board and such other 
measures as would make future crises impossible for the 
same causes. 

Another question as to credit had to do with the need 
of the farmer for short-time credits based on his crops 
or his live stock and not primarily on his real estate. The 
farmer felt and felt rightly that bankers forced farmers 
to sell their grains at prices ruinous to the fanners in 
order that bankers might protect their loans ; thus taking 
from the farmers the real control over the marketing of 
their products. Another phase of this question much 
discussed and much ''resoluted" upon was the develop- 
ment of adequate warehouse facilities so that the fanners 
could store their products, receiving credit thereon, and 
thus be in a position to withstand the efforts made so 
successfully in the autumn of 1920 to place on the farmer 
all the losses and risks due to the falling price period. 

MARKETS 

There was throughout the conference a careful discus- 
sion of the markets of the farmer. Inasmuch as certain 
products, such as wheat, cotton and meats, must find 
markets for their surplus products abroad, particularly 
in Europe, attention was focused upon the European situ- 
ation. The feeling throughout was that the United States 
had bungled its handling of the European situation in 
such a way as to destroy in part and imperil the future of 
the farmers' market in Europe. The international situa- 
tion played an important part in the deliberation of the 
committees. In the opinion of the writer of this article, 



304 Rei'ort of Maryland Statk Board 

only the known wish of the President prevented the con- 
ference from passing a resolution demanding that the 
United States be represented in Genoa. Certainly anyone 
who- knows the frame of mind of the farmers of the West 
and South at this time must know that they are in no 
mood to tolerate further bungling of market opportun- 
ities. This fact makes the European situation loom up 
as a campaign issue of first importance this coming au- 
tumn, 

CO-OPERATION 

The development of co-operation in the past two years 
In American agriculture is nothing short of revolutionary. 
This development has taken, place in numbers of fanners, 
in amounts of goods handled, and in the morale C070pera- 
tors. The War Finance Corporation through Eugene 
Myer has extended millions of dollars of government 
credit to farm co-operative organizations. 

Moreover, the farmer is aware that the prices of those 
commodities in which there are strong business associa- 
tions broke much later than did the prices of farm 
products and then did not break so disastrously. Such 
is the case with steel, building materials, coke, petroleum 
products, coal and house furnishing goods. The conclu- 
sion the old farmer draws is that had he been as well or- 
ganized he too could have prevented the suffering and the 
monetary losses that have totaled into billions of dollars. 
Hence he is organizing. Hence the Capper- Volstead bill 
legalizing co-operative marketing. The whole spirit of 
co-operative marketing and the determination back of it. 
are such that an issue of outstanding importance has 
shaped itself for the country. 

There were of course the usual political rumors. Thus 
it was stated freely that the President called the confer- 
ence in order to transfer credit for farm legislation from 
the farm bloc in Congress to the President and his cabi- 
net. He no doubt made a political blunder of outstanding 
importance in his presidential address when he turned 
aside from his manuscript to say that the needs and 
deserts of the farmer were not a matter of concern solely 
to any minority or "bloc." The intonation in the word 
"bloc" was such as to leave no doubt in the minds of the 
audience as to the deep feeling of the President on the 
matter. The result, however, was the passage of a reso- 



OF Labor and Statistics 305 

lution expressing appreciation for the President's services 
in calling- the conference, and for his able address, ex- 
pressing appreciation to the Secretary of Agriculture for 
his work in calling the conference, and then going on to 
express the appreciation of the conference for the work 
of those members of the Senate who had long foreseen 
the emergency and had so resolutely stood for remedial 
legislation. 

The results of the conference will be felt in many years 
to come. It will no doubt be felt first of all in legislation 
and in the extension of credits for farm exports. The in- 
fluences emanating from the conference will be felt pro- 
nouncedly in the next campaign. The conference no 
doubt made a contribution of no small import by simply 
calling the attention of the country to the urgent needs 
of the farmers at this time. Many of the participants 
remarked that certain of the allied interests present were 
more radical than were many of the farmers' representa- 
tives. The farm crisis is now being felt in the city, for 
with farmers' losses totaling into billions of dollars many 
urban industries must close down at least in part. The 
other reason for believing that the conference will yield 
a goodly harvest in the future is the type of present-day 
farm leader. The author, who was a member of Mr. 
Hoover's Unemployment Conference as well as of the 
Farm Conference, noted a remarkable contrast in the 
ability of the rank and file of the members of the two 
conferences. The Farm Conference had a type of repre- 
sentatives with broader vision, with sounder economics, 
with less selfisKness and with greater determination than 
had the representatives in the Unemployment Conference 
as a rule. This contrast is made solely to emphasize the 
equipment of the present-day farm leader. He stands out 
as superior to the average industrial leader of the times. 
These farm leaders had a chance to confer with each other 
and to confer with the experts called into the conference, 
and the result of such a conference alone can but have 
permanent influence of outstanding importance. It sym- 
bolized issues which the American public will have to face 
squarely in the next Congressional and Presidential elec- 
tions and throughout the next decade. 



306 Keport op Maryland State Board 

REWARD OF AVERAGE AGRICULTURIST IN 1920 
ONLY 465, OR $219 ON BASIS OF VALUE 

BY JOHN CARSON 
Washington Correspondent of The Evening Sun 

The average farmer had a reward in 1920 of $465 for 
his labor, risk and management, according to compilations 
made by the special commission of the Senate and House 
which is investigating agriculture. Estimating this re- 
ward on the basis of the value of the "farmer's dollar," 
the commission holds that the average reward to the 
farmer in that year was only $219. 

Although the commission does not offer any compari- 
sons with the returns for labor in other industries in 1920, 
comparisons are offered for other years. The compari- 
sons, according to the investigators, supply the anwser to 
the question as to why boys leave the farm. 

To obtain accurate statistics on the money reward 
which goes to the farmer, the commission called on Dr. 
Williford I. King, who had just completed a scientific 
analysis of the distribution of the national income of the 
United States for the National Bureau of Economic Re- 
search. It is upon statistics compiled by him that the 
commission made its findings. 

The comparisons are made in two forms. The first is 
a comparison of rewards and earnings at current money 
rates. The second is made on the value of money in 1913. 
In other words, the price conditions of 1913 were taken 
as a basis for estimates and then the money reward of 
1920 was translated into the amount a dollar would have 
purchased at the prices current in 1920. 

The figures, as prepared for the commission, show that 
the farmer had a return for his labor, risk and manage- 
ment in 1909 amounting to $311. With some fluctuations 
this increased to $586 in 1916, to $903 in 1917, to $1,278 
in 1918 and $1,466 in 1919. In 1920 it fell to $465. On 
the basis of 1913 prices the return was $326 in 1909 and 
$826 in 1919. It then fell to $219 in 1920. 

Taking the year of 1918, the last year in which the 
commission was able to make comparisons with the earn- 
ings in other industries, the figures show the farmer got 
less for his labor, risk and management than did employes 
in other industries. In all the years from 1909 to 1917 
the farmer got much less for his labor, risk and manage- 



OF Labor and Statistics 307 

ment than did employes for their labor in mining, trans- 
portation, factories, banking. Government sei^vice or in 
all industries. 

Had the average farmer in 1918 abandoned his farm 
or rented it and gone to work in the mining industry he 
would "have obtained earnings amounting to $1,280. Had 
he gone into other industries his earnings would have 
been as follows: Factory, $1,147; railway transportation, 
$1,394; water transportation, $1,532; banking, $1,461; 
Government service, $895, and all industries, $1,094. 

In view of the fact that invariably the conditions of 
1913 are accepted as "normal" for all economic compari- 
sons the condition of the fanner is shown in that year. 

At current money rates the farmer got for his labor, 
risk and management a reward of $444. The earnings 
of employes in other industries was as follows: Mining 
industry, $755 ; factory, $705 ; railway transportation, 
$782; water transportation, $825; banking, $930; Gov- 
ernment employes, $823, and all industries, $723. 

"Wages and incomes in agriculture have been below 
those in other industries," the commission declared, "and 
hence the greater increase in the quantity output of other 
industries as compared with agriculture." 

CONGRESSIONAL SURVEY OF FLUCTUATIONS SHOWS PUR- 
CHASING POWER AT HIGHEST IN 1896, WAS FOUR 
TIMES GREATER THAN IN 1920 

To show how the farmer — and incidentally the con- 
sumer — has suffered through fluctuating prices, the Con- 
gressional Commission on Agriculture has made public a 
history of the purchasing power of the American dollar 
from 1890 to 1920. 

The story told by this inquiry also proves that the days 
when a dollar would purchase the weekly meat supplies 
for an ordinary family were days of fact and not fiction. 
The story also tells how the dollar became so weak in 
f uiTiishing a home that it was of only a little greater value 
than the American 25-cent piece in 1920. 

The story is based on the American dollar of 1913. In 
other words, that is fixed as a "normal year" for the pur- 
poses of showing how prices moved. And the figures are 
of the wholesale prices, so, it can be seen, there might be 



308 Keport of Maryland State Board 

an even greater fluctuation in the prices charged to the 
consumer. 

Considering all commodities, the dollar reached its 
highest point of power during the Bryan free-silver days 
of 1896. It was then worth $1.50, whereas in 1890 it was 
worth $1.23. From the year 1896 on down to 1920 there 
was a steady climb in prices and a steady decline in the 
purchasing power of the dollar, until in 1920 it was worth 
only 41 cents. 

In the purchase of foods the dollar reached its greatest 
value in 1896, when it was worth $1.49, and it reached its 
lowest value in 1920, when it was worth only 35 cents. In 
other words the dollar in 1896 purchased more than four 
times as much food as it did in 1920. 

Taking the other items in which the average housewife 
or home owners is most interested, the story is not greatly 
diff'erent from that related with respect to foods. In the 
purchase of cloth and clothing, the biggest dollar was in 
1896 when it was worth $1.33, and the smallest in 1920, 
when it was worth 33 cents. In the purchase of fuel and 
lighting the dollar was worth $1.64 in 1898 and was worth 
42 cents in 1920. In respect to lumber and building ma- 
terials the dollar was biggest in 1897, when it was worth 
$1.61, and smallest in 1920, when it was worth 32 cents. 
In house furnishing it was worth $1.80 in 1897 and only 
28 cents in 1920. 

This shows that in 1896 the dollar purchased four 
times as much cloth and clothing as in 1920 ; four times as 
much fuel and lighting, more than five times as much 
lumber and building materials, and almost seven times as 
much house furnishings. 

The dollar recovered rapidly during the "buyers' 
strike" and the deflation period, which began with the 
first of last year. By July, in the purchase of all com- 
modities, it had risen in value from 41 cents to 66 cents. 
The increased power in the purchase of other commodities 
was as follows: Farm products, 87 cents; food, 75 cents; 
cloth and clothing, 56 cents; fuel and hghting, 54 cents; 
metals and metal products, 80 cents; lumber and build- 
ing materials, 50 cents; chemicals and drugs, 61 cents; 
housefurnishings and goods, 43 cents, and miscellaneous 
products, 66 cents. 

The farmer, according to these pHces undoubtedly suf- 
fered as did few others. When the farmer sold his 



OF Labor and Statistics 309 

products in . 1896, for every dollar he received he gave 
$1.85 worth of farm products. Gradually the prices he 
received increased, until in the feverish days of 1919 when 
land was being- quoted in Iowa at $100 an acre and when 
economists were warning the farmers to put away some 
money for a rainy day, and warning as a rule in vain, the 
farmer was giving only 43 cents' worth of products for 
every dollar he received. 

During the closing months of 1920 the bubble was 
pricked and prices hit the landslide. By January of 1921, 
he had to give 73 cents' worth of products for every dol- 
lar, and by July he was giving 87 cents' worth. At the 
same time, the things he had to purchase in order to live 
refused to respond to the drive on prices as did his 
products. He was caught between rapidly falling prices 
for his products and prices which remained high for the 
things he had to purchase. 

Loans aggregating nearly $200,000,000 were approved 
by the War Finance Corporation during the year just 
ended, according to a summary of the organization's ac- 
tivities issued by Eugene Meyer, Jr., managing director. 

Of the total advances made by the coiporation during 
the year, $145,082,039 was for agricultural and live stock 
purposes, and $50,946,375 was to assist in financing ex- 
ports. Of the export loans $33,000,000 on cotton was the 
greatest single item, with $6,000,000 on grain as the next 
largest. 

1921 FARM PRODUCE WORTH TWELVE BILLIONS 

The Department of Agriculture estimated that the 
gross wealth produced by farmers in 1921 had a value 
of $12,366,000,000, or about two-thirds of the aggregate 
value of farm products of 1920, and little more than one- 
half the aggregate for 1919. During the same period, 
1919-1921, production of 10 crops, which represent about 
95 per cent of the total crop acreage, fell 8 per cent. 

The total value of crops, the Department said, declined 
from $15,423,000,000 in 1919 to $10,909,000,00 in 1920, 
and to $7,028,000,000 in 1921. The decline of the total 
value of animal products on the farm was from $8,361,- 
000,000 in 1919 to S7,354,000,000 in 1920, and to $5,339,- 
000,000 in 1921. 

Four crops of 1921 together had a value greater than 
one-half of the total value of all crops for that year. 



310 Report of Maryland State Board 

Com was valued at $1,303,000,00, or 18.5 per cent of the 
total; hay and forage, $1,165,000,000, or 16.6 per cent; 
cotton lint and seed, $755,000,000, or 10.7 per cent; wheat, 
$737,000,000, or 10.5 per cent, and the four crops, $3,960,- 
000,000, or 56.3 per cent. 

Several groups of crops are prominent, the Department 
added, the cereals, $2,563,000,000, or 36.5 per cent of the 
crop total; the vegetables, including potatoes and sweet 
potatoes, $1,104,000,000, or 15.7 per cent; fruits and 
fruit products, $525,000,000, or 7.5 per cent, and fruits 
and vegetables together, $1,629,000,000, or 23.2 per cent. 

Of the total value of animal products in 1921, the dairy 
products were nearly one-half, $2,410,000,000, or 45.1 
per cent; the animals raised, $1,937,000,000, 36.3 per cent, 
and the poultry raised and eggs produced, $943,000,000, 
or 17.7 per cent. 

HOW OUR CORN GIVES THE WORLD HALF ITS PORK 

Our big corn crop means that the world is to have 
plenty of pork in the near future, for a large part of the 
corn grown in the United States is fed to swine and the 
meat thus produced is distributed to other countries in 
far greater values than that of the corn in its natural 
state. In the first nine months of the current year, it is 
noted in The Trade Record of the National City Bank of 
New York, we have exported more corn than in any full 
year since 1906, and we are sending abroad a fifth more 
pork than we were last year. In the last ten years the 
United States exported $3,000,000,000 worth of pork 
products and $400,000,000 of corn in its natural state. 
American pork has ben sent to as many as ninety dif- 
ferent countries. The fact that we produce three-fourths 
of the world's corn accounts for the fact that we lead the 
world in swine production, "for swine are the most con- 
venient process of transforming com into human food, 
especially for exportation, and com is the most useful 
food for swine, except for the production of the "bacon 
hog" which is chiefly fed on the smaller grains, wheat, 
rye, barley, etc., with an admixture of dairy products, and 
as a consequence the "bacon hog" producing areas are 
those lying north of the corn belt of the world, but pro- 
ducing ample supplies of smaller grains above named. 
This close relation of the number of swine to the supply 
of com as their best food for fattening purposes has re- 



OF Labor and Statistics 311 

suited in a growth in the number of swine in the United 
States coincidental with the growth in corn production, 
and as a consequence the United States alone has about 
one-half of the swine of the world, while it produces 
about three-fourths of the corn of the world. A few 
further facts are noted by the writer for the New York 
bank: 

It is only in very recent years that our com crop has 
crossed the 3,000,000,000 bushel line or the worlds' crop 
output the 4,000,000,000 bushel mark. The world was 
slow in adopting this new food grain which Columbus 
carried back from Haiti under the native name of "mahiz" 
on his first return voyage, but it gradually spread through 
southern Europe, where it was designated as "maize" in 
recognition of its Haitian title above named, and after 
its introduction in Southern Europe extended slowly over 
the other continents. At present the corn crop of the 
world is noi-mally: United State 3,000,000,000 bushels, 
Europe as a whole 500,000,000, Argentina 300,000,000, 
Asia as a whole 100,000,000, and Africa about 75,000,000. 
After the com crop of the United States in value hay 
ranks second, cotton third, and wheat fourth. This year's 
corn crop is estimated at 3,152,000,000 bushels. 

Iowa led ^11 the States in the value of farm crops pro- 
duced in 19zO; Texas, with twice as many farais, came 
second, and Illinois, a grain-growing State like Iowa, came 
third. As taken from Capper's Weekly (Topeka), the 
Department of Agriculture figures, based on market 
value, are: 



312 Report of Maryland State Board 

WHAT OUR FARMS EARNED LAST YEAR 



Value 

of 

Farm Products 



1. Iowa 

2. Texas 

3. Illinois 

4. Missouri 

5. Kansas 

6. New York 

7. Ohio 

8. Pennsylvania .... 

9. Wisconsin 

10. Indiana 

11. Nebraska 

12. California 

13. Michigan 

14. Minnesota 

15. Oklahoma 

16. North Carolina.. 

17. Kentucky 

18. Tennessee 

19. Georgia 

20. Virginia 

21. Arkansas 

22. South Dakota 

23. South Carolina. 

24. Alabama 

25. Mississippi 

26. North Dakota 

27. Colorado 

28. Washington 

29. Louisiana 

30. Oregon 

31. West Virginia 

32. Montana 

33. Maryland 

34. New Jersey 

35. Massachusetts ... 

36. .Idaho 

37. Maine - 

38. Vermont 

39. Wyoming 

40. Florida 

41. .New Mexico 

42. Connecticut 

43. Utah 

44. New Hampshire . 

45. Arizona 

46. Delaware 

47. Nevada 

48. .Rhode Island 



$1,258,201,000 
1,101,610,000 
1,074,879,000 
942,092,000 
888,056,000 
876,207,000 
831,009,000 
733,971,000 
708,100,400 
700,121,000 
689,169,000 
665,741,600 
570,995,000 
538,161,600 
532,490,600 
509,348,000 
500,383,800 
453,468,000 
412,934,000 
380,572,000 
348,545,000 
343,241,000 
324,563,000 
317,559,000 
300,118,000 
267,070,000 
248,007,000 
225,683,000 
210,756,000 
202,903,000 
201,059,000 
178,282,000 
167,388,000 
164,888,000 
152,646,000 
152,165,000 
148,958,000 
124,182,000 
122,922,000 
108,376,000 
100,144,000 
97,333,000 
78,871,000 
67,737,000 
64,803,000 
33,042,000 
32,838,000 
18,426,000 



Number iTotalAv. 

of Per 

Farms Farm 



Total _ 1 $19,176,015,000 



213,312 

435,666 

237,153 

263,124 

165,287 

193,060 

256,699 

202,256 

189,196 

205,124 

126,309 

117,690 

196,647 

178,588 

191,731 

269,740 

270,676 

252,691 

310,737 

186,011 

232,602 

74,564 

192,664 

256,023 

272,437 

7^693 

59,991 

66,288 

135,455 

50,188 

87,289 

57,441 

47,808 

29,672 

31,982 

42,109 

48,228 

29,072 

15,611 

54,006 

29,841 

22,655 

25,664 

20,523 

10,816 

10,128 

3,164 

4,084 



$5,899 
2.528 
4,532 
3,582 
5,372 
4,538 
3,327 
3,062 
3,742 
3,413 
5,456 
5,656 
2,903 
3,013 
2,777 
1,888 
1,848 
1,794 
1,328 
2,078 
1,498 
4,603 
1,684 
1,240 
1,101 
3,437 
4,134 
3,040 
1,555 
4,042 
2,303 
3,103 
3,493 
5,557 
4,772 
3,613 
3,088 
4,271 
7,874 
2,006 
3,355 
4,296 
3,073 
3,300 
5,991 
2.048 
10,378 
4,511 



6,449,998 



$2,973 



OF Labor and Statistics 313 

FARM DEVELOPMENT 

Plans for the development of Maryland's agricultural 
and farming- interests during the present year were dis- 
cussed by numerous speakers at the annual meeting of 
the 23 county agents at the Southern Hotel. In addition, 
reports were received from a majority of the counties 
showing some of the flattering results of the last year. 

The county agents gave reports showing that the de- 
velopment in the counties during 1921 was along lines 
peculiar to the life of the particular county. The im- 
provement of dairy herds through cow-testing associa- 
tions; substantial saving to farmers through co-operative 
buying and selling; a more extensive use of leguminous 
crops and the introduction of much pure-bred stock, were 
among the outstanding achievements. 

Harford county, as reported by B. B. Derrick, county 
agent, had an interesting year, importing 37 pure-bred 
calves for boy club members; introducing 24 pure -bred 
sires and two car loads of pure-bred dairy cattle. Har- 
ford countians also bought co-operatively supplies valued 
at $101,000 with an estimated saving to the buyers of at 
least $20,000. This county also showed a remarkable 
growth in the tuberculin testing work, 900 herds in the 
county having been completed. 

Mrs. Evelyn Harris, wife of a Kent county farmer, ap- 
peared before the county agents and asked that more 
attentio"n be given to the diet of the children of the farms. 
She declared that while children are the most expensive 
crops grown in the State, less attention is paid to their 
food than to that of the cattle and swine. 

The directors of the Agricultural Corporation met and 
elected the following officers: C. E. Bryan, Havre de 
Grace, president ; J. W. Henderson, Germantown, assist- 
ant president; J. E. Patten, East New Market, vice-presi- 
dent, and D. Fred Shamberger, secretary-treasurer. 

After the election of officers the following executive 
committee was chosen; C. E. Bryan, D. G. Harry, D. S. 
Pearse, David Zentz and J. E. Patten. 

After the meeting C. E. Bryan of Havre de Grace, 
president of the Horticultural Society and also president 
of the Agricultural CoiT)oration, declared that under the 
present system a dollar spent for farm products is split 
up in the following manner: 37 cents goes to the cost of 
production, 14 cents profit and 49 to that vague and in- 



314 



Report op Maryland Statk Board 



definite thing called "service," but which in reality means 
middleman's share. 

Under the system which Mr. Bryan has inaugurated, 
the farmer will ship direct from the fai-m to the con- 
sumer and where the amounts of farm products are too 
small to ship individually the various lots will be loaded 
and sent to the nearest dealer to the consumer, thus cut- 
ting out extra haulage, warehousing, commission fees and 
the hundred and one obstacles which raise the price of 
foodstuffs to the ultimata consumer. 

GRAIN EXPORTS IN 1921 

Grain exports from Baltimore during 1921 exceeded 
records of the previous year by nearly one-half million 
bushels, according to statistics issued by the Chamber of 
Commerce grain exchange. The increase is due to a vast 
increase in com exports and is made despite the fact that 
exports of rye, oats and wheat declined during the year. 

The overseas movement of corn totaled 19,591,319 
bushels^ as compared with exports of 1,909,658 bushels 
during 1920. Germany has been a heavy buyer of Amer- 
ican com during the past five months, it is said, and grain 
dealers see prospects of shattering the 1921 record next 
year with heavy relief shipments to Russia. Russian 
shipments will mark the first exports of the year, as 
$20,000,000 is being spent in this country for foodstuffs 
to be shipped to that country, 

A table showing the comparative figures for- various 
commodities traded on the floor of the Chamber of Com- 
merce, published in the Baltimore Price Current, is re- 
printed below. 



Receipts 



Exports 



1921 



1920 



1921 



1920 



Flour, barrels .. 
Wheat, bushels , 

Corn, bushels 

Oats, bushels 

Rye, bushels 

Barley, bushels 

Malt, bushels 

Buckwheat 

Hay, tons 

Straw, tons 

Millfeed, tons ... 



1,505,919 

23,229,056 

22,168,762 

1,655.278 

13,407,239 

1,256,163 

42,136 

3 925 

14,512 

1,276 

17,149 



2,089,765 

33.544,501 

5,310,433 

3.816,077 

20,933,270 

1,251,328 

363,560 

2,604 

26,484 

1,889 

16,363 



667,038 
21,935,950 
19,951,319 

629,331 

11,755,119 

1,451,257 



1,871,210 

29,780,569 

1,909,658 

2,030,833 

19,835,779 

853,779 



OF Labor and Statistics 315 

Receipts of all grains, as shown by this table, were 
about 3,460,000 bushels less than in 1920. The decrease 
in rye shipments is attributed to the more favorable rail 
rates enjoyed by Montreal on the North and the Gulf 
ports on the South. The light weight of the 1921 crop 
of American oats, which caused foreign buyers to deal 
at home or in Canada, is blamed for the decline of trade 
in this cereal. 

Flour receipts and exports were the lightest recorded 
in 36 years. Rail rates making it cheaper to ship grain 
to seaboard than to ship the milled product, is largely re- 
sponsible for the decrease.' 

The increased use of motor trucks in the transporta- 
tion of hay, delivering their loads directly to the con- 
sumer, is held responsible for the falling off shown in the 
hay trade. 

FARM VALUES 

Figures issued by the Census Bureau covering farm 
values in the United States place the total value of farms 
in Maryland at $386,596,850 in the year 1920. Then years 
ago Maryland farm properties were valued at only $241,- 
737,123. This shows an mcrease in valuation of 60 per 
cent in ten years. 

The figures given cover both land and buildings there- 
on. In Maryland the Census Bureau finds that the aver- 
age value of a farm and buildings thereon is $8,070, com- 
pared with $4,941 in 1910. 

The value of all farms and buildings thereon in Virginia 
is estimated at $1,022,886,216, compared with $532,058,- 
062 10 years ago. In the Old Dominion the average value 
of a farm and buildings thereon is $5,492, against $2,891 
in 1910. While Virginia, because of its size, has a greater 
fami valuation, the average monetary value per farm in 
Maryland is larger. 

In 1920 Maryland had 4,757,999 acres in fai-ms. Vir- 
ginia had 18,561, 112 acres in farms. 

"The value of all farm lands in the United States on 
January 1, 1920," says the Census Bureau report, "mean- 
ing value of land and buildings, was $67,795,965,384, as 
compared with $34,801,125,697 on April 15, 1910." 

This shows an increase in farm values of nearly $33,- 
000,000,000 in the decade, or 941/2 per cent. 



316 Kei'ort of Maryland Statk Board 

"While there was only a slight increase in the number 
of farms between 1910 and 1920," continues the Census 
Bureau, "and an increase of less than 10 per cent in farm 
acreage, the value of lands nearly doubled. 

"Due allowance must be made, of course, for the fact 
that farm values in many localities were abnormally high 
at the beginning of the year 1920 and that present values 
might be considerably less than those reported at the time 
of the census." 

For the entire country the census report shows that on 
January 1, 1920, there were 6,448,336 farms in the United 
States, compared with 6,361,502 ten years before. In 
1920 there were 955,676,545 acres in farms, compared 
with 878,798,325 acres in 1910. 

WOMEN FARMERS 

Of the 47,908 farmers in Maryland 1,828 are women, 
being 3.8 per cent of the entire number. Of the total 
31,127 men are owners and 1,678 are women. But there 
are 1,254 male managers of farms and only 8 represen- 
tative of the fairer sex ; there are 13,699 male tenants and 
142 female. Of the total acreage of 4,757,999, males op- 
erate 4,613,728 and females 144,271. 

The total number of farms in the United States on 
January 1, 1920, according to the fourteenth census, was 
6,448,366. Of this number 6,186.813, or 95.9 per cent 
were operated by male farmers and 261,553, or 4.1 per 
cent, by female farmers. 

The States which reported over 10,000 female faraiers 
were Mississippi, with 18,932 ; Alabama, 16,128 ; Georgia, 
13,982; North Carolina, 12,151; South Carolina, 11.579; 
Kentucky, 11,399; Tennessee, 11,374; Arkansas, 11,027, 
and Virginia, 10,028.. 

Of the 6,186,813 male farmers in the United States, 
3.737,326 were owners, 67,762 were managers and 2,381,- 
725 were tenants. 

The 261,653 female fami operators were distributed as 
follows: 187,769 owners, 763 managers and 73,021 ten- 
ants. In 1920 71.8 per cent of all female farmers were 
owners, 0.3 were managers and 27.9 per cent were tenants. 

The average size of the farms with female operators 
was 98.6 acres, while the average for the farms of male 
operators was 150.3 acres. 



OF Labou and Statistics 317 

NEGROES TAKE TO FARMS 

That farming opens up a lucrative field for negroes in 
Maryland is indicated by a report made by the Census 
Bureau on "Farms operated by Negroes in 16 Southern 
States." 

The report shows that negroes in Maryland operate 
6,208 farms, or 13 per cent of all farms in the State. The 
farms run by the negroes in Maryland have an acreage 
of 351,527, the value being $21,651,121, compared to a 
value of $10,267,284 in 1910. 

WILL MAKE OWN BLANKETS 

Baltimore county wool growers held a meeting at the 
Court House at Towson and decided to continue the plan 
of having their own wool manufactured into blankets and 
robes. County Agricultural Agent E. E. McClean pre- 
sided, and it was ascertained that those present had 1,600 
pounds of wool on hand. All farmers of the county have 
been invited to send their wool to Towson, and it will be 
forwarded together to a factory to be transformed into 
blankets, 

FARM LABOR REDUCED 

Farm labor in Maryland has decreased 30 per cent in 
the last 10 years, due in a large measure to the introduc- 
tion of modern agricultural machinery and the exodus of 
young men who have sought other occupations in the 
cities. 

Of the State's total population of 1,449,661, there were 
466,255 males and 137, 218 females over 10 years of age 
employed for pecuniary compensation. 

Of the men and boys occupied in the State, 37,186, or 
8 per cent, were farmers and 39,543, .or 8.5 per cent, were 
farm laborers, either working out or on the home farms. 
The number of fanners represents a decrease of 2 per 
cent, as compared with 37,954 in 1910, and the number of 
farm laborers shows a decrease from 56,657 in the last 
decade. 

Of the total population of the State, 1,449,661, 466,255 
men and boys and 137,218 women and girls were reported 
to be gainfully occupied, working for salaries, wages or 
other compensation. Of the number of females occupied 



318 Rei'ort of Maryland State Board 

1,340 were reported as "farmers," as compared with 1,383 
in 1910, while women employed as laborers on farms de- 
creased considerably, from 3,375 to 1,124. 

The remaining occupational classes for each of which 
at least 7,500 persons of both sexes were reported in 1920, 
stated in the order of their numerical importance, are as 
follows : 

Servants and waiters, 6,859 males and 26,305 females; 
clerks, except in stores, 19835 males and 8,287 females; 
retail dealers, 19394 males and 2,117 females; salesmen 
and saleswomen, 11,574 males and 6,169 females; car- 
penters, 17,003 males and 3 females ; launderers and laun- 
dresses, not including those employed in laundries, 253 
males and 12,418 females; machinists, millwrights and 
tool makers, 12,275, all males; general laborers, laborers 
employed on buildings and laborers for whom the line of 
work was not specified, 11,249 males and 298 females; 
soldiers, sailors and marines, 10,569, all males; stenog- 
raphers and typewriters, 1,145 males and 8,617 females; 
bookkeepers, cashiers and accountants, 5,648 males and 
4,106 females; school teachers, 1,282 males and 7,254 
females. 

The numbers engaged in certain important professions 
were as follows: Physicians and surgeons, 2,253 men and 
100 women; lawyers, judges and justices, 2,100 men and 
18 women ; clergymen, 2,079 men and 23 women ; trained 
nurses, 68 men and 2,782 women. 

Pronounced increases for females are shown for the fol- 
lowing occupational classes: 

Clerks, except in stores, from 1,698 in 1910 to 8,287 
in 1920; stenographers and typewriters, from 3,134 to 
8,617; bookkeepers, cashiers and accountants, from 2,228 
to 4,106; school teachers, from 5,850 to 7,254; clerks in 
stores, from 1,464 to 2,538; trained nurses, from 1,721 to 
2,782. On the other hand, the number of dressmakers 
and seamstresses, not including those employed in fac- 
tories, decreased from 10,805 in 1910 to 4,949 in 1920; 
the number of laundresses, not including those employed 
in laundries, decreased from 16,189 to 12,418, and the 
number of servants and waitresses decreased from 32,292 
to 26305. 



OF Labor and Statistics 



319 



CENSUS REPORT SHOWS VARIOUS OCCUPATIONS 

OF MARYLANDERS 

Here is how Marylanders fill the various occupations 
which the recently issued census report describes as 
"gainful" : 



Occupation. 



Male 



Female 



1920 



1910 



1920 



1910 



Al 1 occupations 

Blacksmiths, forgeman and 
hammermen „ 

Bookkeepers, cashiers and ac- 
countants 

Carpenters _ 

Chauffeurs 

Clergymen 

Clerks, except in stores 

*Clerks in stores 

Coal-mine operatives 

Draymen, teamsters and ex- 
pressmen 

Dressmakers and seamstresses 
(not in factory) | 

Electricians and electrical en- 1 



466,255 1410,884 
3,028 I 3,700 



gmeers 

Engineers ( stationary ) 

Farmers (general farms) 

Farm laborers (home farms) ... 
Farm laborers (working out).. 

Fishermen and oystermen 

Foremen and overseers (mfg.) 

Gardeners 

Laborers, building, general and 

not specified 

Laborers, steam railroad 

Launderers and laundresses 

(not in laundry) 

Lawyers, judges and justices 

Longshoremen and stevedores 
Machinists, millwTights and j 

toolmakers i 

Manufacturers and officials ! 

Painters, glaziers and var- | 

nishers (building) j 

Physicians and surgeons j 

Plumbers and gas and steam [ 

fitters - 

Retail dealers - 

Salesmen and saleswomen 

Servants and waiters 

Soldiers, sailors and marines 

Stenographers and typewriters 

Tailors and tailoresses _ 

Teachers ( school ) — 

Trained nurses 



5,648 
17,003 
6,925 
2,079 
19,835 
4,274 
5,168 

5,306 



4,007 
3,363 

37,186 
7,927 

31,466 
4,457 
4,109 
4,684 

11,249 
6,160 

253 
2,100 
4,349 

12,276 

3,778 

"3,860 
2,253 

4,753 

19,394 

11,574 

6,859 

10,569 

1,145 

5,454 

1,282 

69 



4.274 

12,517 

580 

1,894 
12,053 

5,988 

5,490 

5,765 

11 

1,809 

2,187 

37,954 

15,021 

41,636 

7,045 

1.878 

2,887 

13,791 
5,814 

448 
1,989 
2,975 

5,575 
4,479 

4.109 
2,121 

2,739 

18,030 

10,728 

8,125 

1,978 

1,112 

5,618 

1,394 

94 



137,218 



4,106 

3 

11 

23 

8,287 
5 
5 

14 

4,949 

1 

1,340 

394 
730 
24 
656 
149 

298 
165 

12,418 
18 
15 

136 

2 
100 



2,117 

6,169 

26,305 

■■■■—- 

1,224 
7,254 

2,782 



130,280 



2,228 
1 

"5 

1,698 
4 
4 

4 

10,805 

1 

1,383 

1,623 

1,652 

45 

418 

144 

454 
72 

16,189 
9 
2 

"'86 

3 
94 



2,214 

5,080 

32,292 

37134 
1.375 
5,850 
1,721 



* Probably includes some salesmen and saleswomen incorrectly 
reported as clerks. 



320 RBroRT OF Maryland State Board 

STATE CROPS SHOW DROP IN VALUE 

Just what has happened to the buying power of the 
Maryland farmer in the past two years is strikingly 
shown in figures on the principal crops grown in the 
State, compiled by F. W. Oldenburg, specialist in agron- 
omy for the University of Maryland Extension Service, 
from statistics gathered by the United States Bureau 
of Markets and Crop Estimates. 

In 1919 the agricultural crops grown in the State, in- 
cluding practically all the important grain, forage, vege- 
table and fruit products, returned to the farmers more 
than $110,000,000. In 1920 falling prices had reduced 
this figure to slightly more than $90,000,000. In 1921 
unfavorable weather conditions, affecting chiefly the fruit 
crops, and additional price declines reduced the total farm 
value of these crops to approximately $48,000,000, a de- 
cline of almost 57 per cent from the high figure of 1919. 

The difference between the 1919 and 1921 values, Mr. 
Oldenburg points out, is more than $62,000,000, which 
would represent a reduction of more than $1,200 in the 
annual income of each farm if distributed equally over 
the 48,000 farms of the State.. This reduction in values, 
according to Mr. Oldenburg, applies only to the leading 
agricultural crops and does not take into consideration 
reductions which have taken place in the values of live 
stock and livestock products. 

"It is interesting to note," says Mr. Oldenburg, "that, 
according to the census figures, Maryland farmers spent 
for labor, fertilizer and feed in 1919 $32,000,000, which 
is about two-thirds of the 1921 value of the leading 
crops." 

Corn and wheat continue to hold their places as the 
most important agricultural crops of the State, according 
to Mr. Oldenburg's figures, both in value and in acreage. 
Com in 1921 was planted on 645,000 acres, produced a 
yield of 25,155,000 bushels and had a farm value of $12,- 
326,000, or less than one-third of its 1919 value. Wheat 
in 1921 was sown on 568,000 acres, produced 7,952,000 
bushels and had a farm value of $8,191,000, or slightly 
more than half of its 1919 value. Hay, which in the 
aggregate is the State's third most valuable crop, was 
grown on 394,000 acres, produced 531,000 tons and had a 
total farm value of $7,995,000, or about two-thirds of its 
value in 1919. 



OF Labor and Statistics 321 

The importance of the white potato crop in the State 
is shown by the fact that 49,000 acres were devoted to it 
in 1921, producing 3,165,000 bushels valued at $3,504,000. 
Mr. Oldenburg also shows that while an acre of com in 
1921 was worth only $19.11 and an acre of wheat $14.42, 
an acre of potatoes had a value of $71.50. An acre of 
sweet potatoes was worth still more, being valued at $140. 
Sweet potatoes furnished a notable exception to the gen- 
eral run of agricultural crops, it is shown, with a farm 
price on December 1, 1921, of $1.40 per bushel, which was 
7 cents in excess of the 1919 price. 

EXTENSION SERVICE 

COUNTY HOME DEMONSTRATION AGENTS 

County. Name. Headquarters. 

Allegany R. F. McHenry, B. S _ Cumberland. 

Anne Arundel _..G. W. Norris, B. S Annapolis. 

Baltimore ...E. E. McLean, B. S _ Towson. 

Calvert ...._ J. H. Drury Chaney. 

Caroline ...W. C. Thomas, B. S _. Denton. 

Carroll F. W. Fuller, B. S Westminster. 

Cecil _..... A, D. Radebaugh .....Elkton. 

Charles _.... J. P. Burdette, A. B La Plata. 

Dorchester P. W. Moore, B. S _ Cambridge. 

Frederick ...P. A. Hauver, B. S _ Frederick. 

Garrett J. A. Towler, B. S. Oakland. 

Harford B. B. Derrick, B. S Belair. 

Kent R. L. Post, B. S., M. S Ellicott City. 

Howard ...H. B. Derrick, B. S. _..Chestertown. 

Montgomery W. C. Snarr, B. S _ Rockville. 

Prince George's W. B. Posey, B. S „ Upper Marlboro. 

Queen Anne's _ O. C. Jones, B. S „ Centi'eville. 

St. Mary's „ G. F. Wathen _ Loveville. 

Somerset .._ C. Z. Keller, B. S Princess Anne. 

Talbot _..E. P. Walls, B. S., M. S....... Easton. 

Wicomico ...G. R. Cobb, B. S Salisbury. 

Washington .._ _ S .E. Day, B. S Hagerstown. 

Worcester .- E. L Oswald, B. S ...„ Snow Hill. 

LOCAL AGENTS 

Southern Maryland. J. F. Armstrong (col.) Seat Pleasant. 

Eastern Shore L. H. Martin (col.) Princess Anne. 

Allegany _M. Rhea Morgan _ Cumberland. 

Anne Arundel G. Linthicum (Mrs.) _ Annapolis. 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline *E. G. Norman (Mrs.) 

B. S. S Denton. 

Carroll Rachel Everett Westminster. 

Cecil Elizabeth V. Hodgson Elkton. 



322 Report of Maryland State Board 



Charles _ .....E. S. Bohannan (Mrs.) La Plata. 

Dorchester Celeste C. Moore (Mrs.) Cambridge. 

Frederick Frances E. Gerber, B. S Frederick. 

Garrett *Laura I. Henshaw _ Oakland. 

Harford Blanche Gittinger, B. S.._ Belair. 

Howard Ellicott City. 

Kent Susan V. Hill Chestertown. 

Montgomery _.„ ^Catherine Cowsill _ Rockville. 

Prince George's Ellen L. Davis _ _ Hyattsville. 

Queen Anne's *Mary L. Byrn Centreville. 

Somerset M. Louise Mills Princess Anne. 

St. Mary's Ethel Joy Leonardtown. 

Talbot Olive K. Walls (Mrs.) Easton. 

Washington S. S. Garberson - Hagerstown. 

Wicomico Clara Mullen Salisbury. 

Worcester Lucy J. Walter Stiow Hill. 

COUNTY AGENTS 
LOCAL AGENT 
Charles and St. Mary's.Xeah D. Woodson (col.) La Plata. 

GARDEN SPECIALIST 

Mrs. Adelaide Derringer Madison and Lafayette Ave., Adnimistration 

Building, Baltimore. 
* Resigned. 

MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY 

COUNCIL FOR 1921. 

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

President D. G. Harry Pylesville, Md. 

Vice-President „....J. E. Patten East New Market, Md. 

Secretary -Treasurer .T. B. Symons College Park, Md. 

MARYLAND STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY 

President C. E. Bryaa Havre de Grace, Md. 

Vice-President .J. A. Cohill Hancock, Md. 

Secretary-Treasurer S. B. Shaw College Park, Md. 

Member-at-large _George Morrison "Uplands, Carroll 

P. 0.,Balto.,Md. 

A. P. Snader New Windsor, Md. 

MARYLAND CROP IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION 

President .1 A.. G. Ensor Forest Hill, Md. 

Vice-President C. L. Balderson Colora, Md. 

Secretary-Treasurer J. E. Metzger College Park, Md. 

MARYLAND STATE DAIRYMEN'S ASSOCIATION 

President _D. G. Harry Pylesville, Md. 

Vice-President R. S. Snader. New Windsor, Md. 

Secretary -Treasurer I. W.- Heaps Pylesville, Md. 

MARYLAND STATE BEEKEEPER'S ASSOCIATION 

President Charles S. Baile Sykesville, Md. 

Secretary-Treasurer _..-E. N. Cory College Park, Md. 

Dr. J. R. Abercrombie 1316 N. Charles St., 

Baltimore, Md. 



OF Labor and Statistics 323 

MARYLAND STATE VEGETABLE GROWERS' ASSOCIATION 

President _ JE. E. Nock Stockton, Md. 

Vice-President Grant Sexton Salisbury, Md. 

Secretary-Treasurer Dr. lt\. E. Jones College Park, Md. 

E. C. Auchter College Park, Md. 

MARYLAND STATE SHEEP GROWERS' ASSOCIATION 

President W. B. S. Chapman Spring Hill, Md. 

Vice-President Dr. S. A. Nichols Dayton, Md. 

Secretary-Treasurer B. F. Bomberger. College Park, Md. 

MARYLAND STATE TOBACCO GROWERS' ASSOCIATION 

President Thomas Parran Prince Frederick, Md. 

Vice-President Aquilla Robinson Brandywine, Md. 

Secretary F. Brooke Matthews La Plata, Md. 

Treasurer George T. Duvall Croom, Md. 

Manager _..._George I. Gardiner. State Tobacco Ware- 
house, Balto., Md. 

CROPS— ACREAGES, YIELDS, VALUE 

1910 1919 1920 

Value of all crops $43,920,149 $114,852,000 $107,847,000 

Acreage of all crops 1,931.972 2,131,000 2,024,000 

Corn— Acreage 647,012 .693,000 670,000 

Bushels 17,911,436 23,413,000 25,795,000 

Value $13,795,000 $ 39,778,000 $ 20,894,000 

Average yield per acre 

(10 years) 34.9 bushels 

Wheat— Acreage 589,893 790,000 670,000 

Bu.shels 9,463.457 10,665,000 11,390,000 

Value $12,711,000 $ 22,995,000 $ 18,794,000 

Average yield per acre 

(10 vears) 16.8 bushels 

Oats— Acreage 49,120 65.000 65,000 

Bushels 1.160,663 1.829,000 2,112,000 

Value $ 373,000 $ 1,537,000 $ 1,478,000 

Average vield per acre 

(10 vears) 28.4 bushels 

Rye_Acreage 28,093 30.000 30,000 

Bushels 357,562 420,000 462,000 

Value $ 254 000 $ 685,000 $ 721,000 

Buckwheat— Acreage 10,388 10,500 15,000 

Bushels 152,216 241,000 300,000 

Value $ 114,000 $ 355,000 $ 399,000 

Irish Potatoes— Acreage 39,000 55,000 60,000 

Bushels 3.444,311 5,170,000 6.120,000 

Value $ 1,782.954 $ 8,345,000 $ 5,814,000 

Sweet Potatoes— Acreage 7.000 12.000 11,000 

Bushels 1,065,956 1.680,000 1,386,000 

Value $ 483,751 $ 2,234,000 $ 1,584,000 

Barley— Acreage 4,400 6,000 6,000 

' Bushels 135,454 190,000 165,000 

Value $ 79 231 $ 218,000 $ 182,000 



324 



Report of Maryland State Board 



Hay— Acreage 398,842 450,000 472,000 

Tons 477,564 638,000 732,000 

Value $ 6,011,749 $ 15,750,000 $ 18,300,000 

Tobacco— Acreage 26,000 29,000 35,000 

Pounds 17,845,69a 19,575,000 30,625,000 

Value $ 1,457,112 $ 5,872,000 $ 8,881,000 



1921.. 
1920 
1919.. 
1918.. 



Tomatoes — 

Maryland ] 

New Jersey 
and 

Delaware J 
Sweet Corn — Acreage 

Tons 

Value $.. 

Peas — Acreage 

Tons 

Value $.. 

All other crops^— Acreage..- 

Value $.. 



Total Yield 
134,837 



Acres 

28,091 

75,683 

92,317 

127,013 

32,515 

75,494 

1,636,000 

4,946 

2,968 

214,000 

87,000 

6,960,000 



Yield 
Per Acre 

4.8 Tens 



ORCHARD FRUITS 



Apples— Bushels 1,822,824 

Value $ 902,077 

Peaches— Bushels 324,609 

Value $ 

Other fruits— Bushels 62,500 

Value $ 85,000 

Berries— Quarts 26,000,000 

Acreage 



Value $ 1,200,000 

Grapes— Pounds 2,152,382 



2,122,000 

$ 2,759,000 

737,000 

$ 1,390,000 

(Pears) 

432,000 

$ 432,000 

(Strawberries) 
14,000 
$ 2,400,000 



3,330,000 

2,597,000 

897,000 

2,377,000 

616,000 
396,000 



Value $ 



53,498 



$-. 



LIVE STOCK 



No. in 
1910 
Farms reporting 
domestic ani- 
mals 46,672 

Dairy Cows 166,859 

Other Cattle 120,692 

Horses 155,438 

Mules 22,667 

Swine 301,583 

Sheep -... 237,137 

Poultry 2,908,958 

Bees— Colonies 23,156 



No. in 
1919 



180,000 
138,000 
168,000 
25,000 
461,000 
250,000 



Value 
1910 



5,580,210 
2.289,316 
16,787,467 
3,043,581 
1,765,857 
1,142,965 
1,858,570 



Value 
1919 



$16,000,000 
6,955,000 
17,136,000 
3,350,000 
8,759,000 
2,725,000 



Value 
1920 



$16,020,000 
6,854,000 
16,830,000 
3,350,000 
8,550,000 
2,670,000 



61,603 



10,000,000( inc.Poultry 
Products) 



OF Labor and Statistics 325 

Milk produced 41,094,421 gals. (1910) 97,000,000 gals. (1919) 

Butter produced 8,739,620 lbs. (1910) 8,915,000 lbs. (1919) 

Dairy products — 

Value $5,480,900 (1910) $26,039,000 (1919) 

Poultry products — 

Value 5,831,611 (1910) 

1921 OYSTER YIELD 

The Maryland oyster crop for 1921 was larger by sev- 
eral hundred thousand bushels than the preceding season, 
and was one of the largest in the history of the Con- 
servation Commission. 

According to the commission's figures, 5,081,117 
bushels of oysters were sold in Maryland markets, in 
comparison with 4,743,901 last season. The taxes amount- 
ed to $50,811.17. 

CANNING INDUSTRY 

The Manufactures Division of the Census Bureau has 
supplied through the National Canners' Association fig- 
ures showing the total pack of canned food commodities 
for 1919. These statistics give the value and total pack 
of the various canned food commodities produced in each 
State. This information covers a wide range of products 
on which there have been no statistics collected by the 
National Canners' Association and the following are ab- 
stracts taken from the figures furnished. 

The total value of baked beans canned in the United 
States during the year 1919 was $28,551,342, of this 
amount Indiana canned $6,720,466, or nearly one-fouii;h 
of the entire pack; Michigan, $1,041,692; California, 
$929,742, and Maryland was fourth with $729,346 to its 
credit. The total value of string beans canned for the 
same year was $6,607,080, of which New York's pack 
was valued at $2,600,177 and Maryland was next with 
$929,602. The total value of the lima bean pack was 
$1,457,719, of which New Jersey was credited with the 
largest amount, being $623,312, and Maryland was next, 
with a pack value at $206,394. 

The total value of all other beans packed was $1,362,782 
of which Indiana was credited with the greatest amount 
$357,534, Michigan was second with $100,171, and Maiy- 
land third with $84,382. 



326 Rei'Okt op Maryland State Board 

The total value of canned beets was $1,951,344 and the 
amount credited to the following States was: Wisconsin, 
$619,868 ; New York, $472,103 ; California, $344,352 ; New 
Jersey, $189,035; Ohio, $67,916, and Maryland, $40,635. 
The total value of, the corn pack was $35,532,007, and the 
four States canning the greatest amount was Illinois, 
$5,843,733; Iowa, $5,763,458; Maryland, $5,448,073, and 
Maine, $4,723,397. In other words, of the eighteen States 
quoted, the value of the pack for the above four States 
was about 61 1-3 per cent. 

The total value of the pea pack was $25,073,220, of 
which $12,132,849 is credited to Wisconsin, $3,440,696 to 
New York and $1,718,500 to Maryland, which was third 
out of the fifteen States quoted. The total value of the 
sweet potato pack was $2,477,719, Mississippi being cred- 
ited with $544,606, Maryland $544,394, Virginia $453,979, 
Delaware $258,790 and California $249,180. 

In the canning of spinach California was first with a 
credit of $1,308,724 and Maryland second with $834,032, 
in other words, these two States canned nearly the entire 
pack. - The total value of the tomato pack was $3§,067,- 
999, of which California was first with $10,452,851, and 
Maryland a close second with $10,295,386. Out of the 
25 States canning tomatoes, these two States canned 
about 55 per cent. Under the heading of "All Other Vege- 
tables," which is valued at $1,672,518, California was first 
with $770,060 and Maryland second with $247,172. 

From the above figures it will be seen that Maryland 
for its size ranked first in the canning of vegetables. In 
addition to the value of the vegetable pack, Maryland 
canned fruits in value as follows : Apples, $358,620 ; black- 
berries, $250,017; cheries, $51,389; gooseberries, $36,402; 
peaches, $1,425,079. The value of peaches canned in 
Cahfornia was $42,347,718 out of a total valuation of 
$46,516,225. The value of pears canned in Maryland was 
$915,547; pineapples, $1,347,972; raspberries, $218,602, 
and strawberries, $760,936, the latter being greater than 
any of the nine States mentioned. 

In the canning of oysters Maryland was first with a 
valuation of $1,854,880, or more than half of the entire 
pack. The value of roe canned in Maryland was $15,166,. 
Virginia $73,519, and all other States $85,583. The total 
value of salmon canned for the same year was $62,378,- 
353, of which Alaska was credited with $43,265,349, 



OF Labor and Statistics 327 

Washington $13,506,149, Oregon $5,447,491, and all other 
States $159,564. The total value of condensed and evap- 
orated milk credited to eighteen States was $293,177,134, 
of which amount New York was first with $77,094,614, 
Wisconsin second with $65,587,293, Illinois third with 
$27,667,488, Pennsylvania fourth with $25,171,430 and 
Michigan fifth with $24,422,946. The total value of 
canned and potted meats for all States was $130,779,000 
and sausage $27,985,000. The following is a recapitula- 
tion of the entire pack of vegetables, fruits, fish and oys- 
ters, milk, meats, etc., for the year 1919 in the United 
States : 

RECAPITULATION 
vegetables 

Total No. of 

Cases Value 

Asparagus 1,006,604 $ 6,571,629 

Beans, baked _ 11,142,331 28,551,342 

Beans, string 2,199,825 6,607,080 

Beans, kidney 429.104 1,429,680 

Beans, lima 468,569 1,457,719 

Beans, other 584,40.3 1,362,782 

Beets 584,309 1,951,344 

Corn 14,402,725 35,532,007 

Hominy 587,298 1,346,044 

Kraut 1,202,125 2,845,340 

Peas 9,325,727 25,073,220 

Pumpkin ' 383,211 861,436 

Sweet potatoes 841,813 2,477,719 

Spinach 676,388 2,338,497 

Squash 60.499 165,217 

Succotash _. 373.977 1,142,236 

Tomatoes 11,885,520 38,067,999 

Tomato paste 217,729 1,300,680 

Tomato pulp 739,055 3,819,101 

All other vegetables 634,220 1,672,518 

Total .....:..- 57,745,432 $164,573,590 

FKUITS 

Apples 2,447,927 $ 9,081.598 

Apricots 3,939,768 25,167,772 

Blackberries 910,657 5,080,397 

Blueberries 150,350 913,821 

Chen-ies 1,362,832 8.451,029 

Gooseberries 87,926 343,504 

Grapes 87,644 514,219 

Loganberries 273,664 2,138,817 

Peaches :. 7,706,855 46,516,225 

Pears 1,951,374. 14,202,963 



• 



328 EEroRT of Maryland State Board 



Total No. of 

Cases Value 

*PineappIe 5,228,731 20,363,459 

Plums 571,521 2,228,183 

Prunes 273,710 1,271,410 

Raspberries 551,419 4,278,939 

Strawberries 374,097 3,693,648 

Other canned fruits 516,558 2,701,348 



Total 26,434,133 $146,947,332 



* Including Hawaiian pack. 

FISH and oysters 

Clams - 157,843 $ 772,870 

Oysters _ 707,636 3,510,119 

Roe - - 26,768 174,268 

Salmon 6,769,692 62,378,553 

Sardines 5,777,959 20,258,565 

Shad 11,877 • 68,428 

Shrimp 322,076 1,864,793 

Tuna _ 874,380 5,710,188 

All other canned fish 272,378 1,744,192 



Total , 14,920,609 $ 96,481,976 

Milk 43,617,633 $293,177,134 

*Meat 11,831,222 96,904,000 

fSausage 6,192,384 27,985,000 

Soups 5,844,821 11,857,717 



Total cases 166,086,234 

Total value $837,926,749 



* Except potted and canned meats and other miscellaneous meat 
products. The Census classification on this covered only the value 
and did not include number of pounds or cases. 

t The Census report on sausage was expressed in pounds. In 
the above figures, 26 pounds represents one case. 

The following tables, also furnished by the National 
Canners' Association, show the last five annual statistical 
reports of the canning of tomatoes, com and peas by 
States. As will be seen from these tables, the year 1921 
was an off year for the canners, as the entire year's pack 
was only about half of that for 1920. Maryland was first 
in the canning of tomatoes with a credit of 1,656,000 cases 
out of a total of 4,017,000, or over 41 per cent of the en- 
tire pack. In the canning of com Illinois was first with 
1,711,000 cases, Iowa second with 1,190,000 and Maryland 



OF Labor and Statistics 329 

third with 1,130,000 cases. The total number of cases 

being- 8,843,000. In the canning of peas Wisconsin was 
first with 4,063,000 cases. New York second with 1,382,- 

000 and Maryland third with 533,000. The total pack 
bemg 8,207,000 cases. 

TABLE NO 1— TOMATOES 

1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 

Maryland 5,933,739 6,649,475 2,578,927 3,347,000 1,656,000 

Delaware _ 1,380,805 879,070 188,920 553,000 176,000 

New Jersey 380,116 667,036 59,678 517,000 116,000 

Indiana 398,327 968,219 875,598 778,000 530,000 

Ohio _ 107,491 357,283 172,367 142,000 71,000 

New York 552,830 395,904 436,599 515,000 214,000 

Missouri....... 704,347 352,821 438,720 715,000 136,000 

Vir^m'".'.^..II I 1,170,504 1,547,291 952,991 1,162,000 217,000 

a)toradf °"...'Z"" 1 213,070 306,229 289,775 218,000 62,000 

California 2,603,019 1,789,904 3,051,688 1,778,000 339,000 

Utah 512,546 953,539 594,066 444.000 132,000 

Iowa 

Michigan 

Illinois 

Minnesota 

Pennsylvania .... 

Tennesse 

Kentucky 

All other States.:.. 307,042 293,730 566,679 274,000 59,000 



324,612 281,412 269,636 250,000 123,000 
488,126 441,431 384,016 680,000 186,000 



Totals 15,076,074 15,882,372 10,809,660 11,368,000 4,017,000 

TABLE No. 2— CORN 

1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 

Iowa 2,280.366 2,300,241 2,496,000 3,246,000 1,190,000 

Illinois - 2,421,953 2,199,344 2,225,000 2,271,000 1,711,000 

Maine 566,498 1,112,912 1,652,000 1,588,000 911,000 

Ohio - - 1,200,131 1,584,064 1,360,000 1,544,000 850,000 

Maryland 2,001,544 2,032,944 2,081,000 2,217,000 1,130,000 

New York. 257,296 488,912 1,014,000 829,000 564,000 

Wisconsin 165,492 372,924 635,000 590.000 576,000 

Indiana 742,491 512,699 586,000 861,000 709,000 

Minnesota ....^... 201,969 309,136 456,000 643,000 573,000 

Missouri 

Michigan — 

Delaware 

Vermont — 

Pennsylvania .... 

All other States.. 306,188 419,400 268,000 487,000 189,000 



659,087 389,295 777,000 764,000 444,000 



Total -._ 10,802,952 11,721,860 13,550,000 15,040,000 8,843,000 



330 Report of Maryland State Board 

TABLE No. 3— PEAS 

1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 

Wisconsin 3,569,185 4,519,934 4,317,000 5,804,000 4,063,000 

New York 1,394,171 2,000,104 1,040,000 2,381,000 1,382,000 

Michigan 522,532 476,659 425,000 549,000 317,000 

Indiana 604,470 454,229 381,000 271,000 182,000 

Maryland 721,160 683,007 509,000 696,000 533,000 

Ohio 321,624 441,842 306,000 282,000 241,000 

Delaware J 754,673 331,869 248,000 549,000 345,000 

New Jersey ) ' ' 

Utah 421,213 526,954 395,000 595,000 376,000 

California 349,910 252,836 205,000 328,000 84,000 

Illinois 576,432 978,434 433,000 460,000 331,000 

All other States... 593,683 397,288 426,000 402,000 353,000 

Total 9,829,053 11,063,156 8,685,000 12,317,000 8,207,000 

INCOMES AND COST OF LIVING 

During that year higher wages were paid ; more profits 
were made, and heavier taxes were collected. 

From the preliminary report upon incomes made public 
by the Commission of Internal Revenue, for the year 
1919, returns were made on more than $19,000,000,000. 
The figures show that 65 had incomes of $1,000,000. 

While 1918 was the war year, 1919 was the year of 
greatest prosperity, of the largest individual incomes and 
of the handsomest profits of any in the history of the 
nation. 

How business for 1920 will compare with that of 1919 
remains to be seen, as the Treasury Department has not 
been able to make a detailed analysis up to this time, but 
the increase in all directions over the returns for 1917 and 
1918 are enormous, as will be seen from the following 
figures : 

In the first place, a total of 5,832,760 income tax re- 
turns were made in 1919, as against $4,425,114 in 1918; 
3,472,890 in 1917 and 437,036 in 1916. This shows an 
increase in 1919 of 907,646 over 1918, of 952,224 over 
1917 and of 3,036,854 over 1916. 

In the next places taxes in 1919 were paid upon an ag- 
gregate income of $19,859,491,448. In 1918 the aggre- 
gate taxable income was $15,924,639,355; in 1917, $13,- 
652,383,207 and in 1916 (under the old tax law, $6,289,- 
577,620. 

In the third place, the individual incomes yielded in 
taxes in 1919 a total of $1,269,630,104; in 1918, $1,127,- 



OF Labor and Statistics 331 

721,835; in 1917, $691,492,954, and in 1916 only $173,- 
386,694. 

It also is shown by the report that only 65 persons in 
America had net incomes of $1,000,000 or more in 1919. 

BIG GROUP MILLIONAIRES 

One hundred and eighty-nine persons had incomes of 
from $50,000 to $1,000,000; 425 from $309,000 to $500,- 
000; 1,864 from $150,000 to $300,000; 2,983 from $100,- 
000 to $150,000, and 13,320 incomes from $50,000 to 
$100,000. This group of taxpayers, 18,866 in all, may be 
regarded as millionaires or potential millionaires. 

A total of 37,477 persons paid taxes on incomes from 
$25,000 to $50,000, 162,485 from $10,000 to S25.000, 438,- 
851 from $5,000 to $10,000, 1.180,488 from $3,000 to 
$5,000, 1,569,741 from $2,000 to $3,000 and 1,924,872 
from $1,000 to $2,000. 

New York filed the greatest number of returns, 683,- 
085, or 12.81 per cent of the total. The amount of net 
income reported by New York was $3,436,343,179, or 
17.31 per cent of the total and the tax paid by that State 
was $399,792,351, or 31.49 per cent of the total. Penn- 
sylvania was the second State, with 539,172 returns : 
$1,838,002,395 of taxable income and $128,195,161 taxes', 
or 10.10 per cent of the total. These two States paid 
nearly half the total income tax of the country. 

A total of 1116,373 returns were made by Marylanders 
upon an aggregate taxable income of $389,672,772, the 
tax upon which amounted to $22,630,984. The percentage 
of Marylanders making returns was 8.03, the average 
net income per return was $3,425.82 and the per capita 
tax paid by the State was $15.61. The average amount 
of tax paid on each return was $194.47. 

There was an increase in the number of returns filed 
by Marylanders in 1919 over 1918 of from 87,085 to 116,- 
373. In 1917 the returns numbered 60,954 and in 1916 
the number was 9,674. The aggregate taxable income of 
Marvlanders jumped from $303,421,092 in 1918 to $398,- 
672,772 in 1919. The taxable income of the State in 1917 
was $253,443,289 and in 1916 it was $121,009,054. 

Virginians filed 75,966 income tax returns in 1919 upon 
an aggregate taxable income of $247,658,373 and paid 
$9,020,237 in taxes. 



332 Report of Maryland State Board 

RISE AND FALL OF THE DOLLAR'S WORTH AND 

WAGES 

An analysis of the American dollar, its purchasing 
power and relation to production and taxes, is afforded 
in the findings of the National Bureau of Economic Re- 
search, made public in advance of the formal publication 
of the results of a year's study of "Income in the United 
States." 

After announcing that the total national income of the 
United States in 1918 was $61,000,000,000, as compared 
with $34,400,000,000 in 1913, the study shows how in- 
come is distributed, the shares received by capital and 
labor, including the farmer ; income tax discrepancies, the 
contribution of housewives, and offers a comparison of 
income in the United States with the national and per 
capita incomes in the United Kingdom, Germany and 
Australia. 



Although 1918 showed a great increase in dollars it 
did not represent a like increase in production, most of it 
being due to the rise in prices, for the dollar of 1918 and 
1919, according to the report, was a much less efficient 
dollar than that of 1918. The actual total of commodities 
produced increased, therefore, very little, if at all, and a 
large part was war materials and not a kind really bene- 
fiting consumers. 

Individual incomes, estimated on a per capita basis; rose 
from $340 in 1910 and $354 in 1913, to $586 in 1918 ; but, 
the report says, $586 in 1918 was equal to only $372 in 
terms of the purchasing power of five years before. 

The study, said to be the most exhaustive ever made 
of the income question in the United States, was con- 
ducted by Wesley Clair Mitchell, Willford I. King, Fred- 
erick R. Macauly and Oswald W. Knauth, under the aus- 
pices of a board of 19 directors, including men prominent 
in business, education, labor, agriculture, economics, prac- 
tical statistics and representing divergent points of view. 

The main findings, including the equivalent value of per 
capita income in terms of the 1913 purchasing power, are 
exhibited in this table: 



OF Labor and Statistics 



333 









m 




1 >-^ 


a m 


Per Capita 

Income in 

1913 Dollar 


Year 


Total 
Nationa! 
Income- 
(Billions 


Per Capit 

Income 

In Dollar 


1909 


$28.8 


$319 


$333 


1910 


31.4 


340 


349 


1911 


31.2 


333 


338 


1912 


33.0 


346 


348 


1913 


34.4 


354 


354 


1914 -.. 


33.2 


335 


333 


1915 - 


36.0 


358 


350 


1916 - 


45.4 


446 


400 


1917 - 


53.9 


523 


396 


1918 


61.0 


586 


372 



One per cent of income receivers in the United States 
had 14 per cent of the national income, or $8,540,000,000 
in 1918, according to the report. That is to say, that 1 
out of 100 had incomes of $8,000 or more. Five per 
cent, representing incomes above $3,200, had 26 per cent 
of the total. Ten per cent, including incomes above 
$2,300, had nearly 35 per cent of the total. Those hav- 
ing incomes above $1,750 had 47 per cent of the total. 
Eighty per cent of those receiving incomes below $1,750 
had about 53 per cent of the total income. 

The report further shows that in most of the years 
since 1913 in the principal organized industries wages 
and salaries were about 70 per cent of the total income; 
while capital (including management) received about 30 
per cent, out of which were paid rent, interest and profits ; 
but these proportions varied materially with relative pros- 
perity and depression. 

The share of capital in 1916, for example, increased to 
about 35 per cent, with 65 per cent to labor, while in 1919 
capital's share fell to about 22 per cont, while labor re- 
ceived about 78. Of the total paymf?nts to employees in 
the hig.'^iy organized industries, the report shows, about 
92 per cent goes to the manual workers and clerical stafls, 
while 8 per cent goes to officials. 

Light is shed on the increased income of farmers in the 
period from 1910 to 1919. Agriculturists, who during the 



334 Eei'ort of Maryland State Board 

past decade have made up aloout 16 per cent of the total 
of the gainfully employed, according to the study, received 
from 12 to 13 per cent of national income in the years 
between 1910 and 1916, inclusive. Since 1917 farmers 
have been receiving 16 to 17 per cent, or a somewhat 
higher proportion, as the following figures from the re- 
port show: 

1910 12.9 per cent 1915 13.1 per cent 

1911 11.9 per cent 1916 12.8 per cent 

1912 12.3 per cent 1917 16.3 per cent 

1913 12.6 per cent 1918 .17.0 per cent 

1914 12.9 per cent 1919 16.0 per cent 

Sources of production and national income, the bureau 
states, taking a general average since 1910, show that 
agriculture contributes about 17 per cent of the total, 
manufacturing about 30 per cent, transportation about 9 
per cent. Government about 5 per cent, mining a little 
more than 8 per cent, and banking a little more than 1 
per cent. The many miscellaneous employments, profes- 
sional men, retailers, jobbers, merchants, domestics, etc., 
too numerous to list specifically, contribute 33 per cent. 
In other words, the report says, highly organized Amer- 
ican industries, even if we include all manufacturing, 
mining, transportation, banking and Government activi- 
ties, such as education and road building, produce only 
about one-half of the national income. The rest is due 
to the efforts of small independent workers. 

Income tax discrepancies are also shown in the report, 
which estimates that the number of persons in 1918 hav- 
ing incomes over $2,000 was 5,300,000 and that their 
total income was more than $23,000,000,000. Income tax 
returns, however, showed only 2,908,000 persons having 
over $2,000 and their total reported income was less than 
$14,000,000,000. 

This discrepancy is attributed in part to technical eva- 
sions and straight illegal withholdings, but also in part to 
the existence of tax-exempt income, which the bureau 
estimates at $1,250,000,000. What this means in terms 
of the income tax is that the Government received in 1918 
about $500,000,000 less than it would have if all persons 
receiving over $2,000 had paid their full amount. 

America's 20,000,000 housewives and their contribution 
to the country's wealth are not included by the bureau in 
the national income because they are not paid in money. 



OF Labor and Statistics 335 

It is estimated, however, that if they were paid at the 
lowest possible figure (the average recompense of per- 
sonal and domestic sei'vice) their addition to the total 
national income would be about one-third or $18,000,- 
000,000. On that basis, the bureau gives the following 
conjectural figure as to the fluctuation of the housewife's 
contribution to the national income since 1909: 





c^ 


c 




c _ 


c 




-•2 £ 


o m ^^ 




Individual 
Contributio 
(in Dollars 






Individuj 
Contribu 
(in Dolla 


Total 
Contribu 
(in Billio 
of Dollar 




Total 
Contribu 
(in Billio 
of Dollar 


1909 


$500 


$8.85 


1915 


$550 


$10.84 


1910 


500 


9.00 


1916 


600 


11.94 


1911 


500 


9.20 


1917 


650 


14.30 


1912 


525 


9.82 


1918 


750 


15.30 


1913 


525 


9.98 


1919 


900 


18.45 


1914 


525 


10.19 









No other country, the report shows, has so large a total 
national income and per capita income as the United 
States. An estimate of the relative standing of the four 
countries named at the outbreak of the war shows the 
following : 

Nat. In. Income 

(Billions per Capita 

1914 ofDol.) (inDol.) 

United States $33.5 $338 

United Kingdom 10.9 243 

Germany „ _ 10.5 146 

Australia 1.3 • 263 

The National Bureau of Economic Research was organ- 
ized after the war by a group of persons who had come 
to realize the need for accurate and scientific collation of 
statistical information as a basis for intelligent solution 
of national problems. 

RAIL WORKERS' AVERAGE DAILY PAY 

Statistics compiled by the United States Railroad Labor 
Board in its consideration of wages of railroad employes 
show that the average daily rate of pay for all grades of 



63.4 


8.01 


$5.34 


64.6 


4.18 


2.54 


55.7 


3.35 


2.15 


54.0 


5.47 


3.55 


82.8 


4.84 


2.65 


59.9 


5.81 


3.83 


64.5 


5.35 


3.32 


92.3 


4.19 


2.18 


66.6 


5.50 


3.30 


33.3 


6.69 


5.02 



336 Report of Maryland State Board 

work during the month of October, 1921, was $4.54, as 
compared with an average rate of $2.87 in 1917. 

The present rate includes the wage cut authorized July 
1 by the Board. This cut averaged about 12 V2 per cent. 
The following table is taken from Labor Board figures, 
column one showing the percentage of cut in the July 
wage decision, column two the percentage still remaining 
over December, 1917, wages, column three the average 
rate of pay per day now, and column four the average 
rate of pay per day in 1917: 

Supervisory forces 6.3 

Clerical and station 12.2 

Maintenance of why and unskilled 17.4 

Shop employees 10.5 

Telegraphers, etc. 8.9 

Engine service employees 9.4 

Train service 10.7 

Stationary engineers and firemen 12^.7 

Signal department 10.0 

Marine department 9.8 

During the month of October, because of a threatened 
strike of the railroad unions. The Evening Sun made an 
investigation to learn what the men were receiving in 
wages, and submitted the following: 

PENNSYLVANIA SCALE 

Average earnings per month of train and engine crews 
on Congressional Limited: 

Engineman $274.68 Conductor , $278.76 

Fireman _ 211.30 Brakeman 191.28 

« 

Average earnings per month of train and engine crews 
of Federal Express: 

Engineman $274.68 Conductor $278.76 

Fireman -.. 211.30 Brakeman 191.28 

Average earnings per month of train and engine crews 
on Broadway Limited: 

Engineman $250.00 Conductor $225.00 

Fireman 195.00 Brakeman 157.50 



OP L.VBOR AND Statistics 337 

Average earnings per month of train and engine crews 
in local freight sei'vice: 

Engineman $310.00 Conductcr _ $275.00 

Fireman "225.00 Brakeman 205.00 

Average earnings per month of train and engine crews 
in through freight senace: 

Engineman $240.00 Conductor $175.00 

Fireman 195.00 Brakeman _ 140.00 

Average earnings per month of levermen, $147.60. 
Average earnings per month of telegraph operators, 
$155. 

Machinists, 78 to 90 cents an hour. 
Machinists' helpers, 52 to 56 cents an hour. 
Car inspectors, 68 cents an hour. 
Track laborers, 40 cents an hour. 

BALTIMORE AND OHIO SCALE 

Washington to New York through passenger service 
and through passenger sei*\ice generally: 

Engineman $245.00 Brakeman $162.00 

Fireman 188.00 Baggageman 156.00 

Conductor 227.00 

Local passenger service : 

Engineman $241.00 Brakeman $132.00 

Fireman 180.00 Baggageman 137.00 

Conductor 192.00 

Through freight Class 1 : 



Engineman $338.00 

Fireman 251.00 


Conductor 

Brakeman _..;... 


... $272.00 
... 210.00 


Through freight. Class 2 : 






Engineman $310.00 

Fireman 224.00 


Conductor 

Brakeman 


.. $245.00 
... 185.00 


Local passenger: 






Engineman $241.00 

Fireman 180.00 


Brakeman 

Baggageman 


... $132.00 
... 137.00 



Conductor _ 192.00 



338 Report of Maryland State Board 

Local freight: 

Engineman $265.00 Brakeman $175.00 

Fireman 216.00 Towermaa $165.00 to 180.00 

Conductor 226.00 

Although the general impression is to the contrary, the 
New York Evening Post informs us that "wages started 
to advance sooner and increased faster during the war 
than the cost of living" and that the cost of living 
"reached its peak earlier and since then has fallen off more 
shaii)ly than is the case regarding earnings. At the 
maximum reached last summer, the cost of living for an 
average workingman's family was, according to the index 
computed by the National Industrial Conference Board, 
105 per cent higher than in October, 1915. Earnings of 
New York factory workers, on the other hand, averaged 
118 per cent higher at their peak reached last fall, while 
late in the year the wage index of the United States 
Bureau of Labor Statistics reached a point 127 per cent 
above the 1915 level. 

The fall in the Bureau of Labor's wages index has been 
sharper than in the case of the New York State index for 
the reason that a large part of the data used in the former 
pertains to steel workers. Even so, the average earnings 
of this group on February 15th were still 89 per cent 
greater than in 1915, while the New York State workers 
earned 100 per cent more than at the earlier date. The 
cost of living meanwhile was only 76 per cent greater on 
February 1st and 67 per cent greater on March 1st. 

Changes in wages over a longer period of time are 
shown in tabulations prepared by the United States Bu- 
reau of Labor which appear in the current Export Amer- 
ican Industries. The material for this survey was neces- 
sarily incomplete and disconnected, but an index number 
was prepared for all accessible sources, and the wage 
level of 1913 was taken as a basis. These are the figures 
showing how wages have increased since 1840, an in- 
crease which, of course, has been accompanied by a great 
rise in prices: 



OF Labor and Statistics 



339 



Index 
Year Number 

1840 33 

1 84 1 _ 34 

1842 33 

1843 - - _ 33 

1844 32 

1845 : - 33 

1846 34 

1847 ....._ - 34 

1848 35 

1849 : 36 

1850 V 35 

1851 34 

1852..: - 35 

1853 35 

1854 37 

1855 - - 38 

1856 39 

1857 - 40 

1858 39 

l§p9 - 39 

1860 , 39 

1861 - 40 

1862 41 

1863 44 

1864 - 50 

1865 58 

1866 - 61 

1867 - 63 

1868 - 65 

1869 - 66 

1870 - - 67 

1871 68 

1872 - - 69 

1873 69 

1874 67 

1875... 67 

1876 -.. 64 

1877 - 61 

1878 60 

1 879 - 59 

1880 -....: 60 



Index 
Year Number 

1881 62 

1882 63 

1883 64 

1884 .64 

1885 „ 64 

1886 64 • 

1887 - 67 

1888 67 

1889 68 

1890 69 

1891 69 

1892 69 

1893 69 

1894 67 

1895 68 

1896 69 

1897 69 

1898 69 

1899 70 

1900 73 

1901 74 

1902 _ 77 

1903 80 

1904 80 

1905 82 

1906 85 

1907 89 

1908 - 89 

1909 90 

1910 93 

1911 - 95 

1912 97 

1913 100 

1914 - 102 

1915 _ 103 

1916 Ill 

1917..... 128 

1918 - 162 

1919 - 184 

1920 234 



HIGH RETAIL PRICES HOLDING BACK PROSPERITY 

Many authorities agree that until retail prices learn 
to keep closer to the heels of wholesale prices on the steep 
downward trail, from the peak they achieved in 1920, the 
promised land of normalcy will not be reached. 

"Deflation has been in progress, but has failed to reach 
the mark where it can be proclaimed to the great mass 



340 Reiort of Maryland State Board 

of consumers," said President Harding in his message to 
Congress ; and he added, as specified instances of the fail- 
ure of the cost of living to keep in touch with the "re- 
duced cost of basic production" : The price of grains and 
livestock have been deflated, but the cost of bread and 
meats is not adequately reflected therein." The cost of 
living of the ultimate consumer is not reduced with the 
same speed as wholesale commodities, particularly raw 
materials, are reduced, thus, while wholesale prices, as 
reflected in Bradstreet's index, had declined more than 39 
per cent from the peak to January 1st, the cost of living 
in the large cities of America decreased less than 10 per 
cent on an average from the peak." "With a decline of 
45 per cent in many wholesale prices, retail prices have 
correspondingly fallen about 15 per cent, and are still 
excessively high." With the reduction of retail prices in 
proportion to wholesale prices, wages will follow and be 
better satisfied with its lot, and if the necessary price and 
wage reductions were effected promptly, business would 
recuperate with astonishing alacrity and vigor. The New 
York Globe states "the prices of raw materials have fallen 
further than the prices of manufactured goods, and the 
prices of goods at wholesale have fallen further than re- 
tail prices. At the same time the public's purchasing 
power has been diminished by unemployment, by de- 
creased wages, and by the outrageous amount demanded 
for such necessities as housing and fuel, yet the general 
price level has been held far above the actual cost of pro- 
duction." On the other hand, the retailers emphatically 
deny that they have refused to take their share of losses 
in the general process of deflation. 

COST OF RETAILING MEAT 

The cost of selling meat through retail stores averaged 
5.86 cents a pound in 1921, compared with 3.19 cents in 
1913, wages and other overhead expenses having in- 
creased or remained virtually stationary, while wholesale 
prices" were declining in the last few years, according to 
a survey by the Department of Agriculture covering more 
than 400 stores. Salaries and wages were shown to be 
the chief item in the cost of retailing. 

Complete accounts of 214 individual retail meat mar- 
kets and 216 branch stores in 17 chain systems, the for- 
mer having total sales of $24,646,587 and the latter $18,- 



OF Labor and Statistics 341 

425,346 in 1919, were analyzed for the year 1919-20 and 
supplementary studies were made for 1921 by Herbert C. 
Marshall of the Bureau of Markets and Crop Estimates. 

The investigation covered 30 cities, including Balti- 
more, New York, Chicago, Memphis, New Orleans, San 
Francisco, Hartford, Pittsburgh, Des Moines, Raleigh, 
Birmingham and Los Angeles. 

The survey revealed that of each dollar spent by the 
consumer for meat in 1919 in all types of stores 81.14 
cents represented the wholesale cost, 10.25 cents salaries 
and wages, 1.33 cents rent, 0.77 cent ice and refrigeration, 
0.76 cent wrappings, 0.21 cent heat, light and power, 0.51 
cent interest, 2.74 cents miscellaneous expense and 2.29 
retailers' net profit. 

The expense of delivering goods for all delivery stores 
was found to average 2.62 cents of each dollar of sales. 
It was pointed out that delivery service resulted in a 
slight saving in some other expenses. 

The average margin on meat sales of the 17 chain store 
systems was 18.86 per cent of sales, the same as for the 
individual meat markets. The chain store systems had 
lower operating costs, particularly in the item of wages, 
their net profits averaging more than 1 per cent higher 
than the individual meat markets. 

Operating expenses and the gross margin were found 
to be appreciably larger in the Southeast and Pacific 
Coast sections. In the Southeast this was explained as 
being due in part to the great predominance of delivery 
service. In both sections, it was added, wages appeared 
to play a large part in bringing about higher operating 
expenses and net profits also were high. 

With a view of meeting the diminished demand from 
customers, and with the belief that people are willing to 
buy when they are convinced that retail prices really are 
descending to reasonable levels, many concerns furnished 
price lists and made window displays to prove the point. 

To bring home forcefully what happened to food prices 
between May, 1920, and May, 1921, the following adver- 
tisement was used by a grocer in Oakland, California: 

WHAT YOU COULD BUY MAY 21, 1920, FOR $40.50 

100 lbs. Sugar $24.25 

100 lbs. Potatoes 7.25 

50 lbs. Head Rice 9,00 

Total - - - $40.50 



342 Kei'ort of Maryland State Board 

WHAT YOU CAN BUY MAY 21 OF THIS YEAR FOR $40.50 

100 lbs. Sugar „ $ 7.35 

100 lbs. Burbar.k Potatoes 2.50 

50 lbs. Blue Rose Rice 3.00 

12 cans Alpine Milk, large 1.38 

3 1-lb. tins Hills Brcs. Coffee, Red 1,23 

12 cans Van Camp's Beans, small _ 1.20 

60 lbs. Navy Beans 2.35 

1 C-1 Broom 75 

3 1-lb. Ghirardelli's Chocolate 1.09 

12 cans Campbell's Sovip 1.20 

12 cans New Idea Corn 1.75 

4 pkgs. Quaker Oats, small 60 

50 lbs. A-1 Flour 2.50 

3 bottles Acme Beverage 25 

1 10-lb. can Karo Syrup (Blue) 75 

1 6-lb. can Crisco 1.10 

12 pkgs. Golden Age Macaroni 95 

6 12-oz. Swift's Corned Beef : 1.00 

6 bot. 22 oz. Ragged Robin Salad Oil 1.45 

12 cans Cal-Grc. Peaches, 2^/2S 2.10 

12 cans Cal-Gro. Apricots, 2y2S __ 1.70 

12 pkgs. Post Toasties „ 1.40 

12 pkgs. Kellogg's Corn Flakes 1.40 

6 cans Del Monte Pineapple, SI , 1.50 

Total $40.50 

As the editor of Forbes comments: This same idea of 
presenting prices as they were and as they are now can be 
utihzed by many besides grocers. Clothing-houses, shoe 
stores, druggists, haberdashers, etc., can utilize it. 

The purchasing value of the dollar based on cost of liv- 
ing is further illustrated by a chart of the National Inr 
dustrial Conference Board of New York City, which gives 
the value in July, 1914, as one hundred cents ; July, 1915, 
99.5; July, 1916, .92; July, 1917, .76.2; July, 1918, .65.7; 
July, 1919, .58.1; July, 1920, .48.9; January, 1921, .55.2; 
March, 1921, .59.3; May, 1921, .60.4; July, 1921, .613; 
August, 1921, 60.8; September, 1921, .60.7; October, 1921, 
.61.1, and November, 1921, .61.1. 

THE FUTURE OF PRICES AND WAGES 

Extracts taken from a study by Mr. Leonard P. Ayres, 
Vice-President of the Cleveland Trust Company, on "Price 
Changes and Business Prospects" shows that the recent 
rise in prices is the third, of substantially the same 
amount, that the country has experienced during a period 
of 110 years. All three have come in times of great wars. 



OF Labor and Statistics 343 

The first took place during the war of 1812, the second 
came during the Civil War and this most recent one dur- 
ing the World War. The most significant fact revealed, 
however, is that each of the two previous great price in- 
creases has been followed by a 30-year period of irregular 
falling prices, and a 20-year period of general rising 
prices. History and experience indicate that a period of 
declining prices is to be looked for. One reason why we 
may expect this lies in the very fact that prices are and 
have been high. 

Another is to be found in the world's decreasing pro- 
ductions of gold. A third lies in the enormous losses of 
lives and property in the past few years, with the accom- 
panying disorganization of the world's industrial produc- 
ing power. A fourth is in the depreciated currencies of 
the world which the stronger nations will endeavor by 
every means in their power to stabilize and make more 
valuable. 

As these countries regain their industrial productivity, 
it is stated, they will, one by one, attempt to establish an 
adequate gold basis for their paper currencies. It is 
highly probable that several of them will find it impos- 
sible to re-establish their money at its old value, as com- 
pared with our dollar, but even if they adopt some new 
ratio of worth they must somewhere obtain more gold 
as a basis for doing it. There is only one place from which 
they can get that gold and that is from this country, for 
we now possess a large part of the world's currency gold. 
They will try to secure it by sending to this country their 
commodities and selling them here, and each time that 
this happens on any large scale our own prices will tend 
to fall. For all these reasons, it is stated, it seems prob- 
able that we are entering on a long period of falling prices, 
and it is well for us to consider what that means to us. 
Other statistics taken from the pamphlet are that "during 
the Civil War wages of skilled labor advanced from $10 a 
week to $15 a week, or 50 per cent. After peace was de- 
clared wages continued to advance, and in 1869- reached 
$17 a week. 

From this point wages declined for about ten years to 
$15 a week and then remained stationary for twenty 
years. The article further states that one hundred years 
ago, in 1820, the average weekly wage of the artisans 
was about $7. This rose steadily during the next 40 
years until it was about $10 a week in 1860, just before 



344 KBroRT of IMaryland State Board 

the outbreak of the Civil War. During the course of that 
struggle these wages rose from the $10 level to $15 and 
then kept on rising until 1869, or four years after the 
close of the war, when they passed $17. Then came ten 
years' decline, until 1879, when they were $14.74. A 
slight recovery lifted them just above $15, where they 
stayed for 20 years, or until 1900. 

Then they rose for 15 years, or until 19'15, when they 
amounted to $21.38 and shot up for five years during the 
World War, and for two years after it closed, to an aver- 
age of $42 in 1920. 

The article calls attention to the fact that during this 
entire period of 100 years the course of wages of common 
labor ran along nearly parallel to that of the artisans and 
throughout the century their relationship to each other 
IS such that the artisan wage is almost always about 180 
per cent of the common labor wage. The question as to 
whether or not we are to see wages shrink far less than 
prices in the next few years is largely a question of what 
happens to the efficiency and productivity of industry. If 
improvements in processes and in management can large- 
ly increase the output per worker per day, their wages 
will not have to decline so far as prices. If, on the other 
hand, the output does not come up, then wages cannot 
permanently retain the gains they have made. 

COST OF LIVING 

The cost of living is just as difficult a problem to solve 
today as it has been in the past, not only because of the 
fluctuation of prices in the articles that go to make up the 
family budget, but also because wage-earners have adopt- 
ed a higher standard. 

The National Industrial Conference Board has been 
carrying on an inquiry which is impressive. The Board 
concludes that there has been a decided improvement in 
the American worker's standard of living since 1901. That 
is, in 19-18 the wage-earners of the United States were 
spending a larger proportion of their income for clothing 
and sundries and a smaller proportion for food and shelter 
thpn was the case in 1910. These facts are regarded as 
very strong evidence of the advance of the standard of 
living, and further presumes that families deliberately 
chose to be less well fed and less well housed in 1918 than 
in 1901, or deliberately chose to spend more for sundries 



OF Labor and Statistics 345 

which inckide all kinds of luxuries, at the same time go- 
ing hungry and poorly housed. The presumption on the 
other hand is very strong that if they spent relatively 
more on clothing and on sundries, in 1918 than in 1901, it 
was because they had more money left over to spend for 
such things after satisfying their needs for food and 
shelter. Allowance has to be made for the advance in the 
cost of living, but where the increased expenditure for sep- 
arate items more than keeps pace with their increases in 
cost and at the same time a larger proportion is expended 
on less necessary items, a higher standard is indicated. 
It is further shown that the increase of expenditures for 
living in 1918 was greater than the increase made neces- 
sary by the higher cost of living, that is to say, wage- 
earners spent more, not merely because they were forced 
to by the higher cost of living, but because they hade 
more to spend and were living better in 1918 than they 
were in 1901. 

The New York Bureau of Municipal Research recently 
made an investigation with regard to the amount on 
which office workers cannot merely sustain existence but 
keep up what is called "the American standard" of health 
and decency. A married man with three children, the 
Bureau reports, must spend a minimum of $2,263.55 per 
annum. The unmarried woman office worker cannot get 
along, even with the greatest forethought and the most 
careful saving, on less than $1,118.08 a year, while a 
single man needs at least $1,093.68. 

While these figures are interesting and may have been 
accurate enough at the time they were made, but because 
of the fluctuation in living costs, they may have become 
out of date by the time they were printed. Nevertheless, 
they are of great value, if they can show to those more 
fortunately placed that there are large numbers of fellow- 
citizens who, even assuming that their earnings are spent 
to the greatest advantage, can only just manage to scrape 
along. 

Twenty-two hundred and sixty-three dollars per annum 
may be the minimum of subsistance fixed by a group of 
trained and presumably impartial investigators for a 
family of five, and yet there must be many families of 
more than five which have to try to subsist on less than 
that amount. 

The United States Department of Labor and Statistics 
gives the following divisions of the family budget : Food 



346 Kbi'ORT of Maryland State Board 

38.2 per cent, clothing 16.6 per cent, housing 13.5 per 
cent, fuel and light 53. per cent, furniture and furnishings 
5.1 per cent, miscellaneous 21.3 per cent. 

The eleven cities reported by the United States De- 
partment- of Labor, Bureau of Statistics, giving the in- 
crease in the cost of living from December, 1914, to De- 
cember, 1921, are: Boston, Mass., 70 per cent; Buffalo, N. 
Y., 76.8 per cent; Cleveland, Ohio, 76.4 per cent; Houston, 
Texas, 73.6 per cent; Jacksonville, Fla., 75.1 per cent; 
Los Angeles, Cal., 76.4 per cent; Norfolk, Va., 79.2 per 
cent ; Portland, Maine, 69.2 per cent ; Portland, Ore., 58.3 
per cent ; San Francisco and Oakland, California, 63.6 per 
cent; Seattle, Wash., 71.5 per cent. 

RETAIL PRICES OF FOOD IN THE UNITED STaTES 

The following table is based on figures which have been 
received by ttie United States Bureau of Labor Statistics 
from retail dealers through monthly reports of actual 
selling prices of specified food articles on December 15, 
1913 and 1914, and on December 15 of each year from 
1917 to 1921, together with the percentage changes in 
December of each of these specified years compared with 
December, 1913. 



Report op Maryland State Board 



347 



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OF Labor and Statistics 349 

CHANGES IN COST OF LIVING IN THE UNITED S-TATES 

The Bureau of Labor Statistics has secured data on cost 
of living for December, 1921, the results of which are 
shown in the following tables. The information is based 
on actual prices secured from merchants and dealers for 
each of the periods named. The prices of food and fuel 
and light in each city are furnished the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics in accordance with arrangements made with 
establishments through personal visits of the bureau's 
agents. In each city food prices are secured from 15 to 
25 merchants and dealers, and fuel and light prices from 
10 to 15 firms, including public utilities. All other data 
are secured by special agents, of the bureau who visit the 
various merchants, dealers and agents, and secure the 
figures directly from their records. Four quotations are 
secured in each city (except in Greater New York, where 
five are obtained), on each of a large number of articles 
of clothing, furniture, and miscellaneous items. Rental 
figures are secured for from 250 to 975 houses and apart- 
ments in each city, according to its population. 

The following table shows the decreases in the total 
cost of living from June, 1920, and September, 1921, re- 
spectively, to December, 1921, in 32 cities and in the 
United States, as determined by a consolidation of the 
figures of the 32 cities : 



350 



Report of Maryland State Board 



DECREASE IN TOTAL COST OF LIVING FROM JUNE, 1920, 
AND SEPTEMBER, 1920, TO DECEMBER, 1921. 



City. 



Per Cent of Decrease 
From — 



June, 

1920, to 

December, 

1921. 



September, 

1921, to 

December, 

1921. 



Atlanta, Ga.. 

Baltimore, Md. _.. 

Birmingham, Ala. 

Boston, Mass 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Denver, Colo 

Detroit, Mich 

Houston, Tex. 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Kansas City, Mo 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Memphis, Tenn 

Minneapolis, Minn •>. 

Mobile, Ala 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N. Y 

Norfolk, Va 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh. Pa. 

^Portland, Me 

'Portland, Oreg. 

Richmond, Va 

St. Louis, Mo 

San Francisco and Oakland, Calif. 

Savannah , Ga. 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Washington, D. C. 



United States.. 



19.1 
19.2 
18.1 
19.2 
20.2 
19.7 
21.6 
18.6 
17.2 
22.7 
18.2 
20.6 
19.1 
18.9 
12.5 
15.8 
15.8 
21J) 
13.5 
18.7 
19.4 
18.4 
17.6 
18.5 
21.0 
17.7 
20.4 
16.5 
20.6 
16.6 
18.5 
19.0 



(*) 



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1.9 
2.8 
1.5 

.9 
1.7 
2.5 
1.9 
1.3 
3.0 

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2.7 
2.0 
1.1 

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1.5 

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2.2 
0.9 

.9 
2.6 
1.0 
1.3 
1.6 
1.4 
1.0 
2.9 

.6 
3.0 
> 

2.3 
1.9 




No change. 



OF Labor and Statistics 



351 







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352 . Report of Maryland State Boa^ 

FAMILY BUDGETS 

The two questions which are being widely discussed 
are how much does it cost to live in this country at the 
present time and how much more does it cost to live now 
than it did before the war. 

The National Industrial Conference Board estimates 
that between July, 1914, and July, 1921, the cost of living 
in the United States increased 63.1 per cent. 

The Massachusetts Commission on the necessaries of 
life places the increase within this period at 57.5 per cent 
m that State. Figures of the United States Bureau of 
Labor Statistics run considerably higher for the country 
as a whole and for separate localities and show an in- 
crease to May, 1921, for the entire United States of 78.6 
per cent. 

The average cost of living among white families con- 
sisting of man, wife and three children in 92 separate lo- 
calities in the United States in 1918-1919 was compiled 
by the National Industrial Conference Board from figures 
furnished by the United States Bureau of Labor Statis- 
tics, and are given for the following cities, viz: Cincin- 
nati, 0., $1,168.82; Baltimore, Md., $1,260.86; St. Louis, 
Mo., $1,348.48; Richmond, Va., $1,357.38; Atlanta, Ga., 
$1,367.09; Portland, Me., $1,412.84; Pittsburgh, Pa., 
$1,417.10; Boston, Mass., $1,438.13; Newark, N. J., $1,- 
445.41; Buffalo, N. Y., $1,460.00; Chicago, 111., $1,461.42; 
Philadelphia, Pa., $1,469.40; Detroit, Mich, $1,520.74; 
New York, N. Y., $1,525.66; Cleveland, 0., $1,532.82; 
Jacksonville, Fla., $1,555.56; Norfolk, Va., $1,684.92, and 
Bisbee, Ariz., $1,919.40. 



OF Labor and Statis^tics 353 



STATISTICS 

LOSSES BY FIRE 

During the five years 1916 to 1920 we have been burn- 
ing up property at the rate of $334,544,535 a year, so the 
National Board of Fire Underwriters informs us after a 
study based upon more than three million reports of fires. 
The total loss for the first year period, $1,672,722,677, 
would, according to the insurance authorities, be suffi- 
cient to build 334,000 dwellings at $5,000 each, or enough 
to house 1,700,000 persons; in other words, the entire 
population of three States, Nevada, Wyoming and Con- 
necticut. Further facts in the report are thus summar- 
ized in a brief article on the editorial page of Bradstreets: 

Classifying the fires according to causes, the actuarial 
bureau's report shows that matches and smoking hazards 
were considered responsible for $90,000,000 of that loss; 
electricity caused fire damage placed at $86,000,000; 
stoves, furnaces, boilers and pipes were responsible for a 
loss of $63,000,000, and defective chimneys and flues for 
one of $61,000,000, while exposure, that is, communicated 
fire, destroyed property valued at $223,000,000. It is par- 
ticularly interesting to note that, in the board's opinion, 
no less than 67 per cent, or $856,000,000, of the aggregate 
loss was strictly or partly preventable. A comparison of 
the figures by States indicates that New York suffered 
the heaviest loss, namely, $164,000,000, in that period; 
Pennsylvania was second with $97,000,000; and Illinois 
third with $88,000,000. Other States reporting excep- 
tionally large totals were New Jersey with $70,000,000; 
Ohio, 363,000,000; Texas, $59,000,000; Massachusetts, 
$58,000,000; and California, $54,000,000. 

The National Board of Underwriters also reports that 
in the two years, 1919 and 1920, the burning of churches, 
which includes chapels, amounted to $6,183,338. The re- 
port states that there were 3,500 fires involved, which 
indicates that on the average there were approximately 
five church fires a day throughout the entire time. There 
were 122 more in 1920 than in 1919. Against these 
losses was insurance of $3,847,491, or 62 per cent of the 
whole, which means insufficient protection, with a big 
deficit to be made up. The causes are given as follows: 



354 Rei'ort gp Maryland State Board 

The chief fire hazard of churches lies in the heating 
plant, since the largest damage, $948,590, was due to 
stoves, furnaces, boilers and their pipes. Lightning came 
second with $609,639 for the two years, and electricity- 
third, with $463,317. The fo.urth largest amount, $303,- 
443, was listed under defective chimneys and flues. 

Losses from exposure, which means those from com- 
municated fires, aggregated $342,564, but this is an effect 
and not a cause of fire. That the exposure total was not 
heavier was doubtless due, in a large part, to the fact 
that most churches have more or less spacious grounds 
about them or are situated on corner plots so that they 
are protected to an extent from ignition by adjoining 
fires. 

Spat-ks on roofs caused losses amounting to $227,247, 
the fifth heavies on the list, indicating the prevalence of 
wooden-shingle roofs on church property. 

The matches-smoking hazard was responsible for the 
sixth largest total during the two years, or $174,032, and 
open lights stood seventh on the list with $135,786. Doubt- 
less ftiost of the open lights were candles used for re- 
ligious purposes; they frequently cause fires. Recently, 
however, a Philadelphia church was damaged to the ex- 
tent of $75,000 by a fire believed to have been due to 
a candle used for illumination while the organ was being 
repaired. This property, of which only the walls remain 
standing, was insured for but $22,000, 

In the incendiarism column the tabulation shows losses 
amounting to $64,732. It is well known among insurance 
men that factional quarrels in churches have often led 
to the use of the torch by the disgruntled members of the 
congregation. Not long ago a colored church in the South 
was burned because certain black sheep in the flock did 
not approve of the new pastor, and last year a $50,000 
loss occurred in a fire involving a Croatian church near 
Pittsburgh, the congregation of which had been torn by 
a factional fiied. At various times during its career it 
had been deemed necessary to place a guard in the 
church to protect it against just such a fate as eventually 
befell it. In a case at Cumberland, Md., a new church, 
that had drawn its members from the congregations of 
the older places of worship, was mysteriously set on fire. 

The smallest loss amounted to $1,912 and was that at- 
tributed to ignition af hot grease, oil, tar, wax, asphalt. 



OF Labor and Statistics 355 

THIS GENERATION HAS PAID SHARE FOR 
WORLD WAR 

By RALPH F. COUCH. 

The great war, which cost the United States approxi- 
mately $33,000,000,000, according to the official estimates 
of the Treasury Department, now is practically complete- 
ly paid for as far as the present generation is concerned 
under the plans of the administration. 

Only $33 in taxes will be collected by the Federal Gov- 
ernment under the new revenue law for each resident 
of the United States. 

For the war period tax collections soared to $62 per" 
capita. 

The present generation, under the plans of President 
Harding and Secretary of the Treasury Mellon, from now 
on will be able to enjoy a continually decreasing demand 
for taxes as a result of the war financing program, which 
is unique in that no other world power has come out of 
the World War with costs so nearly paid.' 

MEANS DECLINE IN PRICES. 

Decreasing Government expenditures mean falling 
prices for clothing, shelter, food r>n6 other necessitie-a and 
an increment in the value of Liberty Bonds, Victory notes 
and other war issues of the Government. These develop- 
ments in the nation's economic life, now well under way, 
are expected to result in the long-awaited business revival 
and generally improved economic conditions. This is the 
outlook for 1922 as officials of the Treasury Department 
see it. 

Prices of necessities throughout the United States now 
are 50 per cent above the pre-war levels.. The levels of 
prices of necessities are well above 100 per cent in com- 
parison with 1913 in England, France and most European 
countries, according to official reports to the Federal Re- 
serve Board. In Italy the price level is nearly 200 per 
cent above 1913. In practically all European countries 
taxes are increasing instead of decreasing as in the United 
States, war bonds are declining in value and business still 
fails to show many traces of economic revival. Through- 
out Europe the war debt totals are on the increase. 



356 RfjF'ORT OF Maryland State Board 

WAR COST U. S. $22,000,000,000. 

Although the total disbursements of the Goverament 
for war purposes during the time that the United States 
was officially in the conflict amounted to $33,000,000,000, 
the actual cost to this country was one-third less than 
that amount. The war really cost the United States 
about $22,000,000,000. The remaining $11,000,000,00« 
was loaned to the Governments associated with this coun- 
try in the war. Their debt to the United States Govern- 
ment, including deferred interest payments, now totals in 
excess of $11,000,000,000. That this will be repaid in full 
is the belief and determination of the Harding Adminis- 
tration. 

Refunding operations to be undertaken by the Admin- 
istration when authority is granted by Congress will wipe 
this part of the war debt from the debit side of the United 
States Government's ledger. 

That leaves $22,000,000,000 of war cost to be accounted 
for. About one-half of this amount was met in full from 
current tax collections during the war. The total of war 
bonds of this Government now outstanding is less than 
$20,000,000,000, of which half will be wiped off by the 
refunding of the foreign loans. 

Between $10,000,000,000 and $11,000,000,000 worth of 
Liberty bonds and Victory notes that will be outstanding 
after the foreign funding operations will be met by the 
next generation, as the Government now plans it. 

Nearly $7,000,000,000 worth of Victory notes and War 
Savings securities will mature next year. These will be 
promptly refunded by the Treasury under Secretary Mel- 
Ion's present plans. 

PRESENT GENERATION HAS PAID. 

The present generation, il is made clear, has paid in 
full for its share of the war. It is ready to wipe the slate 
clean and proceed to pare down Government expenditures 
to the bone to enjoy the fruits of its economy during the 
war. Historians, Government financial officials say, will 
be obliged, in studying the war financing to regard the 
present achievement as a "pay-as-you-go" war. 

The cost of the Revolutionary War, the Civil War and 
the Mexican wars dragged through several generations of 
American taxpayers. The Civil War still is being paid 



OF Labor and Statistics 357 

for. Approximately $2 will be spent this year for every 
resident of the United States in pensions, mainly to the 
veterans of the Civil War and their dependents. 

In the United States Court of Claims are many cases 
arising out of the Civil War to be adjudicated, indicating 
additional costs to the present generation from that con- 
flict. 

On almost every page of the Government's budget esti- 
mates now before Congress can be found expenditures 
that must be met as a result of wars in which the United 
States engaged in other periods. In passing along to the 
next generation about one-half of the cost of the Great 
War, this generation is merely following the precedents 
of its fathers. The coming generation, however, is re- 
ceiving benefits not accorded to this generation. 

COMPARISON WITH CIVIL WAR. 

The generation of Government financiers who handled 
the cost of the Civil War passed along to future genera- 
tions nearly four-fifths of the cost of that conflict. They 
paid at the time but about 20 per cent of the cost of the 
war. This generation, however, within the actual period 
of hostilities paid out of current tax collections approxi- 
mately $11,000,000, or 50 per cent of the war cost. 

As a result, the Government now in reducing tax collec- 
tions has accomplished what amounts to making a gift 
of more than $30 a year to each resident of the United 
States. What this means to business men and to the na- 
tion's mills, mines and industry generally may be im- 
agined. It sells increased purchasing power totaling bil- 
lions of dollars for next year and for the year following. 
Increased buying means the operation of mills and fac- 
tories at full instead of part time. That will bring a ter- 
mination of widespread unemployment. A tendency in 
this direction already is being experienced by the nation, 
the Government reports show. 

Unemployment now is estimated to involve not more 
than 2,500,000 persons. At the beginning of 1921 more 
than 5,000,000 were out of work, according to the calcu- 
lations of Secretary of Labor Davis. In the interval un- 
employment has been reduced 50 per cent, it is indicated. 



358 Rei'ort of Maryland State Board 

FIGURES ON COST OF WAR ARE IMPRESSIVE 

The World Peace Foundation gives out the following- 
figures, compiled from reports of the Secretary of the 
Treasury, December, 1921. In the 131 years of this na- 
tion's life, from 1789 to 1920, 78.5 of the country's total 
ordinary disbursements have been on war account. The 
total disbursements were $66,728,209,409; the war ex- 
penses, $52,607,489,927. The cost of the Civil War, in- 
cluding pensions to the end of the fiscal year 1920, was 
$12,322,186,601 more than the Government had spent for 
everything in all its previous existence. The cost to the 
United States of the World War thus far has exceeded 
$33,000,000,000, with heavy bond interest to pay for 
many years to come and the virtual certainty that some 
time Congress will grant a generous bonus to every for- 
mer soldier. 

44,000 ARE DROPPED FROM U. S. PAYROLL 

A reduction of 44,000 persons has been made in the per- 
sonnel of Government employes since March 1 as a result 
of the campaign for efficiency and economy in Govern- 
ment expenditures. 

Ten thousand clerks and employes for whom no regular 
work could be found were dropped in Washington" offices 
between March 1 and November 30 last, it was shown in 
official reports of the Civil Service Commission. 

In Government circles outside of Washington a reduc- 
tion of 35,000 has been effected. 

Nearly 600,000 men and women are on the payrolls of 
the Government throughout the country. During the 
war the number of employes was nearly 1,000,000. Re- 
duction began soon after the armistice, with a Govern- 
ment payroll of more than 639,000 men and women. 

Slightly more than 75,000 men and women are now in 
the employ of the Government in Washington. Probably 
half are women. Civil Service officials say. Although no 
exact count has been made. When President Harding 
took office the Washington employees numbered in excess 
of 85,000. 



OF Labor and Statistics 359 

STAR FOR EACH FIGHTER IN NEW VICTORY HALL 

More than five million stars — to be exact, 5,016,832 — 
of which 129,979 will be of gold and the others blue, will 
stud the dome of the gigantic assembly hall in the Na- 
tional Victory Memorial Building, in process of erection 
in Washington and which is expected to be completed in 
time for the inaugural ceremonies in 1925. 

This dome will really be an American service flag, be- 
spangled with stars in geographical groups — a gold star 
for everyone who died in the country's service during the 
recent war and a blue one for each other member of the 
army, navy and Marine Corps who served. 

That each star may be identified by initials or a name 
in full, and, guided by a grouping diagram, future visi- 
tors will be able, with the aid of a telescope on the floor 
below, to locate a particular star, are details of the plans 
of Mrs. Henry F. Dimock, president of the George Wash- 
ington Memorial Association, and the guiding spirit whose 
indefatigable efforts have consummated this gigantic un- 
dertaking. 

The following lists, compiled from the latest official 
records of the army, navy and Marine Corps, show the 
following totals not before reached in estimated statis- 
tical compilations of the World War: 

Those who died : 



360 



Eei'ORt of Maryland State Board 



State. 



Army. 



I Marine | 
Navy. I Corps. | Total. 



Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia _... 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana „ 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts _ 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska ....*. 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey - 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio - 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Ehode Island 

South Carolina n.. 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

"West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyom.ing 

Miscellaneous 



Totals.. 



2,327 

288 

1,680 

2,964 

989 

1,804 

160 

408 

1.140 

2,855 

619 

6,518 

2,601 

3,311 

2,257 

2,415 

2,174 

863 

1,536 

4,133 

4,063 

3,281 

1,613 

4,002 

1,413 

1.512 

162 

558 

3,389 

400 

12,214 

2,503 

1,200 

6,173 

2,500 

. 850 

10,324 

499 

2,029 

1,044 

2,747 

4,739 

504 

497 

2,462 

1,366 

1,697 

3,697 

405 

376 



119,333 



93 

18 

68 

324 

60 

140 

19 

93 

83 

86 

17 

470 

193 

158 

137 

150 

109 

90 

134 

519 

243 

141 

96 

273 

25 

84 

5 

41 

256 

7 

904 

107 

33 

230 

81 

70 

409 

97 

86 

26 

112 

259 

30 

29 

214 

108 

43 

. 178 

13 

127 



7,387 



26 

6 

16 

116 

47 

15 

4 

26 

6 

68 

25 

320 

60 

41 

51 

70 

43 

3 

51 

130 

180 

132 

26 

160 

26 

32 

3 

10 

96 

3 

346 

33 

19 

284 

19 

48 

231 

5 

10 

13 

73 

121 

41 

1 

47 

82 

34 

68 

4 



2,446 

312 
1,764 
3,404 
1,096 
1,959 

183 
2,446 
1,229 
3,009 

661 
7,308 
2,863 
3,510 
2,445 
2,635 
2,326 

956 
1,721 
4,782 
4,486 
3,554 
1,735 
4,435 
1,464 
1,628 

170 

609 
3,721 

410 
13,494 
2,645 
1,252 
6,687 
2,640 

968 
11,054 

601 
2,125 
1,083 
2,932 
5,119 

575 

527 
2,723 
1,556 
1,774 
3,943 

422 

503 



3,279| 129,979 



OF Labor and Statistics 



361 



All who sei-ved in World War : 



State. 




Marine i 
Corps. I 



Total. 



Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia.. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 



Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts ... 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebra-ska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina... 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina ... 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah - 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 



86,493i 
12,1451 
70,6911 

130,329! 
39.829! 
57,9841 
8,662| 
18,4561 
386101 
99,029! 
22,0261 

290,8631 

123.4501 

114,437 
73 478 
86,928 
76,438 
28,076 
54.499 

153,615 

156,965! 

114,830 
62,859 

148,914 

42,050 

55.369 

5,920 

16,629 

121,881 
14,409 

426,153 
84,577 
29,905 

232,011 
92,8481 
34,867 

345,101 
19,544 
61,9431 
34,388 
87,842 

186.567 
20,110 
10.838 
84.621 
52,322 



4,956 
1,593 

4.7481 

27,2481 
5,242| 

12,104! 
1,092| 
5,859! 
5.442! 
8,2661 
2.143! 

39,049! 

12,576 

10,796 
8230 
8,607 
7,253 
5,407 
9,109! 

45.339 

16,790! 

11,052! 
4,8981 

18,1041 

2.699' 

6,2741 

288 

2,623 

24,360 
1,534 

77,534 
7,312 
1,729 

17,401 
7,032 
6,685 

38,784 
7,554 
5.297 
2,024 
6,363 

18,5201 
1,994 
-1,6681 

12.3.53 

12,092! 



502 
283 

452 

3,969 

1,441 

479i 

1241 

1,0021 

2411 

1,172! 

8531 

6,963 

1,789 

1,0581 

1,219! 

1,164 

986 

116 

1,268 

2,794 

3.108 

2,855 

558 

3,867l 

1,3901 

601 

1221 

1721 

2,263i 

621 

8.790! 

621! 

353! 

6,3911 

6351 

1,480! 

6,366! 

1581 

2761 

2691 

1,6251 

3,196! 

885 

73 

1.0391 

2,489i 



92,041 

14,021 

75.391 

161,546 

46,512 

70,567 

9,878 

25,317 

44,293 

108,467 

25,022 

336,875 

137.815 

126,291 

82,927 

96,699 

84,677 

33,599 

64,876 

201,748 

176,863 

128,737 

68,315 

170,975 

. 46,139 

62,244 

6,330 

19,424 

148,504 

16,005 

512,477 

92,510 

31.987 

255,803 

100.515 

43,032 

390.251 

27,256 

67,516 

36,681 

95,830 

208,283 

22 989 

12,579 

98 103 

66.903 



362 



REroRT OK Maryland State Board 



State. 




Total. 



West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Alaska 

Guam 

Hawaii 

Porto Rico 

Philippines 

Samoa 

Etc 

Total 



65,598 


3,298 


830 


113,794 


13,691 


1,411 


13,190 


697 


213 


2,437 


100 

248 




6,529 


395 




19,153 


423 




265 




4,785 
90 

2,477 




4,350,467 


564,317 


80,063 



69,726 

128,896 

14,100 

2,537 

248 

6,924 

19,576 

5,050 

90 

2,477 



4,994,847 



(*) Not including Naval Reserve officers, who are not classified by States. 
The total Naval Reserve officers who served is 21,985, which brings the total 
served to 5,016,832. 



46 GERMANS KILLED EACH HOUR OF WAR 

Forty-six men were killed and 109 wounded on the Ger- 
man side during every hour the World War was raging, 
according to an estimate arrived at by General von Al- 
trock, a statistician. This estimate was made from a 
study of official records. 

Germany's losses totaled in dead 1,808,545 and in 
wounded 4,246,779. Men to the number of 13,000,000 
were under arms during the course of the war, of whom 
about one in seven was killed in battle. 

The officers' corps lost 53,000 men killed and 96,000 
wounded. German soldier and civilian losses through 
death, caused directly or indirectly by the war, are esti- 
mated by General von Altrock at 12,000,000. 

The losses in the navy, which are included in the casual- 
ties given above, were 34,256 men killed and 31.085 
wounded. 



OF Labor and Statistics 363 

« 

PROPORTION OF EX-SOLDIERS OF GERMAN WAR 

DRAWING COMPENSATION IS MUCH GREATER 

THAN THAT OF THE WOUNDED SURVIV 

ORS OF CIVIL WAR 

By GERTRUDE LEIMBACH. 

Three years after the close of the Civil War approxi- 
mately 26 per cent of the 649,568 men killed and wounded 
were receiving pensions or "compensation," averaging 
about $136.23 per annum, from the United States Gov- 
ernment. 

Three years after the close of the World War, 376,014 
claims for compensation had been allowed, representing 
100 per cent of the men reported killed and wounded, and 
59,068 additional. Compensation ranges from $80 to $170 
per month, and averages about $363.60 per annum, or 
167 per cent more than the pension paid to veterans of 
the Civil War averaged at the three-year period. 

Every man who was unquestionably entitled to com- 
pensation, according to statements of officials in the Vet- 
erans' Bureaus is getting compensation, although in 1868, 
three years after the close of the Civil War, only 26 per 
cent of the men killed and wounded, or their families, had 
secured their pensions. 

These figures indicate that veterans of the World War 
have been cared for more promptly and more liberally 
than veterans of the Civil War. 

Government officials claim that the World War veteran 
is given the benefit of the doubt and that from 50 to 60 
percent of those already drawing compensation would not 
be drawing it had they not been given the benefit of the 
doubt and had the law providing for compensation been 
literally, instead of liberally, interpreted. 

OUTSTANDING ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE 
ARMAMENT CONFERENCE 

By LOUIS SEIBOLD. 

Here are the outstanding accomplishments of the Inter- 
national Armament Conference during the last month and 
a half, as revealed at the plenary session today. 

The completion of a treaty between the United States, 
Great Britain, Japan, France and Italy limiting the size 
of their navies. 



364 Eeport of Maryland State Board 

The completion of a treaty forbidding the use of poison 
gas in warfare and making it illegal for a submarine to 
sink a merchant ship. 

A tri-pai-ty agreement between the United States, 
Great Britain and Japan providing for the maintenance 
of status quo in Pacific fortifications. 

Announcement of a complete settlement of the long- 
standing controversy between China and Japan over 
Kaious-Chou in the Province of Shantung. 

Announcement by Great Britain that she would return 
the port of Wei hai Wei to China. 

An agreement to adhere to the time-honored "open- 
door" policy in China. 

The adoption of a four-Power pact in terms pledging 
the Powers to respect each other's territory in the Pacific 
and calling for a conference of nations when the peace of 
the Pacific region is threatened. 

A settlement of the dispute between Japan and the 
United States over the Island of Yap. 

A formal pledge from Japan to withdraw from Siberia 
and from the northern portion of the Island of Sakhalin. 

Practical abrogation of the "Twenty-one Demands" 
through adoption of the "open-door" pledge relative to 
China and the settlement of the Shantung question. 

COST OF MOVIES 

The American people spend from $750,000,000 to $1,- 
000,000,000 a year to see motion picture shows, the Sen- 
ate Finance Committee was told in the course of argu- 
ments for and against a high tariff on foreign-made films. 
The investment in the industry totals about $250,000,00 
and employment is given to about 250,000 persons. 

Paul M. Turner of New York, speaking for the Actors' 
Equity Association, testified that the prevailing suppo- 
sition that everybody connected with the industry made 
"big money," was erroneous, and that 96 per cent of those 
engaged in making films received only "a living wage." 

OUTSTANDING FEATURES OF THE YEAR IN SPORT 

IN 1921 

JERSEY CITY — Jack Dempsey knocked out Georges 
Cai-pentier in the fourth round. 

LONDON — America's polo team defeated the British 
for the International Polo Cup. 



OF Labor and Statistics 365 

NEW YORK— Babe Ruth established a new record of 
59 home runs. 

CHICAGO— Jake Schaefer, Jr., won the world's 18.2 
balkhne billiard title from Willie Hoppe. 

ST. ANDREWS, SCOTLAND— Jack Hutchison won 
the British open golf championship. 

BALTIMORE — Morvich, champion two-year-old colt, 
won his eleventh straight race for a total winning of the 
season of $115,234. 

FOREST HILLS, L. I.— America's Davis Cup team suc- 
cessfully defended famous tennis trophy against Japan. 

PASADENA — California University won the intercol- 
legiate track and field championship. 

CHICAGO — Illinois University won the National Col- 
lege Athletic Association championship on track and field. 

INDIANAPOLIS— Tom Mlton won the annual 500- 
mile automobile sweepstakes. 

NEW YORK— The Giants and Yankees, winners of the 
major league pennants, played a record-breaking world's 
series, which the Giants won, five games to three. 

CAMBRIDGE — Yale-Harvard athletes defeated Ox- 
ford-Cambridge team in international track and field 
games. 

TRAVERS ISLAND— Oxford-Cambridge athletes tied 
Cornell-Princton athletic team in track and field games. 

POUGHKEEPSIE — Navy's champion rowing crew won 
annual intercollegiate rowing regatta. 

NEW YORK— Johnny Buff won ^the world's bantam- 
weight championship from Pete Herman. 

WIMBLEDON— William T. Tilden 2d successfully de- 
fended the international lawn tennis singles champion- 
ship. 

PHILADELPHIA— William T. Tilden 2d successfully 
defended the national lawn tennis singles championship. 

FOREST HILLS, L. I.— Mrs. Franklin I. Mallory de- 
feated Mile. Susanne Lenglen of France and successfully 
defended the national womens' lawn tennis singles cham- 
pionship. 



366 Keport of Maryland State Board 

NEW YORK— Stanislaus Zbyszko of Poland won the 
world catch-as-catch-can wrestling championship by de- 
feating Strangler Lewis. 

DEAL, N. J. — Miss Marion Hollins won the women's 
national golf championship from a field including Miss 
Alexa Stirling and Miss Cecil Leitch. 

ST. LOUIS — Jesse Guilford won the national- amateur 
golf championship. 

WASHINGTON— Jim Barnes captured the national 
open golf championship from the classiest field of profes- 
sionals ever gotten together in this country. 

ADVANCE IN AVIATION 

Man's first feeble flutter in his conquest of the air lifted 
him aloft for the fleeting period of 59 seconds. Eighteen 
years later he soared eagle-like through space for 26 1-3 
hours. 

When Wilbur Wright, in a heavier-than-air machine, 
flew 852 feet at Kitty Hawk on December 17, 1903, the 
feat was pronounced one of the marvels of the century 
and the whole world rang with the accomplishment. On 
December 30th a monoplane, piloted by Edward Stinson, 
accompanied by Lloyd Bartaud, a mechanic, finished a 
continuous flight of 26 hours 19 minutes 35 seconds. In 
18 years a span of less than a minute had been stretched 
to more than a day and a night. Yet the marvelous per- 
formance at Mineola is heralded as simply the breaking 
of a world's endurance flight in aviation. 

USEFULNESS OF THE PANAMA CANAL 

The completion of the Panama Canal was celebrated as 
the opening of a new era in world trade. Since it has 
been built, however, the Canal has been taken for grant- 
ed, we read in a current issue of Commerce Reports, now 
issued weekly by the Department of Commerce: ''The war 
and its aftermath have crowded the Canal off the pages 
of American papers and from the minds of their readers." 
But, observes this government publication, "the Panama 
Canal has been flourishing,, nevertheless ; and its increas- 
mg service to foreign trade is indicated by the volume of 
cargo passing through since the date of opening, as shown 
by the following figures" : 



OF Labor and Statistics 367 

« 

Long Tons. 

1914 (last 41/2 months) 1,745,334 

1915 4,894,134 

1916 4,838,496 

1917 7,427,680 

1918 7,294,502 

1919 7,468,167 

1920 11 ,236,119 

1921 (first 9 months) 7,912,737 

Of course, we read, the expansion of Canal traffic would 
probably have been much more rapid if it had not been 
for the war. 

The source and destination of cargoes passing through 
the Canal last year indicate that the trade region to which 
the Canal is of greatest service is the east coast of the 
United States; the west coast of South America comes 
second, and then, in the following order: Europe, the 
west coast of the United States, the Far East, Austral- 
asia and Mexico. The bulk of the trade between the west 
coast of South America and the eastern coast of the 
United States consists of nitrates moving north and coal 
moving south. It is interesting to note that Canal-bound 
traffic from the United States to Australasia and the Far 
East is practically three times as great as that coming 
in the opposite direction. Our Pacific coast ships a slight- 
ly larger amount of Freight to Europe than it does to 
American Atlantic ports. As far as the United States 
inter-costal traffic is concerned the eastbound cargoes in 
1920 were 55 per cent greater than the westbound; it is 
evident that the Pacific coast is taking advantage of the 
cheap transportation which the Canal affords for bulky 
commodities to Eastern United States and Europe. The 
point is made that: 

Steamers in the intercostal trade are endeavoring to 
equal the time made by the transcontinental railroads. 
Oranges and lemons have been shipped from California 
to New York by water in nineteen days. While the rail- 
roads occasionally move fruit across the continent in two 
weeks, the average time is probably not under twenty 
days. A saving of about 25 per cent in rates is effected 
by the all-water route. It is claimed that the percentage 
of decay in fruit reaching Atlantic ports by water is less 
than when shipped by rail. 

During the first eight months of 1921 5,927 tons of 
fresh fruit were shipped through the Canal, all but 149 
tons going to United States Atlantic and Gulf ports. 



368 KEroRT of Maryland State Board 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BELL SYSTEM 

At the end of 1921 there were 13,380,000 telephones in 
residences and places of business with which your tele- 
phone can be connected. This is an increase of 778,284 
during the year. 

The United States, with only one-sixteenth of the popu- 
lation of the world, has two-thirds of the world's tele- 
phones. 

The average daily exchange and toll connections 
amounted to over 35,000,00 or a total of twelve billion 
calls for the year. 

The total wire mileage for the Bell Companies at the 
end of 1921 was 27,819,821 miles. 

More than $180,000,000 worth of plant was added to 
the system. 

The number of stockholders at the end of the year was 
186,342. More than half of these stockholders were 
women and 25,700, were employes of the Bell System. 

ELECTRIC RAILWAYS 

The electric railway industry in the United States is 
one of vital importance to a larger number of people than 
possibly any other single industry in the whole country. 
When we consider the fact that more than $6,000,000,000 
is invested in this industry, that 12,000,000,000 pas- 
sengers annually pay fares totaling over $1,000,000,000, 
and that approximately $200,000,000 a year has been re- 
quired in recent years for additions and extensions to ex- 
isting systems, the vital relationship of the electric rail- 
ways to the future of our country as a whole is at once 
apparent. 

NEGRO MIGRATION 

The total number of negroes reported as born in South- 
ern States and living in the North and West had increased 
from 440,534 in 1910 to 780,794 in 1920. 

Of the 10,381,309 negroes enumerated in the last cen- 
sus there were 38,575 for whom no State of birth was 
reported. The 780,794 Southern-born negroes shown to 
have migrated to the North and West constituted 8.1 per 
cent of the total of 9,006,943 negroes bom in the South- 
em section. The proportion of Southern-born negroes 



OF Labor and Statistics 369 

who migrated to the North and West, according to the 
report, was only about one-fourth larger than the pro- 
• portion of those bom in the latter region who migrated 
to the South. 

OUR HUGE GOLD SUPPLY 

Gold bullion held in the United States is valued at about 
$3,500,000,000. This is from 35 to 40 per cent of the gold 
now above ground. A country with about one-seven- 
teenth the population of the earth holds more than one- 
third of the most precious metal. The annual income of 
the people of the nation, according to the National Bureau 
of Economic Research, amounted to some $61,000,000,000 
in 1918. It must have fallen since then to the neighbor- 
hood of forty billions. The gold supply in the country 
equals, perhaps, 8 per cent of it. Ours is pre-eminently 
the creditor nation of the world. 

A remarkable position for a nation, yet one that is not 
altogether an advantage. When the gold of Europe 
poured into this country in 1914 one of the results was a 
steady depreciation of the dollar ; or, to put the same idea 
otherwise, the steady rise in prices. A huge supply of 
gold means, generally, an inflated currency. An inflated 
currency is a cheaper currency — it buys less in commod- 
ities. 

Moreover, when we sell to Europe we must take in ex- 
change chiefly other goods, for they are the only currency 
in which our foreign customers can buy on any consid- 
erable scale. When we buy from Europe, if we should 
pay mainly in gold, our industries producing manufac- 
tured goods for sale abroad would be deprived of their 
trade. 

To have a comer on gold is clearly not an unmixed 
blessing. 

105,710,620 LIVE IN U. S. 

Final statistics placing the total population of conti- 
nental United States as 105,710,620. or 27,512 more than 
announced last October, when preliminary figures were 
given out, were submitted to Speaker Gillett, of the House 
of Representatives, for apportionment purposes by Di- 
rector William M. Steuart, of the Bureau of the Census. 



370 Rbi'ort of Maryland State Board 

Final figures place the total population of the outlying 
possessions of the United States at 12,148,738, which 
brings the population for the entire country and its pos- 
sessions to 117,859,358. 

AMERICAN HOME OWNERS 

Preliminary census returns dealing with the homes of 
American people show that more than 6,000,000 Ameri- 
cans own homes. America has more home owners than 
any other country. Not only that, but Americans own 
more homes and better homes than the people of any na- 
tion in the whole history of the world. These owned 
homes of the United States represent an aggregate in- 
vestment of approximately $30,000,000. Allowing five 
persons to a home, the owned homes of the country shel- 
ter 30,000,000 persons, or almost a third of the population. 

The comfort of the census figures is that while 15,000,- 
OOOfamilies live in rented homes the number is decreas- 
ing continually. The renter is seeking to become an own- 
er. Thus the whole tendency is admirable. The renter 
may be just as fine a patriot and just as useful a citizen 
as the owner, but there is something about an owned 
home that fixes and stabilizes a human being and helps 
Kim to. grow into his full value. For the nation at large 
every owned home is a stake driven deep into the soil 
which holds the big tent firm against wind and storm. 

We like to think of Baltimore as having more owned 
homes in proportion to population than any other city. 
We run across the statement constantly in our local lit- 
erature, but we also find that several other cities, Phila- 
delphia particularly, make the same claim. The new cen- 
sus figures when fully compiled ought to settle this point. 
In the meanwhile we may all rejoice in the 6,000,000 
owned homes and in the fact that owned homes in Amer- 
ica are on the increase. 

MORE THAN HALF HOMES ARE RENTED 

Census Bureau enumerators have found that 54.4 per 
cent of the homes occupied in the United States are 
rented. 

Only 28.2 per cent of the occupants own their homes 
with the property free from encumbrance. 

Seventeen and five-tenths per cent of homes are owned 
by occupants but are under mortgages. 



OF Labor and Statistics 371 

The Bureau listed 24,351,676 homes in the country. 
The term "home," the Bureau said, signified the abiding 
place of a family and did not necessarily denote an entire 
dwelling. 

BUSINESS DONE BY DEPARTMENT STORES 

Within the last fifty years the great department stores 
of New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, London and Paris 
have come into existence and have built up businesses 
comparing favorably with those done by important man- 
ufacturing and transpoitation companies. The largest 
retail store in the world is that of Marshall Field of Chi- 
cago, which does a business of from $65,000,000 to $73,- 
000,000 annually in normal times. Other equally famous 
department stores do a business only slightly less. 

The Wall Street Journal, which has been collecting 
these figures, notes that there are aggregations of stores 
or chain stores under a single management that do a 
bigger business than the department stores, "notably 
Woolworth with 1,111 stores and $140,000,000 of gross 
business; the United Cigars, 1,400 stores, with aggregate 
business of $75,000,000, and Kresge with 194 stores and 
a gross business of betv/een $50,000,000 and $60,000,000" 

Probably the biggest retail business in dollars and cents 
that has even been done, we are told, is "that of the mail 
order house of Sears Roebuck & Co., which for the first 
three months of 1920 did a business of $90,000,000 gross 
or over $1,000,000 a day." 

The astonishing thing about the department store busi- 
ness is said to be not size but the large expense in service : 

Formerly department stores did business with expense 
of 10 per cent and 12 per cent for rent, salaries, delivery, 
management and all overhead. Today the public is served 
by the big department stores at an expense exceeding 30 
per cent of the gross sales. 

The 1920 figures for the business done by the depart- 
ment stores of the world do not set a record, being esti- 
mated as a wnole at something like 5 per cent below the 
normal pre-war or 1913 basis. The Wall Street Journal 
goes on to present the 1920 figures for business done 
by the leading establishments, as gathered from reliable 
trade sources : 



372 Report op Maryland State Board 

Selfridge & Co., London $30,000,000 

Bon Marche, Paris 40,000,000 

Marshall Field, Chicago 65,000,000 

Carson, Pirie & Scott, Chicago 50,000,000 

R. H. Macy & Co., New York 25,000,000 

Franklin Simon Co., New York 21,000,000 

Lord & Taylor, New York 20,000,000 

Gimbel Bros., New York 20,000,000 

Altman & Co., New York 18,000,000 

John Wanamaker, New York 28,000,000 

John Wanamaker, Philadelphia 27,000,000 

N. Snellenburg &Co., Philadelphia 40,000,000 

Lit Bros., Philadelphia 33,000,000 

5,587 LIVES LOST ON ROADS IN YEAR 

American railroad operation last year resulted in the 
accidental death of 5,587 persons and the injury, more or 
less seriously, of 43,324, according to compilations by the 
Interstate Commerce Commission. This was, however, a 
decrease under the totals reported for 1920, when 6,495 
persons were accidentally killed and 63,786 injured. 

The commission estimated that the decrease in number 
of persons killed was 14 per cent and 32 per cent in the 
number injured, and expressed the belief that the report 
chiefly reflected the falling off in "traffic" which occurred 
during 1921. 

As in former years, a large proportion of the victims 
were trespassers on railroad property, 2,432 of the dead 
and 2,930 of the injured being so classified. In addition 
to the total casualties given, all of which resulted from 
actual operation of railroad trains, 409 persons working 
in railroad shops, offices or other departments, waiting 
m railroad stations or otherwise associated with non-op- 
eration activities were accidentally killed in 1921 and 77,- 
361 injured. 

107 TOURISTS KILLED LAST YEAR IN ALPS 

During 1921 tourists and climbers to the number of 107 
were killed in the Central and Eastern Alps, mostly from 
falls. Eight persons have been killed by avalanches. Five 
of them, wood-cutters, were overwhelmed and buried by 
a huge avalanche on the Tyrolean frontier. 



OF Labor and Statistics 373 

DEATHS FROM ALCOHOLISM 

Death rates from alcoholism for last year and the pre- 
ceding ones are figures in which many Americans are in- 
terested; and it is not surprising that much publicity 
was given to the recent statement of the Metropolitan 
Insurance Company that the rate for 1921 among its in- 
dustrial policyholders was higher than in 1920 — the 1920 
rate being 0.6 and the 1921 rate being 0.9 per 100.000. 
These figures are dependable, and the increase of 1921 
over 1920 amounts to 50 per cent. But it is proper to 
point out that each of these rates is far less than those 
which obtained in the early years of the last decade and 
that the death rate from alcoholism among the policy- 
holders was 4.9 per 100,000 as late as 1917. Nothing is to 
be gained by overlooking this important fact. On the other 
hand, it must be noted that in the same group of Amer- 
ican citizens there were 162 deaths from wood alcohol in 
1920 and 72 in 1921, and that these deaths were not in- 
cluded in the total due to alcoholism. The company re- 
marks that prior to 1920 it was a comparatively rare oc- 
currence to have a death reported as due to wood alcohol. 

CANCER'S GROWTH 

The death rate from cancer increased in 1920 over the 
year 1919 from 80.5 to 83.4 per 100.000 of "population. 

This is not a very notable jump. Somehow or other we 
find it difficult to accept the alarmist reports of the spread 
of the disease. It is not contagious, it is not inheritable, 
and it is not due to germs. One can hardly see why mod- 
ern habits of life should lead to greater tendency of in- 
jured cells, to perverted growth, than was once the case. 

Two things, however, materially influence the relative 
frequency of cancer. It is a disease that develops most 
freely in late middle and old age ; the advance of medicine 
has brought about a considerably increased expectancy of 
life, which means, in other words, that every year there 
are or ought to be more people of the age in which cancer 
is apt to apDear. The other factor affects only the relia- 
bility of statistics. It is not at all improbable that with 
the intensive educational campaign that has been con- 
ducted against cancer, ability to recognize the disease has 
spread verv considerably among even the poorer physi- 
cians. Time was when the best had trouble with the diag- 
nosis. Now almost every doctor is on the lookout. 



374 liEroRT OF Maryland State Board 

But the fact will not down that whether or not cancer 
be a disease of old age and more of us grow old than 
formerly, and whether or not deaths from it do not now 
go unnoted, there ought not to be an increase. Equally 
important with the fact that it is more easily detected is 
the fact that, if taken in lime, it can be cured. The gain 
of three deaths pere 100,000 people becomes a fairly large 
gain when you eliminate from the 100,000 the children 
and youths and young men and women. And it is a gain 
in the death rate of a frightful disease among those in 
whom we would most of all like to see only the gradual 
and painless decline with the years. 

The gain is despite greater medical knowledge. It 
shows how many go to their physicians too late to be 
benefited by skill, soon enough only to get the poor profit 
that comes from being told the nature of your fatal 
trouble. Exactly the same skill that causes the reported 
death rate from cancer to increase would lower that death 
rate if people would only take the warning that has been 
spread broadcast and get to their physicians at the first 
suspicious signs of a lump or recalcitrant wound. 

AMERICAN BIRTH RATE 

The American birth rate advanced 1.4 per cent in 1920, 
as compared with 1919, the Census Bureau announced 
December 12th, 1921. 

The birth rate was 23.7 per 1,000 population last year, 
as compared with 22.3 in 1919, according to the bureau's 
figures. The rate last year, however, was 1.3 per cent 
below the rate of 1916, which the bureau declared may 
be looked upon as a more normal year, as it preceded the 
influenza epidemic and the entrance of the United States 
into the war. 

The highest birth rate for the white population last 
year was reported for North Carolina, with 31.7, and the 
lowest for California, with 18.3. The highest rates for 
the "colored" population, which in the bureau's classifi- 
cation includes negroes, Indians, Chinese and Japanese, 
were 39.5 and 39.3 for Washington and California, re- 
spectively. 

The figures in all cases were based on the reports from 
the birth registration area, which includes 23 States and 
the District of Columbia. 



OF Labor and Statistics 375 

DEATHS FROM AUTOS 

Deaths from motor accidents on the streets of Balti- 
more this year exceed deaths from the same cause last 
year in spite of no-accident propaganda through civic 
organizations and otherwise and sharp penalties inflicted 
upon persons caught driving recklessly or while intoxi- 
cated. 

Eighty-three persons, all old, had suffered fatal injury 
up to and including December 27, with four days to go. 
Last year's total was 79. Collisions were responsible for 
12 deaths each year and fall from car and one death each 
year. The other victims were pedestrians struck by cars 
— 65 last year, 70 this year so far. 

The cause of the increased fatalities is attributed to 
the increased number of automobiles, there being 14,000 
more automobiles on the streets this year than last. 

MOTOR ACCIDENT DEATHS IN THE UNITED 

STATES 

Deaths from accidents caused by automobiles and other 
motor vehicles, excluding motorcycles, increased decided- 
ly in 1920, as compared with 1919, the Census Bureau an- 
nounced today. 

The deaths due to motor vehicles last year averaged 
with the death registration area of the United States 10.4 
per 100,000 population, as compared with 9.4 in 1919. 

Approximately nine thousand persons were killed last 
year by motor vehicles in the death registration area, 
which comprises 82 per cent of the population of the 
United States. 

Deaths in Maryland in 1920 were 142, or 9.7 per 100,000 
population, as against 153, or 10.6 in 1919, and 161, or 
11.3, in 1918. 

In Baltimore the count in 1920 was 97 deaths, or 13.1 
per 100,000 of population, as compared with 106, or 14.6 
in 1919, and 102, or 15.6 in 1918. 

Accidents in 1920 in mines, quarries and metallurgical 
plants, exclusive of blast furnaces of the United States, 
caused the death of 2,973 employes and the injury of 
206,000, according to a report issued by the Bureau of 
Mines. Based on a standard of 300 working days per 
man, the statement said, "for every thousand employes 
3.19 were killed and 221.33 were injured." 



376 Report of Maryland State Board 

ESTIMATED WORLD POPULATION AND ITS DIS- 
TRIBUTION 

(From the London Observer.) 

The estimated population of the world in 1921 was 1,- 
777,000,000. Thus : 

Euroge 500,000,000 

Asia 900,000,000 

Africa 150,000,000 

America 220,000,000 

Australia, etc. 7,000,000 

Total 1,777,000,000 

The Asiatic and African figures are conjectural, but the 
smaller estimates have been taken e. g., 350 millions in 
China instead of 400 millions. Japan is taken at seventy 
millions. 

The British Empire is about 450,000,000, made up as 
follows : 

United Kingdom 47,000,000 

Self-Governing Dominions : 22,000,000 

The rest (chiefly India, 319 millions) 378,000,000 

Total 447,000,000 

The white nations are: 

Russia fin Europe and Asia) 130,000,000 

United States 10r3,000,000 

Germany : 60,000,000 

United Kingdom 47,000,000 

Italy 40,000,000 

Ukraine _ - 40,000,000 

France : 39,000,000 

Poland 27,000,000 

. Spain 23,000.000 

Roumania 15,000,000 

Jugo-Slavia r. 14,000,000 

Czecho-Slovakia 14,000,000 

555,000,000 

In all a little less than one-third of the world's popu- 
lation. 

The old Russian Empire would have contained about 
200,000,000 of which 70,000,000 have been lost in the 
estimate above to the new States, Ukraine, Poland, Jugo- 
slavia, Szecho-Slovakia, etc. Austria has shrunk to 6,- 



OF Labor and Statistics 377 

000,000, Hungary to 8,000,000 and Turkey-in-Europe to 
2,000,000. 

It is very remarkable but at the census of 1911 France, 
without Alsace-Lorraine, numbered 39,600,000. Thus the 
gain of Alsace-Lorraine leaves France a smaller . nation 
than it was ten years ago. It is a misfortune for France, 
and not less for mankind as a whole, that so gifted a 
people should thus form a continuously dwindling propor- 
tion of the world's people. 

America as a whole continues to grow rapidly, and the 
United States bids fair to beat Russia in point of popu- 
lation within twenty-five years, for she grows not only 
by natural increase, but by immigration. Uncle Sam now 
rules 21,000,000 families, with an average income by far 
the grea^test in the world, the United States can boast of 
being the nearest thing to a wealthy nation which the 
world has yet seen. 

CHANGES IN FEDERAL TAXES 

Changes in Federal taxes voted by Congress last De- 
cember will come into full force January, 1922. Here's 
how they will affect you: 

When you ride on a railroad train or an inland or coast- 
wise steamer you no longer will have to pay the Govern- 
ment 8 per cent of the amount of your seat, berth or 
stateroom. 

When you ship freight you will not be assessed an extra 
3 per cent of the cost. Likewise you can send packages 
by express or parcels post without having to give up a 
"war tax." , ^ 

When you visit the corner drug store for a bottle of 
proprietary medicine, a tube of tooth paste, a toilet prep- 
aration or the like you will escape the vexatious stamp 

When you go to a soda fountain you no longer will find 
Uncle Sam holding out his hand for a penny on each 10 
cents or fraction that you pay the clerk for a drmk, or a 
plate of ice cream. 

If you want to snort a pair of shoes costmg more than 
$10 or a shirt costmg more than $3 you will not have to 
lay out a tax. These and all of the other so-called luxury 
taxes on clothing, as well as those on umbrellas, parasols, 
sun shades, picture frames, trunks, valises, pocketbooks, 
etc., go into the discard. 



378 Report of Maryland State Board 

If you live in a place that still can boast of a 10-cent 
movie show or other place of amusement you will not be 
assessed a penny tax. If the charge exceeds 10 cents, 
however, you will continue to pay a war levy at the pres- 
ent rates of a cent for each 10 cents or fraction. 
. All heads of families with dependents will get a slight 
reduction in their income tax during the new year, the 
extent being $8 for each dependent as a result of the in- 
crease from $200 to $400 in the exemption on account of 
dependents. 

INCOME TAX REDUCED. 

If you are married and your net income in 1921 was 
$5,000 or less, however, you will get a still further reduc- 
tion in taxes, as the normal exemption for maihied men 
in this class has been increased from $2,000 to $2,500. 
Single men are given no additional exemption and can 
deduct only $1,000 from their net income. 

Whether you are single or married, if you made a gain 
from the sale of capital assets, such as a building or 
stocks or bonds, you can pay the tax on this gain at the 
corporation income rate of 21/2 per cent, instead of at the 
surtax rate if you so elect. 

If your income is such as to put you in the surtax paying 
class you will pay in 1922 at the old war rates, but in 1923 
you will pay at the new rates, which become effective 
January 29, 1922, and which provide for some reduction 
all along the line, with the maximum at 50 per cent on 
$200,000 instead of 65 per cent on $1,000,000 or more. 

Some classes of business, big and little, get some relief 
under the new tax bill, but other classes will have their 
taxes increased. Corporations which did not fall within 
the excess profit-making class during the war will have 
their taxes advanced through the increase of 21/2 per cent 
in the corporation income tax. Corporations falling with- 
in this class include the railroads and public utilities, the 
income of which are regulated by Federal or State com- 
missions through the control over rates. 

The excess-profits tax is repealed, but the result will 
not be reflected in Federal revenues until the calendar 
year 1923, as next year this tax will be paid on the basis 
of the profits made in 1921. Likewise corporations will 
not begin paying at the increased normal income tax rate 
until 1923. 



OF Labor and Statistics 379 

Many of the special excise taxes imposed upon manu- 
facturers in many lines of business also go by the board. 
The framers of the new tax law believe this will lighten 
the burden of the public generally, as they hold that these 
taxes, with but few exceptions, have been passed on. 
Manufacturers who have their taxes repealed are those 
turning out chewing gum, articles made of fur, musical 
instruments, sporting goods, including billiard and pool 
tables and balls, pleasure boats and canoes costing less 
than $10 each; electric fans and thermos bottles and jugs. 

INSURANCE TAXES OFF. 

Other taxes which come off include those on insurance 
premiums and on bonds of indemnity and surety, while 
sharp reductions are made in the taxes on cereal and car- 
bonated beverages sold in closed containers; on candy 
and on works of art. 

Some new taxes are put on manufacturers, the rate 
being 5 per cent of the amount by which the sale price 
exceeds given sums in the cases of carpets and rugs, 
trunks, valises, fitted toilet cases, pocketbooks, portable 
lamps and fans. Other new taxes are imposed on manu- 
facturers of finished fountain syrups and carbonated gas. 

Taxes imposed under existing law which will be re- 
tained are those on telegraph, telephone, cable and radio 
messages, tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff, admis- 
sions and dues, estates, automobile truck and wagons, 
other automobiles and motorcycles and parts and acces- 
sories therefor, cameras, photographic films and plates 
(other than moving-picture films), firearms, shells and 
cartridges, hunting and bowie knives, dirk knives and 
daggers, sword canes, stilettoes and brass and metallic 
knuckles, smoking articles and automatic slot-device 
vending machines and weighing machines, jewelry and 
articles made of precious metals, except eyeglasses and 
spectacles. 

SPECIAL TAXES RETAINED. 

Special taxes retained are those on brokers, pawnbrok- 
ers, shipbrokers, custom house brokers, proprietors of 
theatres, museums, concert halls, circuses, bowling alleys 
and billiard rooms, shooting galleries, riding academies, 
manufacturers of tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, persons 
renting automobiles for hire, on the use of boats and on 
the employment of child labor. 



380 Rei'ort of Maryland State Board 

Stamp taxes retained are those imposed upon bonds of 
indebtedness, capital stock issues, capital stock, sales or 
transfers; produce, sales of or exchanges, drafts or 
checks (payable otherwise than on sight or demand) ; 
promissory notes, conveyances, entry of goods at the cus- 
tom-house, entry for withdrawal of goods from the cus- 
tom house, passage tickets, powers of attorney, playing 
cards and foreign insurance policies. 

528 BANKS CLOSED DURING YEAR 1921 

During the calendar year 1921 a total of 528 State and 
private banks in the country were closed, according to a 
statement issued by Comptroller of the Currency Cris- 
singer, summarizing bank failures for the year. How- 
ever, he added, 63 of these banks were able to re-open or 
otherwise liquidate their liabilities. 

The liabilities of the 365 other banks, he reported, ag- 
gregated approximately $96,000,000, making the average 
per bank about $263,000. 

The Southern geographical division, Mr. Crissinger de- 
clared, was the most seriously affected in respect to the 
number of bank failures and the volume of liabilities, 
there being 131 failures with liabilities totaling $27,000,- 
000 in that section. 

In the Middle States the number of failures was 60 and 
the reported liabilities $9,825,000. There were only five 
bank failures in the Eastern States, with liabilities of $3,- 
600.000. 

The calendar year 1921, Mr. Crissinger said, was the 
third most disastrous year with respect to the number of 
failures of national banks in the history of the national 
banking system, there being 37 national bank failures, 
with liabilities of $23,677,367. The most disastrous year 
in this respect was 1893, when 65 failures occurred and 
the next was 1897, when there were 38 failures. 

There were, he explained, 40 receiverships in 1921, but 
in three cases the banks were restored to solvency and 
authorized to resume business. 

THE HEALTHIEST YEAR 

According to the records of thirty-seven leading Amer- 
ican insurance companies, comprising figures for 27,000,- 
000 lives, the present year is the healthiest one in the his- 



' OF Labor and Statistics 381 

tory of Canada and the United States. An analysis of 
these records for the first ten months of the year was 
presented by Robeit L. Cox, vice-president of the Metro- 
politan Life Insurance Company, at the recent conven- 
tion in New York of the Association of Life Insurance 
Presidents. These companies, which transact about 80 
per cent of the Hfe insurance business of the country, 
had 184,860 deaths during those ten months as contrasted 
with 205,941 deaths during the same period in 1920. In- 
fluenza and pneumonia account almost entirely for the 
favorable showing. The fonner has been almost totally 
eliminated. As might have been predicted, deaths from 
pneumonia showed a sympathetic decline with influenza, 
causing only about half as many deaths this year as last. 
Although tuberculosis was responsible for one in every 
nine of the deaths experienced among the policyholders 
of the companies in 1921, this fact should be contrasted 
with the situation ten years ago, when the ratio was one 
m four. Antituberculosis societies, prohibition and pros- 
perity, all claim the major share in this reduction; but it 
is quite impossible, of course, to assess their relative 
share. 

The number of suicides and homicides has gone up. 
This increase was about four times as great as had been 
expected. Mr. Cox believes that this is largely a result 
of the reactions of the war, business depression, unem- 
ployment and other phases of the economic disturbance, 
and that the number will fall again as conditions improve. 
The number of deaths from automobile accidents reported 
by these companies was 15 per cent higher than in 1920. 
''We talk learnedly of bacteria and bacilli, but overlook 
the bacillus automobilus," said Mr. Cox, "whose presence 
behind the wheel of his juggernaut can be discovered 
without aid from the microscope and whose homicides 
might be largely prevented by more effective policing of 
our congested highways." 

Speaking of cerebral hemorrhage, organic diseases of 
the heart and Bright's disease, ailments, in the main, of 
advanced life, Mr. Cox pointed out that about 28 per cent 
of the deaths are caused by them. So long as the pres- 
sure and tension of present-day life last this percentage 
will continue. For some time, therefore, a further de- 
crease in the mortality rate largely rests in attacks di- 
rected at other causes of death. 



382 



Report op Maryland State Board 



A LONGER LIFE 

Statistics show that the average American hved eleven 
years longer in 1910 than in 1855, or an average increase 
of one year in every five, or of 2.4 months each year. To 
the advancement made in the medical profession is as- 
signed the credit of this wonderful result, but more in- 
telligent living may be given credit for a portion of it. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF STATE BOARD OF LA- 
BOR AND STATISTICS FOR FISCAL YEAR 
ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 1921 



Salaries. 
Chap. 406, Acts 1916. 



Appro- 
priation. 



Ex- 
pended. 



Unex- 
pended 
Balance. 



and 



Chairman _ 

Advisory Member 

Advisory Member 

Medical Examiner 

Medical Examiner 

Psychiatrist 

Nurse and Stenographer 

Assistant Officer 

Filing Clerk 

Permit Officer 

Inspector, Street Traders 

Newsboys 

Factory Inspector 

Factory Inspector 

Child Labor Inspector 

Child Labor Inspector 

Child Labor Inspector 

Inspector 

Inspector ." 

Assistant 

Ten Hour Law Clerk 

Stenographer 

Stenographer 

Stenographer 

Boiler Inspector, Chap. 584, 1906 
Boiler Inspector, Chap. 584, 1906 

Mine Inspector, Chap. 406, 1916 

Stenographer 



Totals.. 



$3,000.00 
500.00 
500.00 
1,750.00 
1,750.00 
1,750.00 
1.500.00 
1,800.00 
1,000.00 
1,200.00 

1,500.00 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 
1.500.00 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 
720.00 
1.000.00 
1,000.00 
900.00 
720.00 
2,000.00 
2,000.00 
1,500.00 
1,000.00 



$37,590.00 



$3,000.00 
500.00 
500.00 
1,750.00 
1,750.00 
1,750.00 
1,500.00 
1,800.00 
1,000.00 
1,200.00 

1,500.00 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 
720.00 
1,000.00 
1,000.00 
900.00 
553.30 
2,000.00 
2,000.00 
1,500.00 



$36,423.30 



166.70 



1,000.00 



$1,166.70 



OF Labor and Statistics 



383 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF STATE BOARD OF LABOR AND 
STATISTICS FOR FISCAL ^TEAR ENDING SEPTEM- 
BER 30, 1921— (Continued). 



Expenses. 



Appro- 
priation. 




Rent ;. _._ 

Postage _ 

Office Supplies _ 

Printing 

Newsboys' Badges 

Doctors for permits _ 

Furniture _.. 

Telegraph and Telephone 

Towels, Ice and Drinking Water 

Traveling Expenses 

State Boiler Inspectors' Expenses 
State Mine Inspector's Expenses- 
Books and periodicals _ 



$3,000.00' 
380.00; 
350.001 

4,000.00! 
385.00! 

1,495.00[ 
200.001 
360.00i 
150.00' 

2,605.001 

oOO.OO! 

700.00 

75.00 



$3 000.00 
376.33 
308.50 
3,691.24 
331.85 
694.50 
158.50 
340.29 
140.15 
,599.45 
499.98 
696.65 
60.21 



2,51 



Unex- 
pended 
Balance. 



3.67 

41.50 

308.76 

53.15 

800.50 

41.50 

19.71 

9.85 

5.55 

.02 

3.35 

14.79 



$14,200,001 $12,897.65! $1,302.35 



SUMMARY. 



Total appropriation for salaries and expenses! $51,790.00 
Total amount expenses for salaries and ex 
penses 



Amount reverted to State 

COLLECTIONS. 

Boiler Inspection Law ' 

A. S. M. E. Code 

Minors to appear in theati-ical performances. 

Interest on deposits _ 

Receipts from Newsboys' Badges 

Sale of old paper. 



Total amount collected by Bureau and 
paid Comptroller 



Total amount to be deducted from apprc^ 
priation 



Net expenses of the State Board 
of Labor and Statistics _.. 



49,320.95 



$1,762.25 

1,157.75 

390.00 

91.78 

76.10 

8.58 



$2,469.05 



$3,486.46 



$5,955.51 
$45,834.49 




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